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Original Name of the Big Mac?


Ahhh, McDonald’s.

McDonald’s is part of the American landscape. It can be seen on every corner and is trusted to satisfy your most profound cravings.

Almost everyone has a deep treasure trove full of memories of chicken nuggets, perfectly salted fries, and Ronald McDonald.

As children we would beg our parents to skip the dinner at home and instead head over to McDonalds for a Happy Meal. Hidden inside would be a prize. A toy we could add to our growing collection. The ultimate victory of our childhood minds.

Behind the McDonald name lies a long history and a tale of how even the poorest and least known people can build a legacy that can become part of the fabric of what it means to be an American in the land of opportunity.

Part of the legacy is the classic hamburger that holds the number one spot on McDonald’s list of menu options, the Big Mac.

How did the Big Mac become the Big Mac?

Below we dive into the history of the McDonald legacy and the story behind its signature burger. We’ll also answer the question –

What was the original name of the Big Mac?


The History Behind Those Golden Arches


In the late 1930s, the McDonald brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonald, made a move from Manchester, New Hampshire to Hollywood, California.

At first, the brothers worked as stage movers and handymen in the Motion-Pictures Studios but later began working with their father, Patrick.

Patrick had opened the food stand, the Airdrome, where he sold hot dogs. They later added hamburgers and orange juice. Eventually the menu expanded to 25 items, mostly barbeque items, and the now restaurant branded McDonald’s Bar-b-que.

After the brothers realized that most of their profit came from hamburgers, the brothers simplified the menu to include hamburgers, cheeseburgers, and later, fries and milkshakes.

They eliminated their drive-in and replace it with an assembly line-based self-service operation. The named was simplified to match the new mindset of maximum efficiency becoming “McDonalds”.

By the early-1950s the brothers needed a new space and hired a designer to help them design a restaurant that would maximum on both efficiency and effective marketing.

The golden arches were added to this design, along with white-and-red tiles and signature cone-shaped cups for drinks to force the customers to hold their cups. This would speed up the eating process move the restaurant from being a sit-down to a fast-food restaurant.

With this design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchising. They met Ray Kroc in 1954, who quickly bought the rights to set up franchises all over the country.

Recognizing the power of investing in advertising, Kroc paid for the slogan “Look for the Golden Arches” with the Golden Arch logo becoming official in 1962 and Ronald McDonald was added to its marketing in 1963.

The Filet-O-Fish made its debut in 1962, quickly becoming a signature and the Big Mac made its national debut in 1968.


The Making of the Big Mac


The Big Mac had its beginning in the Philadelphia area in Pennsylvania, where it debuted in 1967.

The Big Mac was created by the franchisee, Jim Delligatti. Delligatti was an early Ray Kroc franchisee who had several restaurants in operation in the Pittsburgh area.

The Big Mac was originally created to compete with the Big Boy hamburger, a signature burger made by a local McDonald’s competitor in Pittsburgh.

So, what was the original name of the Big Mac?

It had two prior names before getting its current name, Big Mac, created by the 21-year-old advertising secretary, Esther Glickstein Rose.

The first was The Aristocrat, which was eventually dropped because customers found it difficult to pronounce the name.

The second name was the Blue Ribbon Burger (arguably worse than the first).

The third time was the charm and Ms. Rose gave us the signature Big Mac name.


The Big Mac Legacy


Often being served as part of a combination meal, the Big Mac is often used as a symbol of American capitalism.

It has even been used to determine the standard of living in other countries.

This Big Mac Index is also known as Burgernomics.

The Big Mac is made with two beef patties, its signature “special sauce”, American cheese, iceberg lettuce, pickles, onions, and a three-part sesame bun.

The recipe for its “special sauce” is actually not that secret anymore being easily accessible online. At its core, it’s a variation of Thousand Island dressing.

What was the original name of the Big Mac?

Turns out that maybe its original name was more of a foreshadowing as the Big Mac has certainly become The Aristocrat among burgers worldwide.

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What Was the First American College to Become Coeducational?

Coeducation has been part of societal debate for centuries. In ancient civilizations women did not have many rights and as such were thought to not need an education.

While women were given more opportunities to be educated during the medieval and Renaissance periods, the predominant view still remained that education was harmful for women and even unnecessary.

The 19th century brought about the view that women should be allowed to be educated as the principle caretakers of children in the United States. The push for women’s rights further advanced the view that women indeed had the same right to an education as men.

Progressive institutions eventually allowed for women to be educated alongside men in institutions of higher learning.

But, what was the first institution in America to become coeducational?

Let’s take a brief dive into the history of coeducation in America and abroad.


History of Mixed-Education in America

Coeducation, or mixed-education, is simply a system of which the education of both men and women occurs together rather than separately.

Coeducation has become the standard system in most Western civilizations, though a system in which men and women are educated separately is more common in many Muslim countries.

Single-sex education was the standard in Western civilization in the nineteenth century and the merits of coeducation are still being largely debated today.

In earlier civilizations, education took place informally, often taking place within the household. During the time that education started becoming more formal, like in ancient Rome and Greece, women held very few rights, and, thus, education was primarily focused on the males in society.

The later part of ancient Roman history brought the extension of education to women, but separately from that of men. This trend continued throughout the early Christian and medieval periods, though only the privileged were able to access formal education even during the Reformation.

The Council of Trent in the 16th century brought about the establishment of free elementary education to both girls and boys. Coeducation was introduced to Western Civilization after the Reformation in an effort to teach both genders how to read the Bible.

Coeducation, along with universal education, began to take stronger hold in both England and the United States, with coeducation becoming the norm after the American Revolution.

What was the first institution in America to become coeducational?

The first college to become coeducational in the United States of America was the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Oberlin, Ohio. This institution opened its doors on December 3, 1833, welcoming 44 students in total, including 29 men and 15 women.


Why Was This Institution Able to Become the First Coeducational Institution?


The Oberlin Collegiate Institute was founded by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart. It was later also the first college to admit African American students.

The town itself was founded in the same year the college was founded. Shipherd and Stewart were Presbyterian ministers with a vision that was geared toward the formation of a religious community as well as a school. The college has continued in their mission to be an institution “peculiar in that which is good”, often supporting progressive ideals.

Asa Mahan served as Oberlin’s first president, along with serving as chair of moral and intellectual philosophy and professor of theology. Mahan’s liberal philosophy became part of Oberlin’s overall philosophy which was geared toward abolition and anti-slavery.

This led to Oberlin opening its doors to students of all races only two years after its founding. Oberlin college graduated its first African American student in 1844. The student, George B. Vashon, when on to become one of the founding professors of Howard College and the first African American lawyer to be admitted to the Bar in New York State.

The first women admitted as full students were the four women Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford, and Elizabeth Prall. The first African American woman, Mary Jane Patterson, graduated in 1862.

Women were soon to make up a third to a half of the entire college population. It became the second oldest continuously operating coeducational liberal arts college after it was forced to close down for seven months between 1889 and 1890 due to the lack of funds.

Oberlin College continued to be the hotbed for progressive movements, such as abolition, Civil Rights, and women’s rights.

Nancy Dye became Oberlin’s 13th president and first female president in 1994. She was known for her inclusiveness and her efforts to expand Oberlin College, continuing Oberlin’s legacy of progress.


Coeducation Today


Coeducation continues to be a hot topic for debate with feminists holding the view that perhaps it’s better for women to learn in an environment free of competition from men.

While there is merit to this argument, today men and women both have a choice in of whether to receive whichever kind of education they prefer.

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The annual Academy Awards ceremony is one of the most anticipated events of the year. The entire nation and beyond tunes in to watch the ceremony and speak about the results.

The Academy Awards, hosted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, is a star-studded event that aims is to award its set of 24 awards, or Oscars, in recognition of “cinematic achievement”.

The importance of the Academy Awards is grounded on the idea that it is a reflection of the identities and interests of the American nation. It represents the American gold Standard.

The honor is hard to achieve and only eight sequels have ever been nominated with only two ever winning the Academy Award for Best Picture.


What is the Significance of an Oscar Win?


The Oscars was originally intended to celebrate the greatest works of art for the year that it occurs. The Oscar for Best Picture is usually left as the last award to be presented and is considered the most prestigious honor of the Academy Awards ceremony.

There have been 549 movie nominations and 90 winners of this prestigious award since its inception, as of 2018. The award for Best Picture is closely tied to that of Best Director. Only four directors have won the Best Director Award without the film they directed having won the award for Best Picture.

The Academy Awards is often a platform that goes beyond the selection of the best works of art. In fact, the winners for Best Picture are a lot of the time not the best works of art, but rather, a matter of what which films best speak to the current societal issues are most important during the time the awards show.

The Oscars have become an arena on which issues such as racism, diversity, LGBTIQ issues, and others are given a voice, or rather, are expected to be given a voice. Films that are nominated are often a result of how the Academy wants to present themselves. Recent examples of this are the nominations of films such as “Moonlight”, “La La Land”, and “Hidden Figures”.

The Oscars has become something we view as a “cultural figurehead”. Because of this we expect more from the Oscars than the lack of nominations for films directed by women or people of color. There is also a lack of consistency for the nomination of films that deal with queer subjects.

So, what does it mean to win an Oscar?

It means that you have produced the film the Academy if proudest of having been produced in Hollywood.

The Sequel that Won it All

The difficulty of winning the Oscar for Best Picture is unquestionable. Especially with when considering the above often abstract standards held by the Academy.

Sequels have an even harder time. There have only been two sequels that have ever won an Academy Award for Best Picture – The Godfather Part II and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.

So, what was the first sequel to win an Oscar for Best Picture?

The Godfather Part II.

The Godfather Part II is an American crime film released in 1974 and directed by the famous Francis Ford Coppola. The film starred both Al Pacino and Robert De Niro and acted as both a prequel and sequel to the 1972 film Godfather.

The film received 11 nominations during the 1974 Academy Awards and won six – Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor, Best Screenplay, Best Art Direction, and Best Music Score.

How did The Godfather II end up being the first sequel to not just win one, but six, Oscars?

The 1970s marked the peak of Coppola’s career with his film The Conversation also in line for Best Picture. It was impossible to ignore his genius as a director. The atmosphere within the Academy might have also helped the film win its awards as it was very “anti-Hollywood” at the time.

This is the perfect example of the Academy’s long history of choosing films based on more than just a film’s artistic merits.


What Can We Learn from the First Sequel that Won Best Picture?


Today’s political and social climates are sensitive and charged with the many cultural and humanitarian issues surrounding us.

The Godfather II dealt with many cultural issues but was also released during a time in which the nation was experiencing a lot of change.

We can learn to support those directors and films which represent our voices as individual’s and start affecting the opinions of those who choose which cinematic features should stand above the rest.

What was the first sequel to win the Oscar for Best Picture?

The one that represented the interests of the Academy.

How will we contribute to the future of Hollywood?

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Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1

While Bluetooth 5 is already out, many existing devices such as smartphones don’t support it yet. You may still need to understand the difference between Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1.

It may be hard to believe, but the Bluetooth technology has been around since 1994. When Bluetooth first caught on with the public, it was with wireless earphones for cellphones. Suddenly everyone had a small oblong headset attached to one ear.

As Bluetooth evolved, it became the de facto standard for anything that needed to be connected wirelessly to your smartphone, tablet, or even desktop computer.

What Bluetooth is Used For

Bluetooth wireless technology does more than connect you wirelessly to your smartphone via a remote headset. It also can power:

  • Wireless keyboards
  • Music headphones
  • Wireless speakers
  • Fitness trackers such as FitBit
  • Wireless game controllers
  • Internet of Things (IoT) objects

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Bluetooth continues to evolve in part because of its potential application for the real future of the Internet: The Internet of Things (abbreviated IoT).

The Internet of Things is all about creating connections that can make life more convenient and efficient, whether it is for business or personal use.

For the home, this might be a refrigerator that can determine when it is low on milk and order more for you from the store for delivery.

For the office, it might be a device that can track inventory or help with managing the supply chain.

Because of the potential added demand of Internet of Things, Bluetooth technology has to become more powerful. Among its improvements over the years are:

  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Range
  • Power Consumption
  • Wireless game controllers

How Bluetooth Has Improved Over the Years

Each new iteration of Bluetooth improves on these five areas:

1. Speed

Speed of data transfer is important, even for mundane tasks such as playing music through speakers. If you want to have the highest quality music streamed through Bluetooth, then the speed of data transfer must be high.

2. Reliability

Reliability includes the reliability of the connection while Bluetooth is operating. If it keeps disconnecting, then that will simply create more frustration.

3. Range

The original Bluetooth technologies had a very short range. You could only use your Bluetooth headset when you were very close to your cellphone. As Bluetooth evolves, the range becomes greater, and it is starting to rival Wi-Fi.

4. Power Consumption

Power consumption is very important. If your Bluetooth device is eating up electricity and needs to be recharged constantly, it isn’t of much use. Starting with Bluetooth 4, new “Low Energy” technologies have worked to make Bluetooth devices much more energy efficient.

5. Ease of Use

Bluetooth needs to be easy to use. Unfortunately, this doesn’t seem to be improving as much as other metrics. Bluetooth devices are still difficult to pair frequently.

One commenter, Jacob, wrote: “I don't care so much about all those improvments in the standards ... BT is still user unfriendly in terms of connecting/pairing/unsing ... sometimes a pain in the ass.

Why dont they improve that?”

Good question, Jacob.

What About Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1?

As we already mentioned, Bluetooth 4.0 already made huge leaps in regards to energy consumption. Bluetooth 4.1 also fixed the problem that Bluetooth 4.0 had in conflicting with 4G signals.

Bluetooth 4.1 also offers “smart connectivity” so that device manufacturers could determine how often the device needed to reconnect.

Data transfer was also significantly improved by taking out the smartphone as the “middleman.” The 4.1 Bluetooth device can act as both hub and end point so that data can move directly from one Bluetooth device to another.

Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1: What Can I Do to Upgrade?

Realistically, you can’t do much to upgrade your existing devices. You may have gotten an “over the air” update that would have already automatically updated your Bluetooth 4.0 device to 4.1. However, this would be at the discretion of the manufacturer.

If you have a really old device, such as an original iPad, the actual hardware may not support the Bluetooth version needed by a modern device such as a FitBit wrist fitness tracker. You can sometimes by external dongles for older devices that can add the functionality of a more recent version of Bluetooth.

Bluetooth 5 and Beyond

New iPhones and other devices are now supporting Bluetooth 5, and soon Bluetooth 4.0 and 4.1 will be old technologies. As Bluetooth evolves, look for more range and better data transfer. We can only hope that they will fix that pesky, perpetual problem with faulty Bluetooth pairing once and for all.

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If you want to understand modern science, you need to understand the difference between hypothesis and theory.

If you do not understand how hypotheses and theories work, then you really cannot fully appreciate how Western science and thinking works.

