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difference between paperback and mass market paperback

If you’re an avid reader, book collector, or wannabe writer, you might want to familiarize yourself with the various physical formats in which books are sold these days. You probably already know about hardback and paperback, but can you tell the difference between paperback and mass market paperback books? And why exactly are books published in all these different shapes and sizes? We have some answers, so you might want to read on.

What Is a Paperback Book?

If you enjoy reading, it's likely you've read a paperback book at some point or another. To keep things simple, if the tome didn’t have a hard cover, it was some form of paperback.

There are two different types of paperback books common in the United States - trade paperbacks and mass market paperbacks. While there are a few differences between the two, both are often referred to simply as being softcover books (to better distinguish them from hardcovers).

Trade Paperback


When looking for the difference between paperback and mass market paperback books, it all starts with quality. Trade paperbacks are the larger of softcover books. These are books that are more similar to their hardcover cousins, often about the same size. They’re cheaper to print than hardcovers but more expensive than mass market paperbacks.

The cost for consumers falls somewhere in the middle as well, at least when you're buying from one of the big names in publishing. Self-published books, on the other hand, can range in price depending on the author's preferences.

If you're an author and you want to release your book in paperback, this is the better-quality option. When working with a publisher, it's likely for the advanced reader copies (ARCs) they send out for your hardcover editions to be trade paperbacks as well. Don’t worry; it’s not all as complicated as it seems at first glance.

Trade paperback sizes vary, especially with all of the outlets for self-publishing available to ambitious writers. Createspace alone offers 15 different trade paperback book sizes, although only 12 of them are “industry standard” book sizes. The most common of these are 5.5” x 8.5” and 6” x 9”, which are also the sizes in which you'll find hardcover books. Different genres of books can have standards in size as well.

Generally speaking, a book is first released in hardcover format, with the paperback release scheduled for a few months after. Sometimes, books are released in hardcover or trade paperback at the same time. Other times, the book is only made available in softcover. It all depends on the publisher’s strategy, which the writer will be privy to prior to release. If you’re going the self-publishing route, you can come up with your own strategy. However, due to budgetary reasons, most writers who self-publish choose to only release trade paperbacks as well.

Mass Market Paperback


Now you know what a trade paperback is. So, what is a mass market paperback? And what exactly is the difference between paperback and mass market paperback?

First off, mass market paperbacks are smaller than trade paperbacks - somewhere around 4.25” x 6.87” in size. They are the compact books that are easier to handle and carry around, which makes them ideal for travel. While they can be available in bookstores, you can usually find them in the magazine aisle at grocery stores and on the racks at gas stations and airports. That’s where the name comes from – they are widely available to mass markets, so it’s easier for readers to get their hands on one. In contrast, trade paperbacks are only sold through trade retailers, like in bookstores (or in digital shops).

Mass market paperbacks travel well because of their small size. They have been referred to as pocket-editions because of their user-friendly format. The downside is that the font is smaller, which may make them harder to read. They also usually come out months after a hardcover release, but they’re also cheaper.

Few writers who self-publish choose the mass market size, preferring to stick to the many sizes offered in trade paperback books. That makes sense given budgetary constraints. As for genres, fiction and non-fiction novels are more likely to come in the traditional mass market size, while poetry and self-help books will be in trade size.

Why Are There So Many Size and Style Options?

To understand why there isn't just one type of book available, you need to consider people and their reading habits. Collectors will often go for the hardcover – it looks good on the shelves and there’s a better chance that it will stand the test of time. Often, collectors will also buy the mass market version of a book to actually read it, while the hardcover can remain in pristine condition.

When it comes to trade paperback book sizes, each genre has a different industry standard size that makes it look more like the type of book it is. For instance, self-help books are generally larger than average and boast a larger font. This allows each genre to sit more uniformly on bookstore shelves.

With print-on-demand and all of the self-publishing outlets, a lot of the standards go out of the window, especially with independent authors willing to experiment. This isn’t a big deal, since many of these writers sell their books online only or at art shows, instead of going through a traditional bookstore. This allows them to really get creative with the print versions of their books.

Difference between Paperback and Mass Market Paperback: Short Recap

Still fuzzy on how the two formats are different? Here are the cliff's notes:

  • Looks: mass market paperbacks are smaller, printed on lower-quality paper, and boast a smaller font than trade paperbacks. Pages are more likely to yellow with age and the spine will likely crack more easily. So the main difference between paperback and mass market paperback is related to looks, but each version comes with pros and cons, as you’ll see below. 
  • Availability: trade paperbacks are only available in bookstores, libraries, and through trade book dealers (including online outlets). In contrast, mass market paperbacks can be found in groceries, airports, train stations, and so on. In other words, they are more widely available and more likely to reach a bigger audience. They may even appeal to people who don’t necessarily consider themselves as readers, but find that the title or the synopsis catches their eye. 
  • Features: mass market paperbacks are easier to carry around, which means that readers can bring them along when traveling, to the beach, by the pool, and so on. They’re also considerably cheaper. 
  • Content: there's a difference between paperback and mass market paperbacks book, but that's limited to the outside. The content of the book stays the same regardless of format.  Of course, unless the mass market paperback is an abridged version, in which case that will be specified on the cover.