What’s the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory?

The basic difference between hypothesis and theory is this:

1. Hypothesis

The hypothesis comes first. This is the idea that someone has about how the world really works. For example, let’s say you think that the sun might be hot because it’s made of melted cheese. That is a hypothesis.

As you can see, a hypothesis is just an idea, and it doesn’t need to be a good one.

As you can also see, a lot of what we call “theories” in modern, everyday language are not theories at all, but hypotheses.

If you are hanging out with your friends at the bar, and you say: “I have a theory that the single guy over there at the bar always comes here and leaves without picking up any women, because he’s terrible at talking to women” that is really a hypothesis.

You don’t have any basis for your idea (other than your perception).

2. Theory

A hypothesis becomes a theory after it has been rigorously tested and reviewed for its veracity (truth).

In the case of the guy at the bar, we could test the hypothesis by having women go over and talk to him, and see how they might rate his conversational skills. We might also observe him over a series of nights to see whether or not he is successful at meeting women.

If, after doing a significant amount of research into this man and his behaviors with women, we might be able to say with some certainty that “That man cannot pick up women because of his poor conversational skills.”

However, it is still a theory, not 100% fact. It is possible that one woman might still want to date this man, perhaps because she finds his lack of social skills to be endearing or charming.

If this is the case, we might adjust the theory to say: “That man does not pick up most women he interacts with because of his poor conversational skills; however, some women do like him.”

Well-known scientific theories are the Theory of Evolution hypothesized by Charles Darwin and the Theory of Relativity first hypothesized by Albert Einstein.

Don’t Forget: Theories Aren’t Hard Facts

Most average people today do not understand that modern science is constantly evolving. Scientists will change their opinions on things as new information comes out.

This is why the term “settled science” is in fact, an oxymoron. While it is tempting to use this phrase in political discussions to support popular theories that have the weight of a good portion of the scientific community, it actually hurts science overall.

Good, objective science is never fully settled.

Generally speaking, a theory in science is probably true. While it might be difficult to put a percentage on it, let us just say for argument’s sake that a theory needs to make the hypothesis at least 80-90% plausible before it graduates to a theory.

Theories can still be changed or deemed unproven with new information.

The Theory of Evolution

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, for example, has a lot of evidence, such as fossils, to support it.

The Theory of Evolution explains pretty well how natural selection favors certain “mutations” over others to create different types of life. We can see a lot of evidence for this.

For example, our selective breeding used in dog breeds, for example, is all about favoring certain traits over others. Dogs “evolved” into different breeds, not using natural selection, but human selection.

Darwin’s theory also leaves a lot unexplained. Why, for example, does any organism become more complex in the first place? How did human conscious arise out of evolution?

Intelligent Design

A competing hypothesis, “Intelligent Design,” posits that some sort of outside force, or creator, guided evolution to create more complex lifeforms.

However, without any sufficient evidence to prove this, Intelligent Design is simply a hypothesis, not a theory.

Intelligent Design still does not explain how the creator itself came into being, or what or who the creator is. That would require a different hypothesis.

Intelligent Design may seem far-fetched, however, some scientists are now hypothesizing that our reality is actually a hologram or a sort of computer simulation. If this could be proven, then this might change the Theory of Evolution and explain it as being driven by a computer program.

So you never know how the worldview might change.

Science Constantly Evolves

When you understand hypotheses and theories, you realize that true science is really all about questioning the world with an open mind.

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man with shaving cream

When it comes to shaving your face, whether you're a guy that shaves regularly or you're shaving off your “No Shave November” beard - you need a shaving cream that will moisten those hairs and keep your skin smooth and healthy.

When it comes to shopping the best shaving cream for your shaving needs, it's a matter of your priorities and how well you want to care for your face.

How to Pick the Best Shaving Cream

Unless you don't care about getting a nice smooth shave and protecting your skin, you shouldn't grab any old shaving cream off the shelf when you're shopping.

Take a little time to get to know the products, what ingredients are in them, what type of skin you have, and use this knowledge to help you pick a product you can be proud to use.

Some shaving creams contain products that can dry your skin out. Some of them even contain allergens that can make your face itch.

Below are the three things to look for that will help you pick the best shaving cream:

1. Who Makes It?

Do a little research and allow yourself a chance to gain some brand awareness.

Find out if the company lives up to the standards you'd want them to. Some things you might consider is how long they've been around, if they're made in the USA, if they specialize in men's products, if they test on animals, and if they generally get good reviews.

Don't assume because a company has been around for a long time it makes them the best choice. However, it does help to know a company has had a good amount of time creating products that do the job right.

You also want to know what kind of ingredients they're putting in their products. When using natural products, they still need preservatives to ensure they last when sitting on store shelves.

Do a little research on ingredients you're not sure about. Look for natural ingredients at the beginning of lists of what the products contain.

2. What's in It?

When you use products on your skin, those products can be absorbed into your body, and upon doing that, it can end up in your bloodstream. That gives you a lot to consider when it comes to purchasing any product that is going to go on your skin, including your shave cream.

Good ingredients you want to look for are natural ones.

The best shaving cream will be made with natural oils, like jojoba. Essential oils are great for the skin, inside and out. Look for things like lavender, sandalwood, and other natural essential oils in the ingredients. Avoid “fragrances.” These can cause rash and other issues, since they are filled with nasty chemicals.

Look for products that specify they are paraben free. Parabens have been linked to many skin allergies. Parabens are common in the beauty and skin care industry, but that doesn't make them a good thing.

3. What Type of Skin Do You Have?

Make sure you consider whether you have dry, oily, or combination skin.

Using a shaving cream that makes your skin oilier may cause you some uncomfortable skin issues, just like using something that dries your skin when you have naturally dry skin.

For those that have dry or sensitive skin, it's important to avoid alcohol as an ingredient. Alcohol dries the skin out more and can cause itching.

From causing breakouts to causing rashes, it's important to choose the products that will enhance the health of your skin.

Picking the Best Shaving Cream

There are many choices out there, though not all of them use the natural ingredients you want to be looking for.

Because people want to know what's in their products and are always looking to improve on what's out there, there are always new businesses offering the next best thing for guys that want a clean shave.

Here are six of the best shaving creams to consider right now:

Taylor of Old Bond Street Sandalwood Shaving Cream Bowl, 5.3-Ounce
  • Cream helps prepare your beard for shaving and moisturizes your face
  • A classic fragrance with top notes of geranium, lavender, rosemary and liquid amber supported by a heart of carnation,...
  • Cream is contain a plastic bowl making lathering easy, Sandalwood shaving cream bowl

One of the best and most loved shaving creams out there is made by Taylor of Old Bond Street.

The company has been around since the mid-1800s, and they bring a classic British-style to men's skin and hair care. At around $15 for a little over 5 ounces, this is no cheap shaving cream. You're paying for natural ingredients and a product that is made to do its job well.

Speaking of the ingredients; this shaving cream is made with botanicals that promote healthy skin, and it comes with a blend of scents that any man will enjoy (sandalwood has a woodsy scent). It's made to work with all skin types.

Baxter of California Super Close Shave Formula, 8 fl. oz.
  • Hydrating shave cream for men
  • Provides a protective cushion between the skin and razor
  • For a close shave without redness or irritation

Baxter of California's Super Close Shave Formula gives you a nice smooth shave.

One of the reasons it works so well is that it uses coconut oil in the ingredients. Part of why it works well is the fact that it uses coconut oil in the ingredients. That's not the only ingredient within that will help keep your skin healthy. It also contains witch hazel, tea tree oil, and peppermint, among other things.

No irritation with this formula, it's made to keep your face feeling great.

You can grab 4 ounces of this shave cream that's great for even sensitive skin for just a little bit over $15. It works great for all skin types.

Jack Black Beard Lube Conditioning Shave, 6 fl. oz.
  • Lightweight, penetrating formula not only helps prepare your beard by penetrating and softening whisker growth, it holds...
  • Unique see-through texture lets you see where you're shaving, helping to prevent nicks and cuts -- especially great for...
  • Macadamia Nut Oil, Jojoba Oil and Glycerin provide a lubricating, protective cushion

Not to be confused with the actor Jack Black, this shave company is a completely different entity.

The Jack Black company is popular for guys that like a clean shave. They are another company making products for those with sensitive skin. The Beard Lube Condition Shave Cream does three things; it's a shave cream, it helps lube your face for a smooth shave, and it's conditioning your skin while you use it.

This shave cream contains jojoba oil, macadamia nut oil, peppermint, eucalyptus and more. It's also alcohol-free so that it won't dry your skin out. You can get a hefty 65 ounces for around $15.

V76 by Vaughn CLEAN SHAVE Hydrating Gel Cream Formula for Men
  • Blue lipospheres filled with Vitamin E smooth and remove dryness by helping skin retain its natural moisture levels
  • Aloe vera locks in moisture and soothes irritated skin
  • Perfect for those who prefer a lightweight shave gel or cream

If you suffer from dry skin, your very best option in shaving creams is this hydrating gel cream from V76 by Vaughn.

Why is this such a great product when it comes to hydration? It's the ingredients. It contains vitamin E, which soothes and heals your skin. It also contains aloe, which does the same. It also has a lovely cooling sensation.

It's about $19 for almost 6 ounces. You can be assured this product contains no parabens. It's also gluten-free, cruelty-free, and contains no petroleum or sulfates.

Proraso Shaving Foam, Refreshing and Toning, 10.6 Oz
  • Quick and easy shave without any compromise
  • Eucalyptus oil purifies and tones, Menthol refreshes and revitalizes
  • Natural-based formulation without mineral oils or artificial colors

If you like the cooling sensations that come from eucalyptus and the hydrating effects of coconut oil, then Proraso's Shaving Cream is the choice for you. And, if you're looking for a toning and refreshing facial product, you'll get it with this product.

Another great thing about Proraso is that it gives you a great price for a great product. For just under $10 you can get your hands on a little more than 5 ounces of shaving cream that will make you look and feel cool.

The Art of Shaving Shaving Cream, Sandalwood, 5 Ounce
  • The unscented preshave oil is the first step of the perfect shave
  • Shave Oil helps protect against irritation and razor burn by promoting razor glide.
  • Before shaving, rub a small amount of oil on your hands and massage into beard

When creating a list of the best shaving cream, you can't forget to include a product name like The Art of Shaving.

The  Art of Shaving's Sandalwood Shaving Cream offers a shaving cream rich in amazing ingredients that have anti-aging properties, and also helps heal your skin. It contains coconut oil and essential oils, including sandalwood (obviously).

Five fluid ounces for around $20 is a bargain for this shaving cream that will change your life. No skin irritation means this is good for sensitive skin.

Each of these shaving cream options offers you a smooth shave. Each of them will make you enjoy shaving again.

Comparison Table

Using Your Shaving Cream

Some of these cream options can be applied with a brush; some are better applied by hand. Look into the best applications before making your choice if you're particular to one way.

By applying with a brush, you get the benefits of lifting whiskers up off your skin for a better shave and your natural skin oils on your fingers don't have a chance to affect the properties of your shave cream.

It's important to use shaving cream every time you shave. It will help you avoid rashes, dry skin, and it will ensure you get a smooth shave.

What type of razor you use will affect how many passes you need to make and whether or not you should use pre-shave oil. Some of these best shaving cream options double as pre-shave oils though, since they are made with natural oils that add slickness and moisture to your skin.

Which Shaving Cream Is Best for You?

With this list of best shaving creams out there, you can start to determine which shaving cream is best for you.

You can find them in multiple sizes, so why not try a smaller purchase while you determine which one is right for your beard and your skin.

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books collection

If you’ve been dreaming of becoming a paperback writer, you may want to know the difference between the different types of paperback books.

Yes, there is more than one paperback book type, and you're about to learn about them. Most people are familiar with the term mass market, but what is a mass market paperback?

What Is a Paperback Book?

If you enjoy reading, it's likely you've read a paperback book at some point.

Hardcover books are easy to decipher, they're hard covered. If it wasn't a hardcover book, then it was some form of a paperback.

There are two different types of paperback books that are common in the United States. They are trade paperback and mass market paperback, and they have their differences, even though both are often referred to simply as being softcover books (to make a comparison to hardcover books).

Trade Paperback

Trade paperback books are the larger option when it comes to paperback books. These are books that are made to be comparable to hardcovers, often about the same size as them. They're just cheaper to print than the hardcover books, but more expensive than the mass market paperback books.

The cost for consumers falls in the middle of the other two book types as well, if you're buying from the big names in publishing. Self-published books can range in price depending on the author's preferences.

If you're an author and you want to release your book in paperback, this is a better-quality option than the mass market books. If you're working with a publisher, it's likely the advanced reviewing copies (ARC) they send out for your hardcover editions are going to be in trade paperback.

Trade paperback sizes can vary, especially with all of the outlets for self-publishing available to ambitious writers.

Createspace alone offers 15 different trade paperback book sizes, although only 12 of them are “industry standard” book sizes. The most common of these are 5.5” x 8.5” and 6” x 9”, which are also the sizes in which you'll find hardcover books.

Different genres of books have standards in size as well.

Mass Market Paperback

Now you know what a trade paperback is. So, what is a mass market paperback?

Mass market paperbacks are smaller than trade paperbacks and are always around 4.25” x 6.87” in size.

They are the smaller, compact paperback books that most people think of when they imagine a paperback. They're available at bookstores, but they are often found in the magazine aisle at grocery stores and on the racks at gas stations.

They travel well because of their small size. Mass market books have been referred to as pocket-editions because of their portable size.

The fact that these books are available in so many places relates to how they got their name. They are available to mass markets, to get them in the hands of a lot of people.

Often the mass market paperback would come out a few months after the hardcover of a new release, offering readers a cheaper option.

These days you can almost tell immediately when a book is self-published, since self-publishing sticks with the many sizes offered in trade paperback books, instead of printing in the more uniform mass market size.

Though you'll find larger publisher publishing trade sizes as well, depending on the genre of the book, some indie authors experimenting with book sizes. Fiction and non-fiction novels are more likely to come in the traditional mass market size, while poetry and self-help books will be in a trade size.

Why are There So Many Size and Style Options?

To understand why there isn't just one type of book available, you need to consider people and their reading habits.

Hardcovers are collectible, and they fit nicely and uniformly on shelves. People that collect them will often buy the mass market versions to read as well, so their hardcovers stay pristine.

When it comes to trade paperback book sizes, each genre of book has a different industry standard size that makes it look more like the type of book it is (like a larger book for self-help) and allows each genre to sit a little more uniformly on the bookstore shelves.

With print-on-demand and all of the self-publishing outlets, a lot of the standards go out of the window, especially with independent authors that don't understand the typical industry standards for certain genres. It's not a big deal when many of these people sell their books online only or at art shows, instead of going through a traditional bookstore.

Reading Is Good

It doesn't matter what style of book you read, just read. Now that you have an answer to the question “what is a mass market paperback book”, you can feel more “in the know” the next time you're stocking up on reading materials.

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We love our pets. It’s a fact. We love them so much that we like to involve them in almost everything we do, and that includes our technology. Although not all the tech in our lives is particularly pet friendly, app designers and web developers are realizing that to us, pets are people, and as such they need to be part of the new wave of exciting innovations and developments online.

So just what kind of things can our pets (with a little help) do on a smartphone, tablet, or laptop?

puppies and a kitten

Take Selfies

Yes, with the advent of some pretty spectacular foresight and clever thinking, there is now an app that allows you to take the perfect picture of you and your pet – a pet selfie. You can also use it to take a photo of your pet on their own if you prefer to stay out of the spotlight. The app is called Pet Camera, and it works by letting out a series of animal noises when you’re ready to snap the shot. That guarantees your animal’s attention, so they will be looking at the camera when the photo is taken. Neat!

Pet Sitting

Pet sitting is big business, and when we do need a little alone time – or when we’re forced to go out and leave our lets alone – then having someone reliable come and watch them for us is a relief. It may not be the same as staying home and snuggling up, but it’s the next best thing. DogVacay is an example of an app that makes choosing a pet sitting much easier than it usually is. Using this app you are able to be connected to over 30,000 verified pet sitters, and you can whittle them down in terms of location, cost, and even their likes and dislikes.

golden retriever photoThe Slots

Sometimes you and your pet just need some downtime, and everyone has a different way of relaxing. Something that is becoming more and more popular is online gaming, and in particular slot machines. And of course, there are plenty of animal themed slots to keep you occupied including Pretty Kitty, Bar Bar Black Sheep, Hound Hotel and more; and all of these can be found at the excellent Red Flush Casino. You don’t even have to spend any money to play most of these games, so you can play free slot machines without making a real money deposit. It’s the perfect way to unwind.

Pet Collecting

Now you might have quite the collection of pets at home already, but there is an app that allows you to get even more without anyone ever having to know about it. It’s called Neko Atsume, and it’s all about enticing cats into your virtual home. Once they’re there, you can play with them to your heart’s content! It’s a fun game that is completely absorbing.

cat in wool scarf

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According to the BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S), a Cardiologist is registered under the section of Physician or Surgeon, and the 2015 Median cardiologist salary  is equal to or greater than $187,200 per year or $90.00 per hour. The entry level education requires a Doctoral or professional degree, and the profession has a 14% job outlook, regarded as much faster than average.

Cardiology is the second best paid medical specialty in the USA, after orthopedics, while pediatric care ranks at the bottom of the chart. There are various areas for a med student who is interested in cardiology to work in after finishing his academic studies. He/she can become a surgeon, veterinary cardiologist or a cardiology consultant. 

Green line measuring the heart beat

A cardiologist in the Unites States can earn even more that other Physicians or Surgeons, because of the profession’s specific requirements. Location and tenure can greatly impact the average salary, but in general, the annual pay should exceed 6 figures. According to PayScale, a cardiologist should earn around $243,000 per year. The ratio of men to women for this profession is greatly unbalanced, the number of male cardiologists (86%) exceeding greatly the female professionals (14%) in this field.

Their duties include patient care, performing tests and delivering diagnoses to cardiovascular system related afflictions. Cardiologists also have to oversee treatment and offer follow-up tests if necessary. There are two main branches of this profession: invasive and non-invasive cardiology. Invasive cardiology’s main focus is cardiovascular procedures, being an interventional branch while non-invasive cardiology deals with heart complications or heart failure. An interventional cardiologist salary ranks above the one of his non-invasive counterparts due to the most specialized skills necessary.

There are pay differences between the various cardiologist specializations, making invasive cardiologists earn more than their non-invasive counterparts. An invasive cardiologist’s annual pay may range between $242,588 – $571,165, while a simple physician earns between $153,998 – $388,791, according to PayScale.

A survey from 2015 shows that top paying states for cardiologists are in the Southwest area while they are likely to earn much less in Northwest states. These are the yearly salaries of cardiologists with residency in the United States, starting with the highest paying regions.

Geographical region Annual compensation
Southwest $486,000
Northwest $484,000
North Central $450,000
South Central $412,000
Great Lakes $379,000
Southeast $372,000
West $364,000
Mid-Atlantic $354,000
Northeast $322,000

Highest pay for Cardiologist is in Seattle with 21% above national average and San Diego, 2% more than the overall average.  The location is an important factor as doctors working in Boston earn 49% above national average! For a practitioner living in Houston or NYC, the salary is below the national average by 18% and 17% respectively.

Around the world people, the average cardiologist salary varies from AUS$180,000 annual in Australia, between £22,412 and £120,000 in the UK, a median of C$203,472 in Toronto, Canada and Rs 1,190,509 for a doctor working in India.

Experience level Annual Salary
Entry-level (0-5yrs) $204,000
Mid-Career (5-10 yrs) $243,000
Experienced (10-20 yrs) $287,000
Late-Career (>20 yrs) $270,000

The annual pay is also influenced by experience, a rule that applies to all related professions, such as a technician, assistant or nurse.

Currently, there are openings for cardiologists in California and Chicago clinics, where the salary has been steadily growing since 2013. An important aspect to be remembered is a that the pediatric cardiologist salary amounts to less than the average for the other branches.

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After recent laws and regulations that force food and beverage manufacturers to state the amount of sulfites contained in their products, people have started a crusade against these substances. But what are sulfites? The problem is that the specifications are unclear, and people fear things they don’t understand. There hasn’t been any reliable scientific proof to show that sulfites are inherently bad for regular people, but still a lot of consumers believe that these substances cause headaches or other associated symptoms.

The truth is there are different types of sulfites with specific effects, some of them naturally present in our fruits and wines. They are mostly harmless to people who do not suffer from asthma or similar conditions, and they help preserve out food. So, what are sulfites? If you want to get a clear idea and understand the nature of these chemicals, read our article, and you will be able to make up your own mind.

What are sulfites?

Sulfites or sulphites are chemicals that can be found in various foods, either as a natural component or additives. They are compounds and contain a sulfite ion, which is the base for bisulfite. Recently, people have been increasingly more worried about the allergenic hazards that these substances may produce, but their worries are mainly unfounded.

The confusion comes from the lack of proper understanding of terminology. A label marked “May contain sulfites” may turn customers away at first sight, but why? Sulfites are naturally present in most wines, and they are also used as added preservatives for various foods.

FDA Regulations and Health Effects

The trouble for sulfites started in 1986 when the substance was identified as an allergen by the FDA. This happened after cases of asthma were linked to the intake of sulfites and as a result, the FDA banned them from fresh fruits and vegetables. The problem is that sulfites are commonly used as preservatives in various foods, so after the ban, they have been replaced with increased quantities of salt and erythorbic acid.

At the same time, it was required for sulfites quantities to be clearly marked on the labels of wine bottles if they go beyond 10mg/L. In the US, the presence of sulfites has to be indicated on the label if they have been used specifically as preservatives, and not simply added at the regular food processing stage.

However, many companies prefer to state the presence of sulfites in their product to avoid any liability in the case of eventual lawsuits. Regardless of this, the law only requires the chemicals to be listed only if the quantity present in the finished product goes beyond 10 parts per million (PPM).

Sulfites in wine – bad or good?

Red wine glasses on the table

Sulfites have been used for wine preserving and fermentation control since Roman times because they are responsible for stopping your favorite wine from turning to vinegar. Because wines are volatile, they need preservatives to ensure that they don’t go bad after you open the bottle. Sulfur has been used in wineries to stop the growth of various bacteria and yeasts, and also because it helps achieve the perfect red color of the wine.

The PPM number varies depending on different factors such as the production method and also the color of the wine. The wine sulfites range from 10 to 40 PPM, which qualifies as no-added-sulfur to 350 PPM. As a rule of thumb, red wines contain less sulfur than clear wines, while the sweeter wines need more than the dry ones to prevent fermentation.

After answering the main question of what are wine sulfites, we need to see what’s all the fuss about. Knowing that sulfites are a normal presence in wine raises the question: should we worry about it? Well, specialists say that unless you suffer from asthma or have a high sensitivity to foods, there’s no reason for you to give up wine.

What Food Products May Contain Sulfites?

Sulfites are present in large quantities in the products that traditionally require preservation, such as frozen juices or jams. They can be found in dried fruits or packaged potato products like French fries. In general, everything that has to or can be stored for longer periods of time contains a various quantity of sulfites. Prepared soups, packaged meats, and even soda have sulfites in them, so there are not only present in wine, as people used to think.

The so-called “sulfite sensitivity” is not really an allergy, although people have been complaining about it. Some people are under the impression that sulfites are to blame for the headaches caused by wine drinking, but scientific research doesn’t agree with this supposition.

If you think you are affected by sulfites and want to avoid these chemicals you should start with products that contain them in more quantities than wine.  Taking into account that sulfites are present in the over-processed foods that we all consume, a good idea would be to start reducing the quantity of packaged foods that you eat, before letting go of wine for good.

Sulfites got bad publicity after being associated with breathing difficulties for asthmatics and possibly sufferers of salicylate sensitivity. These categories are the ones who are at risk and can experience allergic reactions to sulfites, although life-threatening situations seldom occur. The witch hunt for sulfites began out of concern for public health, but studies have shown that these substances are just as bad or good as other preservatives such as salts we most commonly use.

In the end, sulfites are present in our foods, in various quantities, so avoiding them is virtually impossible. If you are among the categories that have a higher sensibility to these substances, you should undoubtedly pay attention to the labels and eliminate sulfites from your diet, but if not, there aren’t many reasons to worry.

You have now discovered the answers to the pressing question: what are sulfites? At the moment, it’s up to you to decide whether or not you should avoid high-content sulfites products such as dried fruits and potato chips. Just remember that the claim that red wine headaches are caused by sulfites is not supported by science, so you probably shouldn’t blame sulfites for your painful hangover.

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John Legend is one of the most appreciated American singer-songwriters, whose career and vocal abilities turned him into an overnight sensation. He has performed his songs in many talk shows, such as “The Oprah Winfrey Show” or “Late Night with Jimmy Kimmel”, and he was even one of the performers at the 2017 Oscars. Keeping all of these things in mind, if you were to guess the John Legend net worth, how much would you guess? Regardless of whether you’re his fan or you’re just curious to find out more about his career, today’s article focuses on  several John Legend net worth details and his overall career.

John Legend Singing playing piano against black background

John Legend Net Worth 2018

The soul and R&B singer and producer has a net value of $20 million, which is quite impressive, and one of the reasons why he’s one of the richest musicians on the market. His remarkable net worth comes from a life-long career dedicated to music, and from his songwriting style, which is highly personal. He’s known for his incredible vocals, passionate lyrics, and outstanding interpretation, much more than for the John Legend net worth we’ve just mentioned. The mix between his warm voice and his use of piano is the main ingredient that turns all of his songs into instant hits, and himself into a celebrity.

Early Life and Musical Background

Born John Roger Stephens, Legend was passionate about music from an early age. Luckily, his family encouraged him to pursue his talent. He began singing in the local church choir at the age of four. Since then, music became one of the most important things in his life. Years later, he pursued his musical passion by studying piano and joining the a cappella band Counterparts. Lauryn Hill heard him play piano, noticed his raw talent, and offered him a chance that proved worthwhile.

After this first big break, he managed to release two independent albums and enter the Hollywood music scene. Kanye West noticed his potential and offered him a contract with his record label. Legend agreed, and he started a long-time partnership with the American rapper. After signing the contract with West, he also chose his stage name, John Legend. Then, he went on to release his debut album “Get Lifted”. The album was an instant success, and Legend’s career exploded, making him famous.

Career Accomplishments and Awards

The album “Get Lifted” won the Grammy for Best R&B Album two years after its release. After this first award, Legend managed to add 9 other Grammy Awards to his ever growing collection.

He has appeared on multiple shows and performed live at the Grammy Awards in 2014. He also got the honor of performing both at the 2015 and the 2017 Academy Awards. There, he delivered some of the most touching live performances the Oscars ever witnessed. The song “Glory”, that he composed alongside Common and sung in 2015, brought the pair an Oscar for best original song. His single “All of Me”, released in 2013, went on to become a worldwide sensation. It actually managed to reach the number one spot on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

john legend posing with his wife and oprah

Legend has released five studio albums, “Get Lifted” (2004),”Once Again” (2006), “Evolver” (2008), “Love in the Future” (2013), and “Darkness and Light” (2016). He also guest starred on various television shows, from “Curb Your Enthusiasm” to “Dancing with the Stars”. He was featured on numerous tracks from other artists such as Janet Jackson, Kelly Clarkson, and David Guetta.

Apart from being a successful singer, Legend is also an accomplished actor and music film producer. He contributed to the soundtracks of hits such as “Crazy, Stupid, Love”; “Django Unchained”; and “Pitch Perfect 2”.

Personal Life and Humanitarian Work

After a relationship of more than six years, Legend married model and television presenter Chrissy Teigen in 2013. The ceremony took place in a romantic setting near lake Como, in Italy. Numerous A-listers both from the music and the film industry attended. in 2018, Legend and Teigen welcomed their first baby, a daughter named Luna Simone.

Apart from his remarkable career, John Legend is also known and appreciated for his charitable work. He’s a supporter of various humanitarian projects, and he has been involved with charities from Africa and Asia. Most recently, he has fought to ensure clean water provision for the people of Tanzania. Due to his extensive charitable work, Legend got the BET Humanitarian Award in 2010.

Musical Style and Influence

John Legend’s touching lyrics and soothing sounds have won the hearts of millions around the world. Due to his distinctive musical style, he’s part of a more innovative sound movement in soul music, and fans and critics alike eagerly expect his albums. He’s one of the singers who managed to bring R&B music back into the spotlight.

In 2009, Legend was included in top 100 Most Influential People In The World, a list released by Times Magazine. His influence is difficult to miss. For instance, famous musician Quincy Jones considers Legend a genius, and is reportedly extremely impressed by his remarkable career.

Summing It All Up

Even if he’s just at the start of his career, John Legend has managed to impress the public with his multiple talents, which include singing, songwriting, producing, and so on. Only 38 years old, the famous R&B star still has a lot to offer, and his career will certainly flourish even more. This means that the John Legend net worth we mentioned in today’s article can only increase as well.

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Have you ever experienced pain in the front part of your lower legs after a long jog? If the answer is yes, then you have suffered from shin splints. What are shin splints? Most people don’t know what shin splints are, although mostly anyone who has tried to go on a long run after a period of less or no physical activity has felt their unpleasant effect. Shin splints are the most common injury faced by runners, especially by those who run on hard surfaces.