What Other Book Formats Are There?

Now that you know the difference between paperback and mass market paperback, you might want to dig deeper. While psychical books usually come solely in hardcover and softcover, readers can enjoy virtual books as well. You can purchase an e-book, which is an electronic version of a book, or an audiobook, which is the audio version. These can be more convenient, especially if reading is among the hobbies you are more passionate about. Let’s take them one at a time.

  • E-books

E-books are electronic versions of books, sold through digital retailers. While a lot of people define them as the digital version of a printed book, it’s important to note that some books exist solely in digital format. That’s the case with many self-published titles, since the cost of printing them is sometimes too high for indie authors to afford. 

Digital books can be read on an electronic device – this includes computers, smartphones, tablets, and e-readers. You can purchase e-books from digital retailers or even borrow them from your library, since most institutions nowadays offer users access to a dedicated app. And with services like Kindle Unlimited, readers can have access to thousands of books for a monthly subscription price.

  • Audiobooks

Audiobooks are recorded version of books. Basically, a narrator reads the story to you, which makes it more convenient to ‘read’ when doing things like driving, cleaning, walking, and so on. In other words, in situations when holding a book can be difficult, but you still want to keep your mind occupied.

Recorded books have been around for decades, but they’re enjoying quite the renaissance in the digital age. They tend to be on the pricey side, since production costs are higher, but you can get a subscription to services like Scribd to enjoy them at a more affordable price. 

Bottom Line

Knowing the difference between paperback and mass market paperback books can come in handy, especially when you’re ordering books online. If you’re browsing in a bookstore you can hold the book in your hands and figure out how big it is and how well you can read the font, but that becomes trickier when shopping via the Internet.

Either way, we hope this article helped you understand why books come in so many shapes and forms. At the end of the day, looks aren’t important. Regardless of the format you choose, you’re feeding your mind.

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Carnivorous, omnivorous, or herbivorous, turtles have a mixed diet, just like humans. They’re a diverse bunch and their eating habits are strongly connected to their habitat. As there are more than 300 species spread all over the world, you can imagine that their feeding preferences vary depending on their type too. But what do turtles eat?

Well, the environment in which they live in, from oceans to deserts, from Eastern woods to Western lakes, is by far the most important aspect that influences the animals’ feeding behavior. While many people would love to have a turtle as a pet, few really take the time to understand these creatures and make sure that both their habitat and diet are adequate. Read on as we will discuss the differences between several turtle species and take a closer look at what these fascinating reptiles like to eat.

What do sea turtles feed on?

What do turtles eat? is a complicated question, as the answer depends on a multitude of factors. Let’s take them one at a time.

To begin with, sea turtles, which live in every ocean of the world, love soft food. Therefore, their diet consists of soft aquatic life like algae and includes jellyfish and sponges. Some of them feed on shellfish too, but this has been observed only in the case of turtles with strong jaws. There are seven types of sea turtles out there: leatherback turtles, green turtles, loggerhead turtles, Kemp’s ridley turtles, hawksbill turtles, flatback turtles, and olive ridley turtles.

Among these, some are pure herbivores. Green turtles are the ones who like to munch on veggies. As a fact, leatherback turtles eat only jellyfish, while snapping turtles are a species of freshwater turtles which feed on small fish and crickets.

 

What do turtles eat? Turtle swimming in the ocean

Hawksbill Sea Turtle

Hawksbill turtles are a special kind. They are ‘spongivores’, which means their diet is composed mainly of sea sponges. According to the MarineBio Conservation Society, these turtles are quite selective when it comes to feeding preferences, choosing only certain types of sponges, which can be toxic to other animals. Apart from this, they also eat comb jellies, algae, mollusks, and sea anemones. Sadly, they are a critically endangered species.

Another endangered species is the Eastern Mud Turtle, which lives in ponds and freshwater habitats. Commonly found in the US, mud turtles are the greatest in number in Mexico. All of them are carnivorous, preferring fish. Yellow mud turtles, though, appreciate a more balanced diet, eating vegetation as well.

Leatherback turtles are known as the heaviest of the species, some able to weigh almost 2000 pounds. Alligator turtles are among these. They usually fancy live food, but as they are almost entirely carnivorous, relying on dead organisms as well. Their diet typically includes fish, but they can also eat snakes, worms, water birds and even other turtles (!). Leatherback turtles are also critically endangered.

As far as small turtles are concerned, there is a species known as the common musk turtle, which is also carnivorous. They eat aquatic invertebrates like worms, and fish. Among the omnivorous species of sea turtles there are the loggerheads. These have incredibly powerful jaws, which help them crush their prey. Their diet is diverse, so turtle food can vary: they eat sponges, corals, sea cucumbers, jellyfish, mollusks, flying fish, and even squid.

The still waters of ponds, lakes, streams or rivers are preferred by softshell turtles, which feed on fish, insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. Among other river turtles, there are the yellow-spotter turtles. These are omnivorous, eating fruit and weeds, as well as fish and invertebrates.

The painted turtles are worth mentioning as well. Known as the ‘sun turtle’ because they love sunbaths, they like to hunt along water bottoms (what a paradox!). They eat both plants and fish and have nothing against dead animals.