Running man against mountains background in the morning

Shin splints manifest by acute pain along the tibia, also known as shin bone, and are very common in athletes such as runners, tennis players and even dancers. If you want to learn more about what are shin splints caused by and how to prevent and treat them, read through our article, and get all the answers. This way next time you go running, you will know how to protect yourself and avoid this painful syndrome.

What are Shin Splints Caused by?

Nobody wants to get injured when they are exercising, so to be able to prevent an accident, you need to know what signs to look for and what to avoid before putting on your running shoes. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), as it is called in medical terms, is caused by various factors. The most common causes that produce shin splints are:

  • Lack of proper stretching
  • Inadequate shoes
  • Running on hard surfaces
  • Changes in the regular routine
  • Running on steep terrain

Athletes and amateur joggers alike should dedicate enough time to stretching. Most of the people rush through the stretching part and head on to running, without being aware of the stress they are putting their bodies through. To avoid the painful shin splints, do a proper stretching session before starting your lap. Otherwise, you might damage your bones, muscles, and tendons.

Wear good shoes! Invest in quality shoes that are resistant and offer you comfort for long runs. If you need to know what are the best running shoes for shin splints, go to a specialized shop and explain your problem, and they will refer you to the perfect option for you. As a rule of thumb, the best shoes should provide stability, comfort and support your foot without causing blisters or any kind of pain when you run.

Avoid running on hard surfaces or steep terrain, especially if you’re a beginner, and don’t change your regular routine without the advice of a trainer. This way you avoid discovering what are shin splint at your own expense.

What Are the Symptoms of Shin Splints?

Shin splints occur when you overstress and overwork the muscles and tendons in your lower legs. They manifest as an acute pain localized either in front or behind the shin and they often afflict runners who are at the beginning of their training.

Shin splints are quite easy to be confused with other leg problems such as stress fracture or compartment syndrome, that also include pain and muscle weakness. It’s not enough to have pain in your shins to be certain you have shin splints; that’s why you should check with a doctor because you might have some other condition that can damage your legs.

There are some movements you could make to see if you have shin splints or some other problem. Generally, shin splints feel worse in the morning because during the night the soft tissue tightens, so this would be the first sign to look for to determine if your pain is caused by shin splints or something else. Also, if the pain increases when you force your foot up at the ankle and try to flex it, that means you probably suffer from shin splints.

Best Treatment for Shin Splints

Now that you know what are shin splints symptoms, there is another one important question to ask: how do you treat them? You have learned what are shin splints; running can cause them, and bad, overused shoes are a sure way to develop this painful syndrome. But what should you do to treat this painful affliction that can keep you away from your regular training?

Well, specialists and sports researchers say that shin splints can be tears in the muscle or a localized inflammation of the muscle. Some scientists believe that the pain might also be caused by the inflammation of the soft tissue that covers the tibia. Happily, they all agree on the best treatment to follow.

  • Stop or reduce your training
  • Ice your leg to reduce inflammation
  • Try to go swimming until your shin heals
  • If you are still running, use a protective wrap
  • Avoid hills and hard surfaces
  • Allow your shin to heal by doing slow movement exercise

If your pain is very intense, you should completely stop running until your legs heal because otherwise you will produce even more damage. For the first days apply bags of ice on your shin until inflammation is reduced, and if you still continue training, go for sports that don’t put too much pressure on your shin.

Return to running gradually and use protective wrap around your shin. Choose shoes that are comfortable and offer the support your legs need, and avoid running up steep terrain as much as you can.

There is a series of restoring exercises you should do at least twice a day to recover your flexibility and reduce pain and inflammation. Sit on a chair and use your toes to trace the alphabet on the floor, alternate walking on your heels with regular walking and then rest. This is the answer to what are shin splints treatment; there are no other tricks except for rest and regular stretching of your legs.

If you want to avoid such a painful experience, don’t do anything rash when training, stick to your routines and use quality shoes that support and protect your feet and legs. There’s no secret to being a healthy runner, other than be careful with your body and don’t apply unnecessary stress on your joints and muscles.

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What are parabens and do you need to worry about them? These are questions that everyone who uses skin or haircare products should know the answer to. We have all seen the warning “May contain parabens” on our shampoo or face cream bottles, but not everyone knows what parabens are and what their utility is when it comes to our beauty routines. Recently, they have been made out into the villains of the cosmetic industry, but are parabens really that bad?

The debate is still on-going, and research is done to clear this matter, but still opinions are very different. Cosmetic manufacturers present one side of the story and concerned scientists another side, and they haven’t yet come into agreement. Read our article and find out for yourself whether or not you should be in the search for paraben-free products.

Generic white jar face cream

What are parabens?

Parabens are a common substance present in our cosmetics due to their ability to help preserve the products we use for skin and haircare. Face and body creams contain them and so do most of the shampoos or conditioners. Their purpose is to prevent fungus, microbes, and bacteria from developing in our creams and makeup products and ensure that they are safe to use.

Because we generally store them in the bathroom, this warm environment is an attractive space for damaging bacteria to evolve. Parabens prevent this growth in shampoos, body lotions, mascara or foundations. Recently, there have been growing concerns among scientists regarding the damaging effects parabens may have on our skin, and safety regulations have been set in place to make sure everyone knows what they are using.

Are Parabens Harmful?

Scientists are trying to discover if the rise in breast cancer incidence is in any way linked to the use of parabens. Parabens have a low ability to mimic estrogen, and the chemicals have been found in breast cancer tumors, which raises concerns for scientists. Another cause of concern is the reported declining sperm counts and increased occurrence of breast cancer in male patients.

These problems lead scientists to ask whether or not the fact that these substances are absorbed by our skin might have a damaging effect. Parabens and sulfates, the other substance used as preservative for cosmetics, are easily absorbed by our skin, and they might be linked to an imbalance in the endocrine system. The answer is not clear yet, but there are researchers who think we should be concerned.

The main topic of debate is breast cancer. Taking into account that we know there is a link between estrogen exposure and the development of breast cancer, some scientists consider that parabens, which are a weakly mimicking estrogen, might have a damaging effect.

Available Alternatives to Parabens

natural oil bottle surrounded by leaves alternative to parabens

There are paraben-free products available on the market, but they are much more expensive and have a shorter time span before the expiring date. The reason why is very simple, without parabens, which are cheap and really effective preservatives, the cosmetics can’t be safely used for long before they go bad.

Manufacturers of organic, paraben-free products explain that lotions are the toughest to create and maintain because they are the perfect environment for bacteria and fungus. The use of natural ingredients with preservatives effects such as thyme, lavender oil or grapefruit seed extract can only provide a temporary solution. At the moment, researchers and cosmetics producers are looking for better, organic alternatives to the chemical preservatives such as parabens and sulfates.

What Products Contain Parabens?

More than 80% of cosmetics on the market right now contain parabens. What are parabens used for? The answer is simple: they are a cheap way to preserve the product and ensure safe use for longer periods of time, even if the cosmetics are stored in the bathroom, and not the fridge. If you want to know what are parabens in, you should be prepared for a long list.

From hair products such as conditioners, shampoos, and masks to body lotions and creams, as well as deodorants, paraben is all around us. It’s in our makeup products such as mascara and foundation and in our body scrubs. You should note that there is no real, conclusive proof to show that the use of cosmetics that contain parabens in small amounts cause or are linked with breast cancer. Presently, the amount contained in cosmetics is generally small, and health organizations consider it safe at reduced levels.

Laws and Regulations

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the institution which regulates the use of parabens and other chemicals in our daily products. They are aware of the growing concerns towards these chemicals, but studies have shown that the various parabens propylparaben, methylparaben, and butylparaben are safe to use in cosmetics up to 25%. They are currently used at levels starting from 0.01 up to 0.3%.

Regardless, cosmetics manufacturers have to state the amount of parabens present in their product, so you can make sure you know what you apply on your body. While waiting for conclusive evidence in any directions, the FDA assures us that at the present time consumers don’t have any real reason to worry about using products that contain parabens.  At the same time, the institution states that they are keeping up with the discoveries in the field and await conclusive proof on the matter.

You might still be wondering about what are parabens and sulfates and why they are found in our products? The reason is affordability and efficiency; these chemicals ensure that our lotions and makeup products are safe to use for a relatively long period. The tests and studies conducted regarding the possible link between these substances and various cancers are not yet conclusive.

Researchers are working on this issue at the moment, but meanwhile, most of them suggest that we shouldn’t be paranoid about parabens, but treat this matter with caution. Always remember that if you are really concerned about parabens, there are alternatives available on the market, and online, so you can choose what best fits your needs.

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Have you ever dreamed of having a toned, sculpted abdomen that looks amazing when we go out to the beach? If so, you have certainly asked yourself what are crunches?  However, most of us don’t enjoy spending countless hours at the gym and doing complicated exercises that don’t show any results. Everyone wishes to discover a secret recipe for perfect abs, but truth is there is a simple solution, and it’s no secret at all.

Crunches are the best exercise to do if you want to develop your abdominal muscles, and get the defined look celebrities flaunt on the cover of beauty magazines. This simple series of movements doesn’t require weights or fancy gym equipment; the only necessary tool is your own body. All you need to do is learn the different variations to the classic crunches in order to work every area of your abdomen, and the results will show.

What are crunches?

Woman doing crunches at home

Crunches are one of the most common exercises recommended for working the abdominal muscles. Crunches can be done by almost everyone, and they don’t require assistance or additional equipment. If you want to tone your abs or just love a bit of the extra weight on your belly, this simple exercise is the secret for you. If you have the necessary motivation to dedicate 10-20 minutes to it daily, the results will be amazing.

Well, what are crunches? Abdominal crunches refer to the simple movement of lifting your torso off the floor toward your bended knees while supporting your neck with your hands. It’s just as simple as it sounds.

Crunches Step-by-Step

  • You start by laying on your back on the floor, facing upwards.
  • Bend your knees and rest your feet on the floor at a comfortable distance.
  • Place your interlaced fingers behind your neck or back of the head.
  • Slowly lift your torso towards your knees, while supporting your head with the hands.
  • Be careful to not lift your entire back from the floor, only lift your shoulders and upper back.
  • Do not push or tilt your head forward, keep it in a straight line.
  • Maintain your crunch and enjoy the tingling feeling in your contracted abs.
  • Slowly release your shoulders back on the floor.

You should repeat this exercise at least twice a day in series of ten. After ten crunches take a break and breath and then start again. Don’t force your body and don’t hurry through it. You are much more efficient if you do the movement slow and controlled, this way you avoid injuries or back and neck pain.

Crunches Variations for a Perfect Abdomen

Apart from the classic crunch, you might have heard of reverse crunch. Well, what are reverse crunches? As the name suggests, they are an inversion of this exercise that also works your abs, getting you closer to a toned abdomen. For reverse crunches, you have to lie on your back with your feet lifted at 90 degrees. Rest your hands either on your stomach or along your hips, whichever feels more comfortable. Then, lift your bent legs up to your head, until you’re your lower back leaves the floor. As usual, do not force your body, and do not try to lift your entire back off the floor. You will get more efficiency, only possible back injuries.

Another great exercise to try is side crunch. Created exactly for the side muscles in your abdomen, side crunches help you lose weight and tone your abs. It’s not difficult to guess what are side crunches, but you should read through this guide if you want to do them correctly and avoid injuries. For side crunches you lay on your back with your knees bent and placed on one side, one on top pf the other. Place your heads behind your neck and lift towards the ceiling. Do it for at least 10 times on each side.

How to do crunches at home?

After you’ve learned what are crunches, now is the time to learn how to them. The good news about crunches is that you can do them anywhere, even in the comfort of your own bedroom. You don’t need a lot of space or a fancy gym membership. You don’t even need to have shoes on; you can even do crunches in your pajamas. All the necessary equipment is the weight of your own body that will help your muscles develop.

If you don’t feel comfortable lying directly on the floor, use a yoga or fitness mat that will also feel better on your back. Lay down on your mat and start with the regular crunches presented above, then switch to the two variations, reverse and side crunches. Do at least 2 series of 10 repetitions for each, and you will immediately feel the contractions in your muscles.

If you manage to start and end your day with a few series of crunches, you will see the benefits in no time: stronger, more toned abdomen and visible loss of belly fat.

Crunches vs. Sit-ups

There has been an ongoing discussion in the fitness community regarding which option is the best; crunches or sit-ups. Not a lot of people know the difference between the two, and the correct way to execute them. Sit-ups are similar to crunches, as you are seated in the same position, laying on the floor with the knees bent. The difference is that for sit-ups you actually need to lift your entire back of the floor.

The problem with sit-ups is that they are not recommended for people who suffer from back pain or who have problems with their spine. The movement of lifting until your head touches your knees can be damaging to the neck and back. Knowing that sit-ups don’t engage the abs more than crunches, and they don’t provide faster results, but only increase risks, you should stick to crunches.

Fitness experts suggest doing crunches at least twice a day if you want to see results. These classic abdominal exercises are free, effective and available to everyone, regardless of their athletic abilities. Now that you know what are crunches, you should get on your mat and get started. You will certainly be impressed by your new, toned and defined abs!

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Are you getting ready to bake your favorite cake, but you got stuck on the recipe? Do you need to know how many tablespoons in an ounce to ensure you are using the right quantities? If you can’t find your way around conversions from tablespoons, teaspoon, and cups to ounces, and feel discouraged, don’t worry, we have all the answers you need. Read out the article and you will be ready to correctly transform all your number into the right equivalent in the Imperial system.

First, we need to clear our notions a little, before we can get to the actual cooking. There are two types of ingredients for cooking and baking, and they come with different measurements systems. We have the dry ingredients such as flour or cocoa powder and the liquid or wet ingredients, such as milk, water or honey. The dry ones are measured in tablespoons (tbsp.) and cups in the American system and can be converted to ounces (fl oz). For the liquid ingredients, we use table tablespoons, and we can also convert them to ounces, also known as fluid ounces.

Flour and pieces of butter

Tablespoons to Fluid Ounce Conversion – How Many Tablespoons in an Ounce?

Let’s not get confused by the various systems of teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, and ounces. There is a logical progression here, so here are the most common quantities converted in fluid ounces. So, one tablespoon of liquid equals 0.5 fluid ounces, and one fluid ounce contains two tablespoons. This applies to measuring the volume of fluids such as milk or water, which are generally presented in recipes measured in tablespoons. Here you can see how many tablespoons in an ounce to ensure that you get the right quantity.

Imperial American
0.5 fl oz 1 tbsp
1 fl oz 2 tbsp
1.5 fl oz 3 tbsp
2 fl oz 4 tbsp (¼ cup)
2.5 fl oz 5 tbsp (1/3 cup)
3 fl oz 6 tbsp
3.5 fl oz 7 tbsp
4 fl oz 8 tbsp (½ cup)
4.5 fl oz 9 tbsp
5 fl oz 10 tbsp (2/3 cup)
6 fl oz 12 tbsp (¾ cup)
8 fl oz 16 tbsp (1 cup)
9 fl oz 18 tbsp
10 fl oz 20 tbsp

So, how many tablespoons are in an ounce? The answer is two tbsp. per fl oz. If you follow the table, it will be very easy to rapidly transform liquid ingredients in the necessary system, and you don’t even need to count, add or subtract.

Tablespoons to Ounce Conversion for Dry Ingredients

How many tablespoons in an ounce of dry ingredients, you ask? The answer is ½ ounces or three teaspoons. It’s the same as for liquid ingredients, as you can see in the table above. The only difference between measuring liquid volume and the dry measure equivalents is the introduction of the cup. Transforming ounces to cups and tablespoons can get your head spinning, but things are not as difficult as they seem.

The confusion arises when dry ingredients are measured in cups. So, how do you know how many tablespoons are in a cup of flour? Look at the table below and you will see how it works. It’s not that complicated after you understand that tablespoons are a subunit of cups, and there are 16 tablespoons in a cup, 8 in half a cup and so on.

American Standard
1 tbsp 1/16 cup
2 tbsp 1/8 cup
4 tbsp ¼ cup
5 1/3 tbsp 1/3 cup
8 tbsp 1/2 cup
12 tbsp ¾ cup
32 tbsp 2 cups

Although cups match the dry ingredients, you might come across expressions such as “Add one cup of milk” or “Pour half a cup of water”, and if you do, don’t despair. There is a simple solution to convert cups to tablespoons and then to ounces if you need to. Just look at the table above and find the amount presented in your recipe, then transform it into tablespoons.

Various Conversions for Different Ingredients

After you have looked through the two tables, your cheesecake recipe measurement conversions will prove to be as easy as pie. If you need to add butter, for example, four ounces equals how many tablespoons? The answer is eight tablespoons or half a cup of butter. To find out how many tablespoons are in 8 ounces, just double that, so 16 tbsp. How many tablespoons in an ounce should no longer be a tricky question for you.

If you need to convert ingredients from fl oz to tbsp and need to know how many ounces in a tablespoon just look at the first table. The answer is ¼. If you need to add half an ounce of milk to your cake, and you don’t have a special cup all you need to do is find out how many tablespoons in a fluid ounce. You have two add two tablespoons of milk.

Useful Tips to Clear Things Up

If you find yourself stuck in front of a recipe, and you are afraid that you will get the quantities wrong just think about the volume measurements in term of progression. The smallest unity is a teaspoon, then comes the tablespoon, then the ounce and lastly the cup. It will be easier for you to understand the conversions and then measure exactly what you need to make the perfect cake.

Keep in mind that Australian and British people have their own variations that don’t coincide with the American ones, while Europeans use an entirely different system, the metric one. In Europe, they measure the volume of liquids in milliliters, and the weight of dry ingredients in grams.

Another fun fact is that the Australians use the tablespoon as a measurement, but theirs is almost twice as big as the American one. Apparently, cooking and baking are not as simple as they might seem, but still, it will be easy for you to manage after you understood how to measure the ingredients. Now all you have to do is start your oven and then pick a delicious recipe. So, anyway, how many tablespoons in an ounce?

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Before you go for a visit to your dentist, you might want to get a head start about how much money you will have to pay for your root canal intervention. How much does a root canal cost and what should you expect? A root canal is one of the most common dental interventions, and the price varies based on a lot of factors starting from the severity of the intervention, the required treatment, your specific dental insurance and of course, your geographical location.

First, you need to understand what you will be going through, and then inquire about how much does root canal cost.  The root canal can be done on any tooth, from incisor to molar, and it usually refers to the process of cleaning and fixing a damaged tooth. The crown is removed, the nerve and pulp are removed and then cleaned and sealed to prevent infections.

How much does a root canal cost

How Much Does a Root Canal Cost with Insurance?

You should keep in mind that the average insurance covers only a part of your treatment, so be sure to check that out before heading to the orthodontist. Meanwhile, here is all the information you need regarding the cost of a root canal intervention if you have insurance. Most insurance plans cover between 50% to 90% for procedures like fillings, crowns, and root canals.

If you have good insurance, you should expect to pay an average of around $600 for a root canal on a front tooth, while for the back teeth which are harder to reach, the average is a little over one thousand dollars.  In Ontario, Canada, for example, if you want to get a root canal you will pay between $300 and $750 depending on the state of the teeth. You should keep in mind that your insurance may cover a percentage of your dental care, but you will still have to pay for the rest.

As you have seen, the answer to how much does a root canal cost greatly vary according to multiple factors such as location, insurance and the state of your damaged tooth.

How Much Does a Root Canal Cost Without Insurance?

The question how much does it cost for a root canal is a scary one, especially if you don’t have insurance. The main problem is that apart from the root canal itself you have to get further treatment, a new crown installed, and that means more money out of your pocket.  On average, if you pay cash, your root canal may go up to over $2,000, depending on your location and the clinic you choose.

There are tricks to use if you can’t afford this amount of money, to ensure that you get good treatment for a more affordable price. Stay away from the fancy NYC clinics and go to a dental school for your treatment. The dental students will do the work for a much lower fee, and they are always supervised by a professional, so you don’t need to worry!

Root Canal + Crown Total Costs On Average

As  we’ve already mentioned,  the  root canal is not your only worry, as you have to think about the further  interventions necessary for an actual, proper recovery. What you will certainly need is a new crown installed to replace your natural, damaged one. How much does a root canal cost with the new crown? Well, as you have seen prices vary greatly from area to area and clinic to clinic, and they are also affected by the specific insurance you have (private, NHS , etc.).

The average price in the US is around $500 and $900-$1,000 but don’t be surprised if you find out that your private clinic orthodontist charges around $750  and $1,200$ for the same procedures. Keep in mind that there are better options, but don’t go for the cheapest service, because you might end up with more problems than you had to begin with.

Best Countries to Travel to for Dental Treatment

The concept of medical and cosmetic tourism is not a new one, and the area of orthodontics is one of the most developed when it comes to oversea travels for medical issues. A lot of Americans choose to fix their teeth in other countries due to the lower fees they find there. If you are one of them, you need to think about how much money you save if you get treated overseas, and then make sure that your trip is worth it.

So, how much does a root canal cost abroad?Do a little research before deciding to head out and get your root canal in Australia, and do not wait for your problem to get unbearable before you seek treatment. Remember that emergency should be treated immediately. Otherwise, your tooth may get infected and damage the rest of the teeth.

Here are the countries with the most affordable prices for the specific problem of a root canal for front teeth. Remember that the accommodation and travel costs are not included, just the dentist’s average fee.  Eastern Europe countries such as Ukraine and Macedonia $60 have unbelievable prices; you will have to pay around $32 for a root canal in Ukraine and $60 if you choose Macedonia.  India is also affordable, with an average fee of only $61 per root canal intervention. Keep in mind that Australia, for example, has almost the same prices as the US, so it wouldn’t be a great choice if you want to save money.

What You Need to Know Before Heading to the Dentist

The most important thing to understand is that if you need a root canal, that means that your tooth is greatly damaged, so you should get it fixed as soon as possible. The dangers of an infection that might spread to your blood system cannot be overstated, so do not allow your tooth to get even more infected.

If the amount of money you have to pay makes your jaw drop before going out of the door, remember that there are alternative solutions out there, so you can reduce that gigantic sum. Your insurance will cover a significant part of it, and if you don’t have one, there are still options. Go to a dental school and let the students perform the procedure, the fee will be much lower, and they will do their job right under professional supervision.

Even if the hundreds or possibly thousands of dollars you have to pay give you an even worse toothache, don’t postpone the treatment, because the root canal infections can lead to serious problems. Now you know how much a root canal costs and how you can find a better price, so go in for the treatment.
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Are you eager to find out more about the amazing health benefits of coconut oil? As this oil is such a versatile and popular product these days, the questions we are answering to in this post are:

  • Why is coconut oil good for?
  • What are the benefits and properties of this superfood?
  • What are the best uses of organic coconut oil?
  • How should you cook with coconut oil?

Health Benefits of Coconut Oil

Surprising Health Benefits of Coconut Oil & Its Miraculous Properties

Touching on the organic coconut oil health benefits, we have discovered that it has a significant number of positive effects. Not only it helps to stabilize blood sugar and lowers cholesterol, but also it gives a boost to your immune system.

Let’s have a quick look at the coconut oil health benefits and miraculous medicinal properties:

  • It fights viruses and infections.
  • It improves digestion.
  • It reduces inflammations.
  • It fights memory loss.
  • It helps with weight loss.
  • It has antioxidant and anti-aging properties
  • It speeds up metabolism.
  • It helps with thyroid production.
  • It is an excellent skin moisturizer.
  • It is beneficial for heart health.
  • It reduces triglycerides.
  • It improves blood coagulation.

One of the most popular practices today, related to this wonder oil is the coconut oil pulling.

Coconut Oil Pulling Benefits – Preserving Oral Health

  • Prevents bad breath, cavities & tooth decay.
  • Heals gums diseases.
  • Whitens teeth.
  • Ameliorates acne and other skin conditions.
  • Soothes dry throat.

Health Benefits of Coconut Oil: Weight Loss

Coconut oil is known as being extremely beneficial for weight loss diets. How to use coconut oil for weight loss? Well, the benefits of this superfood are many as regards dietary problems. A coconut oil diet provides you with an incredible energy boost, and improves digestion, to name just two important aspects.

Moreover, coconut is an important fiber source. From the perspective of a dietary diet, coconut has both digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates. According to medical research, very few calories are derived from it.

Interestingly, the coconut oil saturated fat has a positive impact on weight loss. This is said to reduce the blood sugar, and sweet cravings too.

This wonder food has a low glycemic index too and is a great agent against Diabetes. Additionally, it is gluten-free, hypoallergenic and contains no trans-fats.

How to eat coconut oil and maintain your body healthily and beautiful? Check out our last section on cooking, and discover a few tasty coconut oil recipes here.

Learn that a coconut oil diet can also include the use of coconut milk. Is coconut milk good for you as well? The answer is yes! It contains many vitamins, and minerals, as well as high amounts of antioxidants.

As an alternative to a coconut oil-based diet, you can use coconut oil pills that work well as supplements.

beauty uses of coconut oil - moisturizer

Astounding Beauty Uses of Coconut Oil

Have you ever considered using coconut oil not only as food, but also as a beauty product? Well, if not, start swapping out your chemical-based shampoo, make-up remover, and moisturizer, and try out this 100% natural alternative.

Recommended Uses of Coconut Oil for Hair

How to use coconut oil on hair? Make a coconut oil mask, shampoo, and hair conditioner! Coconut oil provides frizz protection and frizz control. What is more, it leaves your hair soft and glowy.


Recommended Uses of Coconut Oil for Skin

What are the most popular coconut uses for skin? Whether you make a hair mask, use coconut oil as a moisturizer, or as body oil, its light creamy texture makes this miraculous product one of the best natural anti-aging agent.

Coconut oil is an effective cuticle softener, as well as an ultra-hydrating lip balm. As it is so delicate, it is also beneficial as under-eye cream and make-up remover. Why not use it as a highlighter as well? Of course, the last mentioned use is not recommended for those who have a natural glowy skin.

As a tip, enhance your coconut oil-based beauty products with natural fragrance oils.

Unusual Coconut Oil Skin Benefits and Uses:

  • It removes dead cells used as a body scrub along with sea salt.
  • It acts as a moisturizing and shooting shaving cream.
  • It makes for a safe-to-use, healthy toothpaste.
  • It works well as a sunburn treatment.

interesting health benefits of coconut

Unexpected Uses of Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is incredibly beneficial for pets as well. Wonder what are the health benefits of coconut oil for dogs? Well, learn that by adding it to their water on a daily basis, they will get a fresher breath and healthier joints. If used internally, coconut oil will boost their energy levels as well. So, it is better to talk to your vet about the right dose.

Cooking with Extra Virgin Coconut Oil

Whether you are baking, frying, or roasting, coconut oil is an amazing asset in the kitchen, not only in your 100% ecologic make-up kit.

Research shows that cooking with organic coconut oil is similar to cooking with olive oil as far as the smoke point, and fat alert are concerned. Some studies reveal limited evidence of heart benefits in case of coconut oil diets because of its saturated fat level.

However, medical opinions seem to vary a lot. Here is what Joy Dubost, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, says:

“Coconut oil contains a mixture of saturated fatty acids, some of which don’t adversely affect cholesterol levels.”

Also, there is evidence that people who eat over 60% of their calories from coconuts, specifically those who live in the South Pacific, are in excellent health.

Thus, it is safe to use coconut oil instead of other oils, and even more so instead of butter.

How to Cook With Coconut Oil

As regards coconut oil recipes, according to Health Cleveland Clinic, this wonder aliment is well-suitable for:

  • Sautés.
  • Sauces.
  • Low-heat baking.
  • Medium smoke point.

Coconut Oil Nutrition Quick Facts

When cooking with coconut oil, consider the following brief nutritional values:

infographic: health benefits of coconut oilEnergy per 100g: 862 kcal

Vitamins: E, K

Minerals: Iron

Fat Acids: Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs), Lauric Acid

Saturated Fat per 100g: 86g

Monounsaturated fat: 6g

Polyunsaturated fat: 1.8 g

Cholesterol: 0 mg

Carbohydrates: 0

Sugars: 0

Protein: 0

Sodium: 0

This brings our post on the miraculous health benefits of coconut oil to an end. Hope you enjoyed reading it. If you have any questions, thoughts or suggestions you’d like to share, please do not hesitate to message us.

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Is dental laboratory technology the right career path for you? We are here to help you make a more informed decision. Find out everything you need to know about the average dental technician salary, job requirements and opportunities, as well as information about top paying industries and areas for this occupation in the US today.

The Average Dental Technician Salary in the US

Currently, a dental technician in the United States can earn between $24,867 and $62,789 annually. According to recent statistics, the average dental technician salary is $42,129. Among the aspects that have a great impact on how much a dental technician brings home every year, work location takes first place, followed by years of experience and skills.

 female dental technician at work

What are the Benefits of Being a Dental Technician?

Dental technicians are among those lucky professionals who can earn a little extra cash from bonuses and profit sharing. They can add up to their annual wage bonuses up to $1,973, and a profit sharing between $1,000 and $2,543.

As regards other benefits, more than half of the individuals reporting to Pay Scale have medical cover, around 40% are provided with dental insurance and 20% have vision insurance as well.

What Does a Dental Technician Do?

Dental technicians or dental laboratory technicians provide dental prosthetic services. They work with specific instruments, hand tools (files, polishers) and materials (wax, plastic, acrylics, porcelain) to make dental appliances ordered by dentists. They are also responsible for dental restoration work.