So what do turtles eat? As you can see, pretty much everything. Still, each turtle species has very specific feeding habits.

What about terrestrial turtles’ feeding preferences?

Changing the habitat, terrestrial turtles come in several shapes and forms, just like their water cousins. Some of the most commonly known are the ornate turtles, also called box turtles. As regards their feeding preferences, they are the least pretentious of the bunch. They eat everything from grass, berries and veggies to insects, caterpillars, and earthworms. For them, almost anything can be turtle food.

What do turtles eat? Pet turtle

Florida Box Turtle

Gopher turtles are among the herbivorous terrestrial scavengers as well. Their diet consists of a very wide range of greens, from grass to veggies like mushrooms, or fruit such as apples and berries. Aquatic and land turtles can have weird tastes when it comes to food as both types have subspecies that eat carrion (dead fish, decaying matter).

What do turtles eat: does their diet change over time?

Actually, yes. Another important factor that influences a turtle’s diet is age. Leaving the map argument aside, their feeding behavior varies and even changes as they grow up. Adult turtles like to munch on aquatic plants as well as on insects, worms and snails, while young turtles are almost entirely carnivorous.

Not surprising since proteins are essential for their growth, just like for humans. What is interesting to notice is that, gradually, as turtles reach maturity, they change their habits. What was once a carnivorous baby turtle may become an omnivorous mature one. So when asking yourself what do turtles eat, don’t forget to consider their age.

Size matters too when it comes to food. Large turtles are typically carnivorous, but there are also some small freshwater species known as mainly meat-eaters.

What do pet turtles eat?

Do you like turtles and consider buying one as a pet? In this case, you probably wonder what turtles eat in captivity and how you should feed them depending on their species.

First, you can keep freshwater turtles and small terrestrial ones as pets. But you should take notice that captive turtles have different diets according to their species, age, and typical environment, just how wild turtles do. As previously mentioned, the essential aspect when it comes to a turtle’s feeding behavior is its habitat. The best you can do is to make sure your pet has a proper environment where it can live and age in peace.

When buying a turtle, it is important to establish its type and age and feed it accordingly. Baby turtles can be fed every day, while adult ones should be fed only two to three times a week.

As for the perfect diet, balance is the key. Try to mix veggies with aquatic vegetation and meat (earthworms and fish). Always ask a specialist. Boxed turtles and painted turtles, for example, have similar diets. They like eating vegetables, fruits and insects. Red-eared slider turtles, on the other hand, known among the most popular pet turtles, like to feed on raw fish and earthworms. Check out the infographic below for more info on what do turtles eat.

What do turtles eat? Turtle Diet

Red-eared slider

Besides turtle food, your little companions will need vitamins and calcium for a long and healthy life. You can buy these from pet stores, where you can find a wide range of foods as well. Finally, don’t forget to keep the tank clean. There are many turtles that love to eat underwater.

 

 

turtles

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Turtle vs. tortoise: what is the difference?

While the terms turtle and tortoise are often used interchangeably, each belongs to a different family classification. Generally speaking, tortoises usually dwell on land, while turtles live in water environments. Both also come with different physical attributes – a tortoise is larger and has a dome-shaped shell, as well as bent legs with small feet. Meanwhile, turtles generally have flat and streamlined shells, and their feet are webbed with long claws (adapted to for swimming).

Things to know before getting a pet turtle

While turtles aren’t as cuddly as cats or dogs, they make for fascinating pets. They’ve been around for millions of years and can live a long life, as long as their owners take the time to care for them properly. You’ve already gotten the answer to What do turtles eat?, so let’s focus on other factors you should take into consideration before visiting the pet shop.

First off, turtles can make great pets for families with older children. Younger ones may forget to feed them, drop them during playtime, or forget to wash their hands after handling them. Not ideal. As you already know, there are many different species of turtles, but the ones most commonly brought as pets are box turtles and red-eared slider turtles. These are also the easiest species to care for.

Moreover, keep in mind that a turtle can live for decades. There are plenty of instances when pet turtles are passed from generation to generation within families. Also, if you’re thinking about buying one for a child, think about the fact that you might be caring or it long after that child has left for college. If you’re not ready for such a long-time responsibility, getting a turtle might not be for you.

Like most species, turtles have very specific needs. They are more low-maintenance than dogs, for instance, but they still need controlled temperatures, a large housing area with water to swim in, a varied diet, heat lamps, regular veterinary visits, and more. Additionally, they are social creatures, so getting two or three is ideal. A single turtle will get lonely, even if you give it attention on a daily basis.

Finally, remember that all turtles carry salmonella, a species of bacteria common to many reptiles. In people or other mammals like cats and dogs, the bacteria causes gastrointestinal problems. To avoid any issues, always wash your hands after handling the turtles or cleaning out their habitat.

We hope that the information above answers the question What do turtles eat? If you have any further inquiries or are ready to adopt a pet turtle, we suggest you contact a vet for more details about what you need to do before taking the leap.