Some dental technicians use computer software either to create models for the appliances they create, or to get impressions from patients.

Even if there is no formal profession training required to become a dental technician, they can specialize in six areas of expertise and perform more complex tasks. These are: complete dentures, partial dentures, implants, ceramics, crowns and bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

Dental technicians work with dentists and oral surgeon to find solutions to dental problems, but the typical work setting is not a dental office. They do not interact with patients, and normally perform only in laboratories.

What Are the Main Tasks of a Dental Technician?

A dental technician produces dental constructions or repairs existing dental prosthesis.

  • Create dentures, crowns, bridges, implants, veneers or other dental appliances.
  • Follow the specifications of dentists.
  • Evaluate problems and find solutions.
  • Analyze and adjust molds of patient’s teeth for accurate results.
  • Choose appropriate materials according to the prescription or treatment plan made by dentists.
  • Use lab instruments and tools such as grinders, files and polishers to polish and shape the appliances they create.
  • Restore dental constructions and appliances according to patient’s needs.
  • Spot imperfections in the devices they create and repair them.
  • Work well with hands.
  • Pay attention to details so that the resulted structures have a natural appearance and function.
  • Follow safety requirements.
  • Clean the equipment they use.

Job Requirements

Dental technicians are not required to undergo specific educational programs. However, there are minimum training conditions in order to perform in the field, as well as optional certifications available.

Education &Training

Most dental technicians in the US hold a high school diploma. This is based on the fact that the majority of dental lab technicians gain experience and skills on the job.

Even so, employers generally prefer dental technicians who have a higher degree or certification in the field. These are also needed for more complex operations and dental structures, such as orthodontic appliances.

Certifications & Licenses

Dental technicians can gain more complex professional skills by following an accredited dental laboratory technician program.

Also, there are organizations who provide certifications in the field, such as The National Board for Certification in Dental Laboratory Technology (NBC). Certified Dental Technicians (CDT) are mainly found in specialized areas such as implants, ceramics and orthodontic appliances.  NBC also provides a Certificate of Competency in each specific skill. Dental technicians are required, in this case, to pass a written and practical exam on the skill they want to specialize in.

To be certified as a dental technician, a minimum of 5-year experience in dental technology is required or having completed a dental laboratory technician program.

For more information on certification requirements and exams, you can visit the NBC official website.

Dental Technician Skills

As dental technicians operate with complex laboratory instruments and machines they need to understand how different tools work and learn to use them appropriately. If you consider choosing dental technology as a field of practice, make sure you have the following skills:

  • Dexterity
  • Technical Skills
  • Attention to Details
  • Precision
  • Analytical Skills

Work Hours

Dental technicians generally work on a full time basis.


Dental Lab Technician Salary by Industry

Typically, a dental technician works in a laboratory. But the work settings for such professionals are more diverse than that. They are found in offices of dentists or other practitioners, in dental schools and colleges, or in health care institutions. Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories are, though, the most profitable choices if you consider applying for a dental technician job.

Here are the top paying industries for this occupation:

Industry Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories $32.23 $67,040
Federal Executive Branch (OES Designation) $26.21 $54,520
Offices of Other Health Practitioners $23.21 $48,280
Offices of Dentists $19.69 $40,960
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools $19.40 $40,360

Dental Technician Salary by State

According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the highest employment level for dental technicians is recorded in California, where such professionals can earn $19.52 per hour. However, higher salaries are found in Alaska and Massachusetts, where dental technicians make an average of $26, and $25, every hour. If you want to aim high, relocate in Rochester, NY, where you can earn up to $60,000 per year.

Here is a summary of useful information provided by the US BLS:

Highest Concentration of Dental Technician Jobs in the US

State Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
California $19.52 $40,610
Florida $19.10 $39,730
Texas $18.54 $38,550
New York $23.69 $49,280
Michigan $19.78 $41,130

Top Paying States for Dental Technicians

State Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
Alaska $26.05 $54,180
Massachusetts $25.24 $52,500
New York $23.69 $49,280
Connecticut $22.44 $46,670
Montana $22.43 $46,650

Top Paying Metropolitan Areas for Dental Technicians

Metropolitan area Hourly Pat Rate Average Annual Salary
Rochester, NY $28.84 $59,990
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA NECTA Division $28.34 $58,940
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT $28.20 $58,660
Appleton, WI $28.12 $58,490
Idaho Falls, ID $27.36 $56,910
Anchorage, AK $26.05 $54,180
New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division $25.42 $52,870
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC $25.06 $52,120
Nassau-Suffolk, NY Metropolitan Division $24.61 $51,200
Waco, TX $24.48 $50,910

Job Prospects for Dental Technicians

According to BLS, the employment level for this profession is projected to grow with 7 % until 2022. This means that 5,600 new jobs are made available over a period of ten years, which is considered a slower growth of job opportunities as compared to other occupations.


Quick Job Facts

Average Dental Technician Salary as for May 2015  $42K
Entry-level Average Dental Technician Salary (0-5 years) $28K
Mid-level Career Average Dental Technician Salary (5-10 years) $34K
Experienced Average Dental Technician Salary (10 – 20 years) $39K
Late Career Average Dental Technician Salary (>20 years) $44K
Education Requirements  High school Diploma (minimum)Higher Degree (preferred)
Training On-the-job Training
Certification & Licenses CDT issued by NBC (optional)Certification of Competency  (optional)
Top Paying State Alaska ($54K)
Work Hours 40 hours/ week (full time)
Job Prospects 7% employment growth between 2012 and 2022






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As a fact, dental professionals are among best paid physicians worldwide. The average dentist salary in the US today is around $123 K per year, which does not include cash compensations for specialists like orthodontists or dental surgeons. Find out what the highest dentist wages are across the States and what factors influence the amount of money they earn.

The Average General Dentist Salary in the US

Statistics show that in average, a general dentist can bring home no less than $75,506 and no more than $232,336 as for May, 2015.

A portrait of a dental assistant smiling at the camera with the dentist working in the background.

What are the Benefits of Being a Dentist?

If you wonder what other benefits are there for dentists, not only that they have paid holidays and medical cover, but also can benefit from bonuses, commissions and profit sharing. If bonuses can reach $25k annually, profit sharing and commissions can exceed $80k.

What Does a General Dentist Do?

To put it simple, everybody knows what dentists do. They ensure we have nice and healthy smiles, taking care of our oral hygiene or teeth injuries. General dentists are professionals that work in the health care system, performing general practice as compared to practitioners who chose to further specialize and perform more complex tasks. These other specialties include endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics, prosthodontics and dental public health, which are far better paid.

What Are the Main Duties of a General Dentist?

  • Examine patients with diseases or injuries of teeth, gums and related tissues.
  • Conduct tests and examine X-rays to identify diseases and malformations of teeth and mouth tissues.
  • Diagnose dental diseases; these may be problems of gums, nerve, pulp etc.
  • Treat problems like decayed or cracked teeth
  • Prescribe forms of treatment and medications to correct teeth damages.
  • Advise and provide preventive care to patients with teeth problems.

How to Become a Dentist?

Becoming a dentist requires time and dedication. The average training a general dentist has to undergo may take 8 years in average. As we have already touched on this subject, please access our post to find out more about how long it takes to become a doctor of dental medicine.

To sum it up, these are the job requirements for this profession:

Education &Training

  • To earn the title of doctor of dental medicine, you need to apply for an undergraduate program at an accredited dental school.
  • Completing a four-year degree if not enough to become a dentist tough. In order to practice you also have to pass a national examination and fulfill continuing trainings.


If you wish to further specialize, you need to follow additional training depending on the nine dental specialties. This means you will complete a 1- or 2-year residency in a postgraduate program related to the field you chose. Dental surgery may require 4 additional years of training after completing the 4-year degree.

Exams, Certifications and Licenses

All dentists need to be licensed in the state they wish to practice. This may require passing a written and practical examination.

Work Hours

Dentists, like the majority of health professionals work full time, which means 37 and 40 hours per week. Their schedule vary depending on work setting and patients’ needs.


Dentists Salary by Specialty

Wonder what’s the best paid dental specialty out there?

If the average salary of a general dentist is around $127K, a pediatric dentist salary can reach an average of $177k and a maximum of $256K. Orthodontists appear to earn $200k in average per year, while prosthodontists can get around $150k. The best pay rate is, though, for oral and maxillofacial surgeons, whose salaries range between $100k and $444 k annually.

If you are curious about how much other dental care workers make as compared to a dental specialist, according to PayScale, the dentist assistant salary is around $31K per year, while the average dental hygienist salary slightly exceeds $70k.

Dentist Salary by Industry

Average wages for dental professionals depend not only on years of experience and specialty, but also on geographical location and industry. As regards the work settings for dentists, these generally perform in public or private offices or as self-employed professionals.

Here are the top paying industries for this occupation:

Industry Annual Average Salary
Offices of Dentists $169,360
Management of Companies and Enterprises $165,180
State Government (OES Designation) $156,270
Offices of Other Health Practitioners $153,380
Employment Services $152,610

Dentist Salary by State

According to Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates conducted by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2014, the highest concentration of jobs for this occupation is located in Massachusetts, with an annual average payment of $175K. Montana is the first runner up, followed by Maryland.

However, highest annual salaries are for dentists working in Delaware, New Hampshire and Alaska, with wages ranging from $204K to $225K.

As regards top paying metropolitan areas, a dentist working in Lafayette, IN can bring home no less than $264K.

 Employment Facts – Highest Concentration of Jobs in the US

State Number of Jobs Hourly mean wage Annual Average Salary
Massachusetts 3,520 $84.27 $175,280
Montana 450 $62.69 $130,390
Maryland 2,500 $76.84 $159,830
Utah 1,240 $54.32 $112,990
South Dakota 390 $79.13 $164,590



Top Paying States

State Hourly Rate Annual Average Salary
Delaware $108.09 $224,830
New Hampshire $104.92 $218,230
Alaska $98.98 $205,880
North Carolina $98.95 $205,820
Vermont $98.44 $204,760

Top paying metropolitan areas:

Metropolitan area Hourly Rate Annual Average Salary
Lafayette, IN $127.17 $264,500
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX $123.50 $256,870
Wausau, WI $122.92 $255,670
Jacksonville, NC $122.91 $255,660
College Station-Bryan, TX $121.92 $253,600
Merced, CA $120.52 $250,690
Idaho Falls, ID $120.34 $250,310
Holland-Grand Haven, MI $118.03 $245,500
Rochester-Dover, NH-ME $117.34 $244,060

Quick Job Facts

General Dentist Average Salary as for May 2015  $122,949
Entry-level Average Salary (0-5 years) $116, 000
Mid-level Career Average Salary (5-10 years) $138,000
Experienced Average Salary (10 – 20 years) $147,000
Late Career Average Salary (>20 years) $153,000
Education Requirements  Bachelor’s Degree for General PracticePostgraduate Training for Specialists
Certification and Licenses License issued by the State of Practice
Best Paying State Delaware ($224,830)
Work Hours 40 hours/ week + additional hoursFlexible schedule according to patients’ needs
Job Prospects Employment level expected to grow with 16 percent + 23,300 new jobs until 2020


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Once a trademark for animal rights militating hippies or our nation’s celebrities like Bill Clinton, Mike Tyson and Alanis Morissette, veganism has become more and more popular in the US. The American vegan community is growing stronger every day, with more than 7 million adherents so far. ‘What is a vegan?’ and ‘what is veganism all about?’ are all in the air questions nowadays. So let’s find out some quality answers.

What is a Vegan?

To start with the basics, according to Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, a vegan is a person who refrains from using any product derived from animals, be it food, fur or leather. The Vegan Society defines its kind in more complex terms such as excluding all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to animals from their lifestyle.

what is a vegan

The beginnings of The Vegan Society, and of defining what vegan means, go back in 1944 when Leslie J Cross suggested that the principle of veganism is ‘the emancipation of animals from exploitation by man’. However, the word came into use in 1839, being first attributed to Fanny Kemble, an English actress.

Veganism is not only about being ethical from the perspective of animal rights. It is also a healthy and spiritual choice people make to fight different types of disorders. Before learning more about the benefits of being a vegan, let’s look at what vegans eat.

So What Do Vegans Eat?

It is a common belief that vegans are left with nothing to eat if dispensing with all animal products. Nothing more false! Indeed, a vegans’ diet consists mainly of plants, but there are so many dietary possibilities meat eaters don’t know about. What can you eat on a vegan diet? Well, beside leafy greens, vegans eat cakes, pizza, sauces, stir fry, ice cream, soups and stews. These are, of course, all veg-based.

Raw Vegan Burger

We could say that vegans are a strict kind of vegetarians, even if some of them totally disagree with such association. As compared to some types of vegetarians though, like ovo-vegetarians or lacto-vegetarians, they do not consume meat, eggs and dairy at all, not even honey.

Wonder where do they take proteins from? Cutting back on meat goes hand in hand with finding nutritional alternatives. Nuts, seeds and beans are primary protein sources in veg-based diets.

The key to a healthy vegan diet is variety. Many common vegan dishes include fresh fruit and veggies, tofu, rice, beans, avocado, whole grains, nuts and seeds.

 Raw Vegan Lunch

What Can Vegans Eat Instead of Animal Products?

Vegans are very clever in finding meat and dairy substitutes. They eat soya and chickpea burgers and have dozens of vegan cheese recipes.

However, eliminating animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamin B12 and D, as well as of iron, zinc, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids. That is why, it is highly recommended for vegans to take supplements.

What is Vegan Cheese Made Of?

Vegan cheese can be made of many plant-based products. Soy milk, coconut milk, almond milk and cashew are just a few of the basic ingredients for tasty vegan ‘real’ cheese substitutes.

vegan cheese

Vegans also use egg-free mayonnaise, replacing eggs with flax seeds.

‘Junk Food’ Vegan vs. Raw Vegan

Vegans are of different kinds and so are their diet and lifestyle. You wouldn’t believe it but there are even ‘junk food’ vegans.  As funny or tragic as it may sound, junk vegans give up meat and replace it with an unhealthy diet based on white bread, pasta and processed foods. You would be amazed how good, but unhealthy junk vegan food is.

vegan chickpea burger

Worlds apart, raw vegans are the healthiest yet the most extremist type of vegans. Beside ethical, ecologic, and health reasons any vegan has to consume plant-based products, they believe that cooking food at a temperature above 118 °F is dangerous. That is why they go for fresh, raw ingredients.

Raw vegans also have a spiritual motivation when it comes to what they eat. They assume there is a powerful connection between nutrition and spiritual awakening.

What are the Benefits of Being a Vegan?