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The terms dentist and orthodontist are often used interchangeably without much second thought, but they’re very different. In fact, orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry. An orthodontist deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of various afflictions of malpositioned teeth and jaws. Think overbites, misaligned teeth and jaws, or overcrowded mouths. As a result, they can earn more than your regular dentist. But can you live comfortably on an orthodontist salary? Let’s find out.

Orthodontist Salaries by the Numbers

According to various data, the median orthodontist salary in the United States of America is around $127,000 per year. When it comes to hours, the median orthodontist salary is about $61 per hour. In percentages, it appears that the lowest 10% of orthodontists have a salary of around $105,000 or less per year (which in hourly terms is around $40 per hour), whereas the top 10% of the orthodontist workforce receive an annual wage of around $180,000 or more. The middle 50% of all orthodontists in the United States earn around $104,000 and $154,000 per year, which is somewhere between $50 and $74 per hour.

Naturally, just like in any other professions, orthodontist salaries vary greatly depending on a plethora of factors, such as location of employment, type of establishment (a hospital, government, outpatient care facility, private practice or physician’s office), size of establishment, education, training and, last but not least, years of experience.

Just like many medical professionals, orthodontists have several benefits in addition to their salary, such as social security contributions, health care, 401K/403B, bonuses, pension, and paid time off.

orthodontist salary

Job Description for Orthodontist

So, what does an orthodontist do? When asked this question, most people will tell you that an orthodontist straightens crooked teeth with the help of braces. However, orthodontists do so much more than that. They also help straighten crooked jaws and install devices such as spacers and retainers. They help correct facial asymmetry, shifting jaws, chewing problems, and protruding teeth. So, if you have a snaggle-tooth you want to correct, you don’t actually need a dentist. You need an orthodontist.

In order to diagnose issues, an orthodontist uses X-rays and various plaster molds of the mouth and teeth. They don’t just look into their patient’s mouths and state that there is a problem that needs fixing. When an orthodontist feels like an issue is too much for them to solve on their own, they will work together with other dental specialists, such as dentists or dental surgeons, to come up with ways to correct issues and treat patients. Orthodontists help treat issues for patients of all ages, they don’t specialize in adults or children.

Aside from X-rays, orthodontists also use a variety of tools on the job, like drills, mouth mirrors, braces, forceps, probes, and scalpels. They wear gloves, white robes, and masks to protect their patients and themselves from infections. Orthodontists who work in private practices will, but they are not obliged, to take on additional responsibilities, such as supplies management, administration work, and bookkeeping. That being said, they often choose to hire people who are skilled to take care of the more managerial side of the business. While orthodontist salaries can be high, there’s also plenty of work involved on a day-to-day basis. Hiring help can significantly increase the chances of orthodontists developing a better work/life balance.

In order to become an orthodontist, one must attend dental school, which lasts from three to four years and then do at least two years in a residency program that is commissioned by the American Dental Association. But their education doesn’t stop there. For an orthodontist to maintain their license and be up to date on new treatments and diseases, they will need to continuously learn and familiarize themselves with new developments in the field.

Being an orthodontist is not an easy job and sometimes it can be either tedious or too challenging. But, as is the case with any other professions, there are rewards that can outweigh the negatives. And a generous orthodontist salary is only one of them. Helping people, diagnosing problems, and mastering complicated procedures can often bring more satisfaction than hard cash.

How to Become an Orthodontist

The first and most important thing to consider if you want to become an orthodontist is education. You will need at least two years of college-level pre-dental education before you can go to dental school. The majority of dentists, which include orthodontists, get a bachelor’s degree before attending dental school.

Then, you will have to take the Dental Admissions Test and have good scores to get into dental school. Once in, you will spend around three to four years doing lab work and taking classes. The last two years of dental school will include treating patients in various dental clinics.

After, you will need to complete a graduate program in orthodontics, which lasts two years. Finally, professionals in the industry have to get a license to practice as an orthodontist. In the United States, candidates are required to pass written and practical exams before they get their degree. Once you get your license, you will need to get board certified as an orthodontist and then search for a job in a practice. Or, why not, open your own. As the orthodontist salary varies by industry, it usually sky-rockets for those who have their own practice, along with a solid reputation in the field.

Orthodontist Tasks

Wondering what the tasks of an orthodontist are? Well, in short, an orthodontist will need to diagnose teeth issues, jaw abnormalities, and any other illnesses that pertain to the dental-facial area. Orthodontists also examine patients to make assessments on the development of the jaw, tooth position and other dental-facial structures.

Additionally, they fit dental appliances in the mouths of patients with the purpose of realigning teeth and altering the position and relationship of jaws and teeth in general. As you can see, there’s a lot to do in order to earn an orthodontist salary.

Orthodontist Salary by State

Here is average annual orthodontist salary by state:

Alabama $210,310North Carolina $200,910
California $165,960New Hampshire $197,770
Florida $162,850New Jersey $222,420
Georgia $215,690Nevada $215,310
Illinois $106,150New York $193,440
Indiana $123,020Ohio $209,370
Kentucky $219,690Oklahoma $188,330
Louisiana $187,460Oregon $196,650
Massachusetts $200,200Pennsylvania $216,110
Michigan $241,080South Carolina $208,060
Missouri $184,880Texas $239,510
Mississippi $190,610Washington $154,920

 

After careful examination of the table, we have gathered that the top five states for orthodontists are Michigan (an orthodontist has the average annual salary of $241,080), Texas ($239,510), New Jersey ($222,420), Kentucky ($219,690) and Pennsylvania ($216,110). If you’re looking for places with the highest orthodontist salaries, you can go wrong with any of these.

At the opposite pole, the lowest-paid orthodontists are found in California ($165,960), Florida ($162,850), Washington ($154,920), Indiana ($123,020) and Illinois ($106,150). While this is below average, it’s important to note that orthodontist salaries can ensure a comfortable living regardless of state.  

No data was available for the states of: Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Do I Have What It Takes to Become an Orthodontist?

If you’re considering a career in the field, you have to start early. As you’ve probably gathered from the info above, the road to becoming a skilled orthodontist is a long and challenging one, which involves plenty of active learning, patience, and desire to excel. The amount of schooling required is, on its own, one of the factors that make many young college students rethink their career choice.

However, working as an orthodontist can be immensely satisfying, which can be enough to help you keep your eyes on the prize during your training. After completing school, you will likely have to spend years working under professionally trained orthodontists as an assistant to learn the craft. As a result, patience is an important trait anyone trying to build a career in the industry will benefit from.

Besides, excellent bedside manner is a must, as well as a willingness to treat children and young adults, which can often be difficult. Critical thinking, active listening, connecting with patients, and a good memory are always a plus. Orthodontist salaries may be generous, but the workload is also heavy, so the ability to work long hours and cope well under stress will surely come in handy. 

Finally, if you dream of one day owning your own practice, you might want to learn the management part of the business when the time comes. This includes human resource management, billing, finance management, and more. Marketing skills are crucial as well, since you need to attract potential patients. If you have a healthy budget, however, you can hire people to take care of these things and focus on what really matters: making sure your patients are healthy and satisfied.

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Neurosurgeons are very skilled and highly trained surgeons who specialize in the treatment of medical disorders that affect the nervous system – brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Their line of work involves everything from diagnosing to treating patients who have strokes, brain infections, degenerative spinal issues, brain tumors and more. Aside from offering treatments, neurosurgeons, as their name implies, also perform surgical procedures. If you’re thinking about becoming a neurosurgeon, you’re probably wondering about how much money you’ll make. Let’s take a quick look at the average neurosurgeon salary, as well as discuss the extensive training one has to undergo to be able to perform procedures on their own.

What is the Average Neurosurgeon Salary?

Neurosurgeon salaries vary greatly based on experience and place of employment. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median pay for physicians and surgeons in 2018 was equal to or greater than $208,000 per year. However, the top 10% of all neurosurgeons in the United States can earn up to $1,229,881 a year. Keep in mind that neurosurgeons are some of the highest paid medical professionals in the country, due to their residency requirements and their extensive education.

The average neurosurgeon salary is around $355,034/year. It is a general rule that pay for neurosurgeons rises steadily for more experienced medical professionals, but eventually goes down for neurosurgeons with more than two decades of experience.
neurosurgeon salaryAlso, payment can vary based on the degree of specialization. The MGMA identified pediatric neurosurgery in a 2013 survey as being the third-highest paying surgical specialty. Back then, the average neurosurgeon salary in pediatrics was $643,188/year. The other two medical professions that earn more than pediatric neurosurgery are non-pediatric neurosurgery ($767,627 a year) and pediatric cardiovascular surgery ($762,846).

Neurosurgeon Salaries by State and City

According to PayScale, the highest paid neurosurgeons earn as much as $777,000 per year and the lowest paid neurosurgeons earn less than $116,000 every year. The top 5 best paying states for neurosurgeons are Illinois, California, New York, Texas, and Massachusetts. When it comes to the top five paying cities for neurosurgeons, things aren’t too different. These include Houston, Texas; San Francisco, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; and Seattle, Washington.

As mentioned, the average neurosurgeon salary depends on geographical location and can vary from state to state. For example, Illinois is one of the best–paying states for neurosurgeons. A medical professional in Illinois will make between $140,000 and $713,157 a year. Those in New York will earn salaries that range from $96,958 to $695,305 annually and neurosurgeons in Massachusetts will earn between $182,968 and $670,195 a year in general.

Neurosurgeons based in Texas make between $196,527 and $406,946 a year, while those in Florida are paid between $60,402 and $695,305 annually. Neurosurgeons employed in North Carolina earn annual salaries in the range from $97,211 to $407,241 a year and those in California earn between $73,404 and $612,772 annually.

The salary of a neurosurgeon also varies from city to city. For example, neurosurgeons who work in Miami will make between $225,000 and $466,847 every year, and those who are employed in Chicago will earn between $127,743 and $691,808 a year. Neurosurgeons based in New York can earn anywhere from $98,633 to $685,100 a year and those in Boston are paid between $182,968 and $670,195 a year. Neurosurgeons from Los Angeles report an income ranging from $245,659 to $508,682.

Infograf_What is the Neurosurgeon Salary

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Starting Pay for Neurosurgeons

The average salary for an entry-level neurosurgeon with less than one year of professional experience ranges from $60,000 to $305,209 per year, including profit sharing and bonuses. These bonuses amass to around $17,500 every year.