Some choose veganism for ethical or spiritual reasons, others for a healthier lifestyle. The benefits of being a vegan are of many types. Vegans are environment-friendly and care about nature more than other categories of people. But the greatest benefit consists in having a low-fat, whole foods organic diet that helps preventing many medical conditions.

According to recent studies, more than 300,000 Americans die of obesity every year, which makes a low-fat veg-based diet a great option to fight obesity-related diseases.

What is more, health experts have explained that such a diet can prevent and even eliminate people’s predisposition for developing diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases and even cancer.

Also, veganism may be for some a necessity, not a choice. There are people born with milk or meat intolerance who need alternatives in order to survive. Vegan cuisine is rich in such substitute diets. And can be tasty as well.

How to Become a Vegan?

If you share with vegans the philosophy of compassion for animals and consider becoming one from a dietary point of view as well, there are many guides on how to change your eating habits without dealing with health problems.

The first step in becoming a vegan is to take it easy. Changes require time and patience. Make changes by gradually cutting back on animal products and replacing them with veg-based foods. You can try eating vegan products one to three days a week and see how you feel.

Then, it is equally important to document about what type of vegan diets meet your nutritional needs best. Among the best books on nutrition, I would say that The China Study, one of America’s best-selling studies on diet and disease, is worth reading. The internet offers numberless resources about veganism and a great amount of appetizing recipes.

Just keep in mind that vegan and vegetarian diets are healthy as long as you take from a plant-based meal everything your body needs to bear up with your daily activities.

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DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line and refers to a high-speed internet technology offered over telephone lines by Internet Service Providers. It belongs to a category of technologies that enable broadband internet access, along with the internet services offered over cable or fibre optic. The last two are considered to be faster, but DSL is one of the most popular ways of connecting to the internet worldwide. ‘What does DSL mean?’ is the question we’re going to answer to today in a detailed, but accessible manner.

how dsl works

What Does DSL Mean? – DSL Technology

Digital subscriber line, originally called digital subscriber loop, is a widely used internet technology enabling high-speed internet access through telephone network.

This technology practically enables fast internet access through the same lines we use for phone calls, which can be performed at the same time. The difference is that DSL uses a higher frequency than the analogue telephone line.

For instance, when we make a phone call the voice signal is transmitted through low frequencies, from 0Hz to 4 kHz. At the same time, digital signals are transmitted by DSL through a higher frequency range, which is between 25 kHz to 1.5 MHz.

The highest audible frequency humans hear is 20 kHz. As DSL’s lowest range of frequencies can interfere with phone’s highest frequency range, DSL’s signals are filtered by means of DLS filters or splitters in order not to have damaging effects on phone conversations.

DSL Types

DSL technology is used in reference to SDSL and ADSL which are both data communications technologies. Mainly, there are two ways Digital Subscriber Line operates: symmetrically and asymmetrically.

  • SDSL – Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line has even upstream and downstream frequencies and speed

Through Symmetric DSL there is an equal speed provided for both downloading and uploading data which translates into even upstream and downstream frequencies and speed. Another disadvantage of using SDSL is the fact that this technology supports data over a single line and does not support analog calls.

SDSL cannot function together with a voice service and cannot guarantee high performance.

  • ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line allows different download and upload speed

The most commonly used internet service over standard phone lines is ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – which allows different upstream and downstream frequencies and transfers.

If your internet access is provided through ADSL, as a user you can download more data than you upload, which would be impossible in case of SDSL technology.

What is more, with ADSL downstream speed becomes faster. For instance, while SDSL connection allows, let’s say, 5 Mbps for both upstream and downstream, ADSL may allow 50 Mbps for downloading data and 1 Mbps for uploading data.

How DSL Enables Internet Access – DSL Equipment

If you are interested in how DSL connects you to the internet, there are a few things to consider.

First, from a logistics viewpoint, internet access through DSL is enabled by Internet Service Providers (ISP). In order to connect to the internet, you need to find and contract an ISP. As DSL signals have a limited range, it is advisable to choose an IPS closer to your location.

Second, from a technical point of view, internet access over phone lines is enabled by means of three pieces of equipment – DSLAM, DSL filter and DSL modem.

What Does DSLAM Mean?

DSLAM stands for Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplex and is used to connect both the telephone and internet services to the same line. DSLAM is a huge mechanism that terminates and aggregates DSL circuits. It is a data switch and a collection of modems that can link the DSL connections of an entire neighbourhood to a single Asynchronous Transfer Mode line.


The DSLAM equipment collects data from modem ports through multiplexing. Multiplexing refers to a method by which digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Multiplexing is what makes multiple phone calls and internet access possible over the same line.


DSL Filters

As already mentioned above, the DSL filter is used to make sure DSL signals do not affect phone conversations. The filter or splitter is thus used to separate the voice component from the digital signals received over the line.

Dsl filter

Without this equipment phone frequencies and DSL frequencies may interfere and lower the performance of both services, resulting in line noise, annoying echo and deficient internet connection.

DSL filters are connected to the landline phone and they do not require a power source to function. However, some of the more pricey filters may have active transistors which help refine the signal.

DSL modem

Once you have contracted an ISP, you will be given a DSL modem. These devices are usually designed so that they can be easily installed by customers. That is why they come with a CD containing an installation program.

Dsl modem

The DSL modem can be connected to a router or directly to your PC. Nowadays, you can find DSL modems which have built-in wireless routers, which means you can connect to your DSL modem through Wi-Fi technology.

What a DSL modem does is practically connect our PC to the phone line which enables your internet access through a DSL service.

In order to see if you have successfully connected to the telephone line and to the internet, the modem has a series of LED status lights you can check. If everything is working properly, these will turn green once the DSL link is initialized.

  • Power light show that the DSL modem is turned on;
  • Ethernet lights – these indicate that the Ethernet link is functioning;
  • DSL light – indicates that the modem is connected to the local DSLAM;
  • Internet light – shows that the entire system is connected to the internet;
  • Wireless light – these indicator is part only of DLS modems functioning via Wi-Fi and show that the wireless network works properly.


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The average network administrator salary in the US nowadays ranges from $36,000 to $77,000 depending on work location, employer and skills.

This field appears to be dominated by men as statistics show that 93% of IT workers occupying this position are male. Find out more interesting information on the job and cash compensation below.

Network Systems Administrator at Work

Network and Computer Systems Administrator

Average Network Administrator Salary & Benefits

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the average annual wage for network and computer systems administrators was $72,560 in May 2012.

But more recent surveys show that network and computer systems administrators earn $53,921 in average per year. Their annual income though may vary from $36,000 to $77,000 depending on geographical position, employer, bonuses, experience, skills and complexity of duties.

According to a Pay Scale salary survey, higher pay packages can include bonuses and profit sharing worth $5,000 each.

Among the benefits, most of the reporting professionals in this field receive medical coverage and dental insurance.

 What do Network and Computer Systems Administrators Do?

Network and computer systems administrators represent a type of IT technology workers. Nowadays, they are part of almost every existing organization and their job is to ensure that all information operations work properly.

Network administrators have knowledge of how servers, firewalls, routers and other devices work. Not only they are expected to install and perform troubleshooting of an organization’s data communication system, and provide technical support and network maintenance, but they also need to be able to supervise other computer technicians and communicate with non-IT professionals.

Tasks Network Administrators Perform:

  • Discuss and determine the needs of customers in a network and computer system;
  • Install network hardware and software;
  • Manage an organization’s network equipment, handle upgrades and repair it if necessary;
  • Ensure computer systems operate properly on a daily basis;
  • Evaluate data, diagnose issues and make systems operate more efficiently;
  • Analyze network and system performance;
  • Identify network systems problems and find solutions;
  • Maintain network security, ensure data storage works correctly;
  • Add users to a computer system and show them how to work with network hardware and software;
  • Communicate with other specialists such as computer systems managers and network architects;
  • Decide in what equipment is needed to best meet the organization’s requirements;
  • Provide technical assistance and operations support to non-IT workers.

What is the Average Salary for Jr. Network Administrators as Compared to Senior Professionals?

Junior network and computer systems administrator earn an average of $45,000 per year. Experts consider that the years of experience have weak influence on cash compensations, those more experienced not necessarily earning higher wages.

While an entry-level network systems administrator salary is around $47,000, a professional with more than 5 years of experience earns around $55,000, and the average payment for IT workers with more than 10 years of experience is around $58,000. A senior network administrator has a slightly bigger paycheck of around $62,000.

Job Requirements

From the educational point of view, there are some employers who require only a postsecondary certificate, but a Bachelor’s Degree in IT and Computer Science or a related field is desirable.

As network administrators need to prove technical knowledge and skills, it is acceptable to be hired with a degree in computer engineering as well or even electrical engineering.

Computer Science and Information Technology are ever-growing fields and professional administrators are required to keep step with new technologies and developments. Having a master’s degree is considered an advantage.

Certifications also show a high level of competence and might be the key to successful applications.

General Skills Network Administrators Have in Their CVs

  • Technical Skills/ Computer Skills)
  • Analytical Skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Problem-solving Skills
  • Multi-tasking Skills

Popular Network Administrator Skills

Best paid IT Network Administrators master System Administration, Cisco Networking, SQL, Windows 2003 Server, Microsoft Active Directory and Microsoft Exchange.  

These skills can boost their paycheck with 5 to 11 percent above the average.

Where Do Network Administrators Work?

Typical work environments for network administrators are to be found in all kinds of industries and work areas. They are practically needed everywhere as more and more organizations operate with computer systems. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics registered no less than 366,400 jobs in 2012 across the States.

Network administrators are more likely to be employed in the following industries:

  • Finance
  • Information
  • Computer Systems Design
  • Education
  • Healthcare
  • Private Organizations

According to BLS, most popular industries are the first two on the above list, offering an average wage of $77K per year.

Among the best paying employers you can find U.S. Air Force (USAF), U.S. Marine Corps, General Dynamics Information Technology Inc, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and Compuweigh. 

Work Hours

Most of network and computer systems administrators work full time, 40 hours per week or more.

As this is a demanding occupation, for big organizations especially, administrators might be required to work overtime. Statistics show that more than 25% of these administrators work over 40 hours every week.

Job Prospects

Good news for future-to-be network administrators. Prospects look good for those wishing to take up such a career path in the next few years.

According to the Employment Projection program of US Bureau of Labor Statistics, an employment growth of 12% is expected from 2012 to 2022 as there will be more than 40,000 jobs made available.

As regards the demand of network administrators, a boost of opportunities is projected in healthcare institutions as the use of information technology becomes a necessity.

Job prospects are now favorable for those who have a Bachelor’s Degree in IT and Computer Science or related subjects and have knowledge of the latest technologies in the field, especially cloud computing.

Also, the job opportunities for network administrators in the computer systems design services is expected to show a 35% growth in the next 7 years.

Network administrators who are excellent in what they do can orientate to advance positions and become computer network architects or computer and information systems managers. Their annual earnings may rise dramatically for those who have the chance to become Information Technology Directors as the average salary for an IT Director can exceed $100k per year.

But until reaching such a position, a network administrator has to become a Senior Network Administrator, with an average annual salary reaching $70K, and then an IT Manager, earning in average $80K per year.

Job Facts Summary


Network System Administration Average Salary as for May 2015  $55K
Entry-level Average Salary (0-5 years) $45K – $47K
Mid-level Career Average Salary (>5 years) $58K
Senior Average Salary (>10 years) $60K – $70K
Education Requirements  Postsecondary Certificate minimumInternships

Bachelor Degree in Computer Science or related subjects

Master’s Degree (advanced work skills)

Certification and Licenses Cisco and Microsoft Certifications  
Job Experience   On-the-job Trainings
Work Environment  Finance, Information, Computer systems related services, Education, Healthcare, Private
Best Paying Employer  Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) 
Best Paying Market Washington (+27% above the average), New York (+21%), San Diego (+14%), Los Angeles (+12%), Minneapolis (+12%)
Lowest Paying Market Miami (-9%)
Job Prospects 2012 – 2022 12% employment growth35% employment growth in computer systems design
Work Schedule 40 hrs/ week and over


Are you interested in a career that implies advising and helping people? Are you both intellectually and emotionally strong enough to deal with distressing and complex situations? If so, genetic counseling may be the path for you. In the US this field appears to be dominated by women, with 91% female employees across states, and the wages vary mainly depending on work market, experience and responsibilities. The average genetic counselor salary ranges from $49,340 to $81,642 per year.

Genetic Counselor at Work

Genetic Counselor at Work

Average Genetic Counselor Salary Info

According to official employment statistics for this occupation, dating May 2014, the annual average genetics counselor salary is nationally estimated to $69,540, with half of employees earning $67,500.

Things haven’t changed dramatically over the last year, but figures do not seem to have increased. A recent survey of 154 respondents shows that the annual average wage of a genetic counselor is $60,770 as for May 2015.

But the good news is that the annual total pay can exceed $80,000, also by comprising bonuses of a maximum of $3,091.

What Does a Genetic Counselor Do?

Genetic counseling is a medical profession which deals with evaluating and advising patients who are at risk of an inherited medical condition, such as Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, different types of cancer, sickle-cell anemia or muscular dystrophy.

This occupation involves working in a variety of practice areas, from cancer genetics, infertility genetics, neurogenetics to cardiovascular genetics and fetal intervention.

The main task of a genetic counselor is to advice people about inherited diseases and conditions, and to help them in the process of making informed decisions that best meet their needs. But in order to perform counseling, these professionals are required to have a thorough knowledge of how genetics contribute to improving and even avoid such medical conditions, along with excellent analysis and methodical competences.

Genetic counselors work with different types of patients, from adults to children, in a variety of industries, which makes interpersonal skills a major asset. Some of the most popular clients of genetic counselors are couples trying to conceive and need this specialized support to ensure that there are not genetic mutations or birth defects that might affect their children development.

In order to make the right decisions it is crucial for genetic counselors to communicate effectively with physicians of a variety of specialties too. The result of such collaboration is a reciprocal support that would enable providing an enhanced clinical care from both parts.

The Main Tasks of a Genetic Counselor

  • Analyze different types of genetic conditions, diseases and tumors;
  • Provide support to patients having or developing a genetic disease, and to their parents and close relatives as well;
  • Help patients understand their condition;
  • Interview and observe patients in order to collect essential information and evaluate risks of developing genetic conditions;
  • Conduct, evaluate and review genetic tests;
  • Evaluate data related to the family medical history of the patient;
  • Diagnose problems;
  • Develop and prescribe treatment;
  • Communicate with other members of the hospital or clinic they work in, from technicians to other professional members;
  • Keep a record of clients’ specific problems, forms of treatment and reports;
  • Conduct research related to genetic diseases and counseling.

Job Requirements


If you want to become a genetic counselor you need to complete a master’s degree accredited by the American Board of Genetic Counseling.