Benefits

Wondering about the salary perks mostly associated with neurosurgery? They include, but are not limited to 401k plans, liability and malpractice insurance, as well as paid vacations and holidays. Yearly bonuses are also generally a given in this line of work.

The benefits packages can reflect the annual salaries of neurosurgeons. Neurosurgeons who receive a 401k match earn typically between $81,500 and $684,886 every year. Those who get paid vacations and holidays earn between $88,000 to $680,000 per year. And, those who have liability or malpractice insurance earn salaries that range between $102,129 to $693,662 annually.

Medical professionals who have life and disability insurance as part of their benefits have salaries ranging between $67,500 and $647,519 per year. Neurosurgeons who get paid sick leave are given wages between $48,430 and $659,314 a year, and those who have private medical insurance earn salaries in the range from $147,949 to $689,298.

What is a Neurosurgeon’s Job Description?

You may wonder what neurosurgeons actually do? As mentioned at the beginning of our article, a neurosurgeon is a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of neurological conditions. For a doctor to be called a neurosurgeon, they must be board certified. In general, a neurosurgeon’s job description involves working as part of a team of specialized doctors in health care facilities and in hospitals. Neurosurgeons will also teach medical students and are expected to oversee medical residents (this happens mostly if the neurosurgeon works in a teaching hospital).

Neurosurgeons are also required to evaluate patients that might or might not have neurological conditions and need to be able to make a positive or negative diagnosis and administer treatment when the situation requires. This means that if surgical procedures are needed, the neurosurgeon needs to perform them personally.

A neurosurgeon will more often than not interact with their patients regularly. This is vital in making a diagnosis and establishing a course of treatment. It is also the neurosurgeon’s job to keep the patient informed about the course of their disease and treatment.

Tasks of a Neurosurgeon

  • Track and document diagnoses, medications, treatments, and various other health data.
  • Talk about outcomes and various courses of actions with patients and also assist them in deciding what to choose.
  • Perform surgical procedures, for treatment and exploratory.
  • Supervise residents and teach medical students.
  • Evaluate test results, interview patients and diagnose conditions.

How Does One Become a Neurosurgeon?

Neurosurgeons have to graduate four years of medical school, then undergo a general surgery internship. Once that’s done, the medical professional will enter a neurosurgical residency program. These last about seven years and involve extensive training that covers everything from trauma to pediatrics to vascular surgery. As a result, the overall training can last about 15 years – after which the neurosurgeon will be able to perform procedures on their own. Once established, the neurosurgeon can take the American Board of Neurological Surgery examination to receive board certification.

Do I Have What It Takes to Become a Neurosurgeon?

If the extensive training doesn’t scare you, you’re already on the right track. The work is very high-pressure and demanding, so you need to have a lot of ambition and perseverance. Neurosurgeons work irregular, long hours, and are often required to travel to care for different patients. The ability to cope well under stress is a must.

Additionally, a desire to learn is mandatory. A neurosurgeon’s education is never over – there are always new treatments and procedures in development. To be on top of your game, you will need to keep up with advancements in the medical field.

Finally, the work involves dealing with patients. You need plenty of empathy and patience, as well as an excellent bedside manner. Regardless of what binge-watching House M.D. may have taught you, treating patients with respect is a must for any medical professional.

Bottom Line

Neurosurgeons undergo extensive training and work long hours in a high-pressure environment, often to the detriment of their personal lives. As a result, the average neurosurgeon salary is high enough to ensure proper compensation. While things may not look particularly bright immediately after graduating from medical school, once the medical professional has some years of experience under their belt, the money will follow.

Image Source: Toliannews

Asking a historian who invented the microscope might seem like a straightforward question. It might seem that way, but the true story of its invention is a lot more convoluted than you might think. Because when the first microscopes appeared sometime around 1590, they were marvels of science to be sure.

But the significance of the discovery was almost certainly lost on its creators. Few understood just how much of the world hid from us. A grain of sand, the width of a human hair, the often scratched flea; all existed at the fringe of perception. Before 1590, anything smaller than 0.1mm was effectively invisible.

Great thinkers throughout the ages debated the possibility of life beyond the limits of human understanding, but that is all they were; debates, theories, and clever arguments circulating among the learned people of the world. Mostly, such views attracted nothing but scorn and contempt.

The microscope changed all that. The person who invented the microscope changed the world.

Knowing the Know

A nurse using an microscope

​Via: ​Pixabay

But who invented the microscope? The short answer is that nobody really knows for sure. The long answer is that there is more than one contender with a strong claim.

Trying to decide which claim is strongest is far from an easy task. Fortunately, with several years of teaching social science under my belt, researching the question should be second nature. Filled with an optimism bred from long, lonely hours reviewing old, dusty history books, I set out to uncover the truth.

Optical intrusion

Few inventions exist in isolation from one another. The concept of magnification was understood centuries before the question of who invented the microscope had any meaning. In 1267, Roger Bacon, an English philosopher, noted that:

"Objects are greater when the vision is refracted… Very large objects may seem to be very small and conversely, and those at a great distance away may seem very near.”

Such an observation was not all that unusual. Even our earliest ancestors must have noticed the way light tends to distort when it passes through water.

By 750 BCE, lenses made out of polished crystals or quartz were being crafted across Mesopotamia. Used primarily to start fires, these new tools soon spread across the ancient world.

Glassblowing arrived several hundred years later thanks to Syrian artisans. Neighboring civilizations such as the Greek and Roman Empires soon adapted the technology, creating lenses with sufficient strength to aid with reading.

Although simple affairs -- no more than a glass sphere filled with water -- they were cheap enough to see widespread use.

Lens flare

But the functionality of these "reading stones," was inadequate. The use of substandard glass notwithstanding, a globe filled with water is at best a cumbersome and imprecise tool.

It's little wonder that the Roman Emperor Claudius Nero chose to correct his shortsightedness with a concave emerald instead.

By the late 13th century, not long after Bacon began to explore the science of optics, the first spectacles started to appear in northern Italy. Again, the technology spread far and wide, and by the onset of the Early Modern Period, Holland had established itself as the spectacle-making capital of the world.

So, Who Invented the Microscope?

Woman looking her test subject using microscope

​Via Pixabay

It’s no surprise then that asking who invented the microscope takes us to the Netherlands. It was here in 1590, in the Zeeland Capital of Middelburg, that one of three likely contenders crafted an object that was set to change the world.

Zacharias Janssen

Zacharias Janssen was born in the Hague between 1580 and 1585 but grew up with his sister Sara in Middelberg, the Netherlands’ second most important city.

How exactly it was that young Zacharias found himself involved in the making of spectacles is unknown. Optics was at the time a very secretive trade and what little records remain relating to Janssen’s father suggests he was a lowly peddler.

Regardless, in 1655, Dutch ambassador William Boreel set himself the task of discovering who invented the microscope. The instrument had by this point transitioned from mere novelty to a serious tool of scientific inquiry.

Boreel recalled that in 1610, he met a man from Middleburg claiming to have created the very first scope. He never gave his name though or at least, Boreel couldn't recall one if he ever did. Using the power fo his office, the Dutch ambassador instructed a local magistrate to begin an investigation.

As word spread, a spectacle maker by the name of Johannes Zachariassen came forward to press the claim. According to Johannes, it was his father, Zacarias, who invented the microscope as well as the telescope in 1590.

Hans Martens

Boreel was, for the most part, satisfied. At the time of the investigation, Zacarias was already 22 years in the grave and the memory of the chance encounter, 45 years in the past. Still, there were some who were less convinced that Zacarias had managed so stupendous a feat.

His age told against him for a start. Local records suggested a birthdate of 1580, but other dates given included 1585 and 1588. Such discrepancies were not uncommon during an age where record keeping was spotty and illiteracy rates high.

Still, his date of birth suggested that he was at best, 10 or 11 years old at the time he is said to have invented the microscope.

It is for this reason that many suggest that Zacarias’ father, Hans, either created or at the very least helped his son create the microscope.

One thing remained clear: the Janssens certainly were involved in the production of lenses with details of a 1595 Janssen microscope a matter of historical record. Indeed, the father-son duos would be unchallengeable if not for one slightly awkward fact.

They had a rather famous next door neighbor.

Hans Lippershey

Hans Lippershey was born in Wessel, Germany but like the Jansenns, he settled in Middelburg relatively early in his life. Setting himself up as a spectacle maker, it wasn’t until 1608 that he submitted a patent to the Dutch States General for an item he called a kijker or looker. We call it a telescope these days.

They denied his application. The device was, by this time, no secret and, consisting as it did of a single tube with two lenses at either end, it was reasonably easy to copy. Still, Lippershey received a sum of money for his work upon the requirement that he modify the device into a binocular arrangement.

In the absence of any evidence suggesting that Lippershey stole the design of the telescope from the Jansens, most historians are happy to credit him with its invention.

As to the question of who invented the microscope, the jury is still out.

Hooke, Line...

Early 16th century microscopes were marvels of modern technology when it came to contemporary onlookers, but they were nevertheless incredibly crude instruments. They typically consisted of three tubes fitted with a bi-convex lens at one end and a plano-convex at the other.

Magnifications of between 3x and 10x were possible using this device.

In 1665, Robert Hooke published Micrographia. Magnificently illustrated, the book cataloged a series of observations that he had made while following the development and improvement of the microscope.

His detailed drawings of a bee’s stinger, fly eyes, fleas, and mollusk tongues made the book an instant best-seller. But the most significant scientific contribution stemmed from his observation of cell structure.

Indeed, Hooke coined the phrase "cell" after observing walls surrounding empty spaces in the structure of cork.

...and sinker

Incremental improvements undoubtedly occurred, but it was another Dutchmen, by the name of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who took things to the next level.

His design featured a single spherical lens capable of magnifications of up to 500x. Using such a device allowed him to observe, for the first time in human history, bacteria. The year was 1683.

In keeping with the age’s paranoid obsession with scientific advantage, however, Leeuwenhoek refused to share the secret of his design. Over 100 years would pass before anyone observed bacteria again.