Employers also appreciate work experience or knowledge in the following university majors:

Certifications and Licenses

In order to practice as a genetic counselor you need to be certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics or the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC).

Also, genetic counselors must be licensed in the state they wish to perform their job.

Work Hours

Genetics counselors usually work full time, 40 hours per week, but there might be additional hours required depending on the needs of their clients and/or employers.

How Much Does a Genetic Counselor Earn Depending on Experience?

The salary of a genetic counselor does not vary greatly depending on experience, but there are a few differences on cash compensation if you are an experienced professional as compared to an entry-level practitioner.

The average starting salary for genetic counselors is around $60K, according to a pay scale updated in May 2015, while a mid-career professional earns $62K.

Things changed for professionals having more than 10 years of experience. An experienced genetic counselor can earn $74K annually, while a senior with more than 20 years of experience has an average salary of $85K.

How Much Does a Genetic Counselor Earn Depending on Industry?

Genetic counselors work in a variety of settings, ranging from public to private healthcare institutions. Most typical work places are:

  • Hospitals
  • Clinics
  • Laboratories
  • Counseling organizations
  • Companies and Enterprises
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Private Offices of Different Health Practicioners

Genetic counselor can also choose to perform as freelance professionals.

Here is a list with the top paying industries and wages provided by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics:

Industry Annual Average Salary
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories $89,060
Management of Companies and Enterprises $82,570
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals $70,820
Offices of Physicians $69,120
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals $67,900

How Much Does a Genetic Counselor Earn Depending on Work Market?

The employment location is one of the major factors affecting how much a genetic counselor brings home in terms of money.

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistic the top paying state for this occupation is Maryland, offering an annual median wage of $92,100.

Top Paying States Annual Average Salary 
Maryland $92,100
Colorado $79,330
New Jersey $78,130
New York $77,210
California $77,080
Top Paying Metropolitan Area Annual Average Salary
Baltimore-Towson, MD $92,240
Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine, CA Metropolitan Division $87,520
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA Metropolitan Division $86,500
New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division $82,250
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL $80,330
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL Metropolitan Division $79,530
San Francisco-San Mateo-Redwood City, CA Metropolitan Division $70,780
Oakland-Fremont-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Division $69,090
Indianapolis-Carmel, IN $68,940
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI $68,490

Quick Job Facts


Genetic Average Salary as for May 2015  $60k
Entry-level Average Salary (0-5 years) $60K
Mid-level Career Average Salary (5-10 years) $62K
Experienced Average Salary (10 – 20 years) $74K 
Late Career Average Salary (>20 years) $85K
Education Requirements   Master’s degree in Genetic Counseling
Certification and Licenses Certification issued by The American Board of Genetic CounselingLicense in the State of Practice
Work Settings  Public and Private Healthcare FacilitiesCompanies and EnterprisesOffices of Other PractitionersFreelance
Best Paying State Maryland – $92K
Work Hours 40 hrs/ week + additional hours


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A news anchor average salary in the US today is $55,757 per year. But according to a Pay Scale survey updated in May 2015 total income of news anchors can reach almost $130,000.

Stay with us to find out what are the most important factors influencing a news anchor’s annual earnings, what you need to do in order to become one and who are the 15 highest paid news anchors in the US according to each network.

News Anchor Karen Mayers speaking with Paul Sullivan on Good Morning Live

News television anchor, Karen Meyers, speaks to Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command, Vice Adm. Paul Sullivan about the NavyÕs role in the global war on terrorism.

Average News Anchor Salary


The average annual pay for news anchors range from $30,154 to $126,225.

Their earnings are affected mostly by work location and experience level. Big metropolitan areas such as New York, Chicago and Los Angeles are by far the best paying locations, all offering packages that exceed the national average. The lowest paying market is to be found in Milwaukee, where salaries are 7 percent lower than the average.

More than 50% of the United States news anchors are experienced professionals. A third of them have more than 10 years of experience, which makes their average earnings vary between $65,000 and $85,000.

What Does a News Anchor Do?

A news anchor is basically the host of a regular news broadcast. His or her job is to inform about national and international events in a professional manner. To put it simple, they present news on television in an informed, researched, but still accessible way to a general public.

News anchors are considered to be at the peak of journalist careers. Often mistaken for newscasters, who broadcasts the news in a brief manner, and also for commentators who provide analysis and even express their own opinion on the stories, news anchors are journalists committed to objectivity and have more complex tasks. They are involved in the creation and editing process of subjects and are likely to represent their networks as public figures.

The most challenging aspect of a news anchor’s job is covering stories and events as they happen, following updates and selecting key-facts to effectively engage their audience.

News Anchors Assets:

  • Charisma takes first place as their success depends on their audience rating.
  • Education – regardless of the degree news anchor have, they are required to have strong analysis and research skills in order to provide well-informed and top quality information.
  • Communication skills – writing skills are important as they often write their own scripts, but the essential ability news anchors need is great verbal communication.
  • Social Media Skills – most of news anchors act as the public face of the network they work for. That is why being present on social media is a major asset.

Summary of News Anchors’ Tasks

Typical duties of a news anchor include:

  • Present live or pre-recorded news happening worldwide;
  • Introduce stories from reporters and correspondents;
  • Research topics assigned to them by a news director or editor-in-chief;
  • Develop new topics and stories;
  • Write their own scripts by analyzing, interpreting and organizing information;
  • Cover events and stories in real time;
  • Update stories if new information comes up;
  • Interview people who can provide valuable information, expertise or opinion about a story;
  • Develop relations with specialists from various fields;
  • Use social media to cover live stories, and engage audience by keeping readers and viewers informed and entertained;
  • Analyze their audience in order to increase rating.

Benefits, Bonuses, Profit Sharing

News anchors can boost their income by means of bonuses and profit sharing. These vary depending on performance. The best scenarios show that the total annual income of a news anchor can incorporate bonuses of $15,000 and close to $50,000 from profit sharing.

Among other benefits, the majority of news anchors get medical coverage and dental insurance as well.

Best Paid News Anchors According to Each Network as for 2014

No wonder being a news anchor offers high levels of satisfaction when there is the potential of a total income of $20 million per year.

Are you curious about who are the highest paid news broadcasters in the US today? According to the TV Guide annual list of best paid TV personalities, hosts from MSNBC, Fox News, CBS and CNN earn millions of dollars.

Have a look at their names, associated network and pay rates, but first take a deep breath, the figures are dazzling!


News Anchor News Broadcast Total Annual Earnings
1.      Matt Lauer NBC, The Today Show $22–25 million
2.      Bill O’Reilly Fox News, The O’Reilly Factor $18 million
3.      Robin Roberts Good Morning America $14 million
4.      Brian Williams, NBC Nightly News $13 million
5.      Anderson Cooper, CNN, Anderson Cooper 360 $11 million
6.      Shepard Smith, Fox News, Shepard Smith Reporting $10 million
7.      George Stephanopoulos GMA , This Week $9 million
8.      Rachel Maddow MSNBC, The Rachel Maddow Show $7 million
9.      Scott Pelley CBS Evening News, 60 Minutes $7 million
10.  Bret Baier Fox News, Special Report With Bret Baier $6 million
11.  Maria Bartiromo Fox Business $6 million
12.  Katie Couric Yahoo! News $6 million
13.  Megyn Kelly Fox News, The Kelly File $6 million
14.   David Muir, ABC World News, 20/20 $5 million
15.  David Gregory NBC News, Meet the Press $4 million

Job Prospects & Requirements

If you consider entering the field this might not be the right moment as job prospects for news anchors in the next 7 years are not promising. The US Bureau of Labor Statistic anticipates a decline of 13 percent concerning the jobs for reporters, correspondents and news analysts in general.

The employment growth for this occupation is mostly affected by the fact that the majority of news anchors in the US are experienced professionals, leaving little room for entry-level applications.

However, if you decide to start building a career in television broadcasting, please note that competition is stronger in metropolitan areas, where pay rates are higher, and employers prefer applicants with previous work experience. Even if you don’t have a degree in Journalism, they might be interested in potential specialists in fields such as Politics, English, Web design or Multimedia Production.

Quick Job Facts


Average News Anchor Salary

 $55,757 Entry Level Average Salary (0-5 years experience)$41,000 Mid-career Average Salary (5-10 years)$57,000 Experienced Average Salary (10 – 20 years)$65,000 Late Career Average Salary (20 years+ experience)$85,000 Education Required

 Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism and Communications or any related subject

  Job Experience Required

 Internships and previous work experience represent an advantage Work Environment

 Television Broadcasting Best Paying Locations

 New York, L.A., Chicago   

Worse Paying Location

 Milwaukee Job Outlook 2012-2022Expected to decline or to show little difference in the next 7 years  Work HoursFull-time, meeting dead-lines, working nights and weekendsHighest Paid News Anchor Salary in the US$22–25 million (Matt Lauer, NBC, Today)

Note: Information on salaries from this article is based on data provided by 781 reporting individuals to a salary survey created by Pay Scale in May 2015.

Image Source: wikimedia

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Carnivorous, omnivorous or simply herbivorous, turtles have a diverse diet and their eating habits are strongly connected to their habitat. As there are more than 300 species spread all over the world, you can imagine that their feeding preferences vary depending on their type too.

The environment they live in, from oceans to deserts, from Eastern woods to Western lakes, though, is by far the most important aspect that influences their feeding behaviour.

Many people are considering turtles as pets but their knowledge is limited on their behaviour and needs. So this beckons the question, what do turtles eat? In the following article we will discuss what turtles eat by taking a closer look at species-specific preferences and habitat influences.

What do sea turtles feed on?

To begin with, sea turtles, which live in every ocean of the world, love soft food. Therefore, their diet consists of soft aquatic life like algae, and includes jellyfish and sponges. Some of them, though, feed on shellfish too, but this has been observed only in the case of turtles with strong jaws. Sea turtles are of seven kinds: leatherback sea turtlesgreen sea turtlesloggerhead sea turtlesKemp’s ridley sea turtleshawksbill sea turtlesflatback sea turtles and olive ridley sea turtles.

Among these, there are some pure herbivores. Green sea turtles are the ones which like to munch on veggies.  As a fact, leatherback sea turtles eat only jellyfish, while snapping turtles are a species of fresh water turtles which feed on small fish and crickets.

What do turtles eat? Turtle swimming in the ocean

Hawksbill Sea Turtle

Hawksbill sea turtles are a special kind. They are ‘spongivores’, which means their diet is composed mainly by sea sponges. According to the MarineBio Conservation Society, these are quite selective when it comes to their feeding preferences, choosing only certain types of sponges, which otherwise can be toxic to other animals. Apart from this, they also eat comb jellies, algae, mollusks and sea anemones.  Sadly, they are a critically endangered species.

Another endangered species is the Eastern Mud Turtle which lives in ponds and freshwater habitats. Commonly found in US, species of mud turtles are the greatest in number in Mexico. All of them are carnivorous, preferring fish as a feast. Yellow mud turtles, though, are into a balanced diet, feeding on vegetation as well.

Sea turtles are known as the heaviest, some reaching almost 2000 pounds. Alligator turtles are among these. They usually fancy live food, but as they are almost entirely carnivorous, they rely on dead organisms as well. Their diet typically includes fish, but they can also eat snakes, worms, water birds and even other turtles (!).

As regards small turtles, there is a species known as the common musk turtle, which is also carnivorous. They eat aquatic invertebrates like worms, and fish.

Among the omnivorous species of sea turtles there are the loggerheads. These have incredible powerful jaws, which help them crush their prey. Their diet is one of the most diverse: they eat sponges, corals, sea cucumbers, jellyfish, mollusks, flying fish and even squid.

The still waters of ponds, lakes, streams or rivers are preferred by softshell turtles, which feed on fish, insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. Among other river turtles, there are the yellow-spotter turtles. These are omnivorous, eating fruit and weeds aside fish and invertebrates.

The painted turtles are worth mentioning as well. Known as the ‘sun turtle’ because they love sun baths, they like to hunt along water bottoms (what a paradox!). They eat both plants and fish, and have nothing against dead animals. Knowing these facts one would be inclined to answer the questions what do turtles eat with everything. But, as you can see, each turtle species has very specific feeding habits. Let’s take a closer look at them.

What about terrestrial turtles’ feeding preferences?

Changing the habitat, terrestrial turtles are of many types as well. Some of the most commonly known are the ornate turtles, also called box turtles. As regards their feeding preferences, they are the least pretentious turtles. They eat everything from grasses, berries and veggies to insects, caterpillars and earthworms.

What do turtles eat? Pet turtle

Florida Box Turtle

Among the herbivorous terrestrial scavengers, there are the Gopher turtles too. Their diet consists of a very wide range of greens, from grass to veggies like mushrooms, or fruit such as apples and berries.

Aquatic and land turtles can have weird tastes when it comes to food as both types have subspecies that eat carrion (dead fish, decaying matter).

Another important criterion for turtles when it comes to eating habits is their age. Leaving the map argument aside, their feeding behavior varies and even changes as they grow up. Adult turtles like to munch on aquatic plants as well as on insects, worms and snails, while young turtles are almost entirely carnivorous, which means that proteins are essential for their growth, just like for humans. What is interesting to notice is that gradually, as they reach maturity, they change their habits. What was once a carnivorous baby turtle, it may become an omnivorous mature one.

Their size matters too when it comes to food. Large turtles are typically carnivorous, but there are also some small freshwater species known as mainly meat eaters.

What do pet turtles eat?

Do you like turtles and consider buying one as a pet? In this case you probably wonder what turtles eat in captivity and how you can treat them depending on their species.

First, you can keep freshwater turtles and small terrestrial ones as pets. But you should take notice that captive turtles have different diets according to their species, age and typical environment, just how wild turtles do. So, as previously mentioned, the essential aspect when it comes to a turtle’s feeding behavior is its habitat. The best you can do is to make sure your pet has a proper environment where it can grow beautifully.

After buying one it is important to establish its type and age too and feed it accordingly. Are you wondering what do baby turtles eat? Well, baby turtles can be fed every day, while adult ones should be fed only 2 to 3 times a week.

As concerns the perfect diet, balance is the key. Try to mix veggies with aquatic vegetation and meat (earthworms and fish). Always ask a specialist. Boxed turtles and painted turtles, for example, have similar diets. They like eating vegetables, fruits and insects. Red-eared slider turtles, on the other hand, known among the most popular pet turtles, like to feed on raw fish and earthworms.

What do turtles eat? Turtle Diet

Red-eared slider

Just like babies, your little turtles will need vitamins and calcium for a long and healthy life. You can buy these from pet stores, where you can find a wide range of foods as well.

Finally, don’t forget to keep the tank clean. There are many turtles that love to eat under water.

We hope that this information answers the question “What do Turtles Eat?”. If you have any further inquiries we suggest that you discuss with your vet.

Picture sources: 1, 2, 3


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