Germaphobia

Model of a bacteria

​Via Pixabay

The pause was something of a pity really because, as we now know, bacteria is responsible for much human misery.

Today. Germ theory states that microorganisms can cause disease. These organisms, known as pathogens, can take many forms. Protists, bacteria, fungi, and viruses, all can invade a host and cause infection.

Mama miasma

The idea that tiny organisms caused sickness was first proposed in 1546 by the Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro.

To say that his theory was not well received is something of an understatement. The perceived wisdom of the times dictated that illness stemmed from breathing in poisonous vapors known as miasma.

It made a certain sense; decaying matter certainly smelled foul enough. The unsanitary conditions of the era were also a contributing factor in the spread of disease. But they were not the direct cause of illness.

In 1762, another Italian physician, Marcus von Plenciz, attempted to revive the Germ hypothesis. Thanks in part to Leeuwenhoek’s stubborn refusal to share the secret of making high powered microscopes, however, Plenciz couldn't offer any proof. His speculation failed to change the consensus that disease sprang from miasma.

But the early 19th century ushered in one of the first genuinely effective medical treatments. Smallpox vaccinations, thanks to the work of Edward Jenner, brought a once dreaded illness to its knees.

By infecting a healthy specimen with the bovine version of the disease, knowns as Cowpox, the patient became immune from Smallpox. Alas, doctors knew only that vaccination worked; they had no idea how.

Nor were they able to replicate their success against other illnesses.

Worlds Within Worlds

Although Louis Pasteur is probably the most famous microbiologist of all time, it was fellow scientist, Robert Koch who helped codify bacteriology.

Via careful experimentation, Koch was able to demonstrate that the bacterium Bacillus anthracis caused anthrax. His findings put an end to miasma theory once and for all.

Although improvements in optical instruments, continued, the 20th century also brought in fresh innovations. In 1903, German Chemist Richard Zsigmondy created the ultramicroscope, allowing scientist to view specimens below the wavelength of light for the first time.

The electron microscope arrived later. It was developed by Ernst Ruska, in 1938, after he realized that using electrons in microscopy could enhance resolution.

Macroscopic

black and white photo of adult using a microscope

​Via Pixabay

Today, the microscope remains a valuable tool. Forensic scientists examine the casings of bullets, physicians check bloodwork for telltale pathogens, and electron microscopes image virus strains both old and new.

In schools, students observe the cell structures of plants just as Hooke once did. And all over the world, objects as small as 0.2 microns come into the sharpest of focus.

Without the humble microscope, even the simplest of medical tests would be impossible. Without its clarity, we'd still be at the mercy of uncountable diseases.

So perhaps it doesn’t matter who invented the microscope. It’s enough to be thankful that somebody did. Who do you think has the most credible claim? Share your thoughts in the comments.

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lil wayne net worth

A successful American artist, rapper, producer, and music executive, Lil Wayne rarely shies away from the spotlight. Whether he’s performing live, collaborating with fellow musicians, or opening up about his health struggles, the rapper knows how to keep the public informed and entertained. Moreover, he has been in the public’s eye for more than a decade, which means that he had plenty of time to build his fortune. If you’re interested in learning more about the Lil Wayne net worth, you’re in the right place. Read on as we take you through the rapper’s tumultuous career and give you the inside scoop on how he made his money.

Lil Wayne: Early Life

Lil Wayne grew up in one of the most impoverished neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana, which makes his spectacular rise to fame that much more impressive. His real name is Dwayne Michael Carter Jr – but whether you call him Weezy F. Baby, Mr. Carter, or Lil Wayne, you have to admit that the artist managed to make a name for himself at a pretty early age. He wrote his first rap tune at age 8 and dropped out of school at 14 to focus on advancing his music career.

The young rapper was influenced by artists from Cash Money Records such as U.N.L.V. and Pimp Daddy and he started rapping at block parties. His performances caught the eye of a rapper called Lil Slim. Through him, Wayne met with the big shots at Cash Money Records, Ronald “Slim” Williams and Brian “Baby” Williams. Even though the two were quite impressed by Wayne’s style, he didn’t sign any contracts with the record company until he started to leave freestyle rap recordings on “Baby’s” answering machine.

Lil Wayne’s career started when he signed a contract with the record label at the age of 11, which made him the youngest rapper in the record company. Unfortunately, shortly after, Lil Wayne had an accident that almost cost him his life. He shot himself in the chest with the gun of his stepfather, which forced him to go on life support for two weeks.

After he recovered, Lil Wayne had his first gig and was grouped with another newcomer by the name of Lil’ Doggie. After releasing a failing album in 1995 and following the death of his stepfather in 1997, the rapper was given another chance to record an album with Baby. It was then that he formed the group The Hot Boys. He also debuted Block is Hot, a solo album that reached number 3 in the Billboard charts and went platinum.

His next two albums were not received as warmly. 500 Degreez was supposed to beat the sales of Juvenile’s multi-platinum album called 400 Degreez. The sales of Wayne’s album, however, were very disappointing. He sold only 900,000 copies worldwide and 536,000 in the United States.

Lil Wayne: Finding Success

One can’t utter the phrase Lil Wayne net worth without mentioning the artist’s many accomplishments. Despite numerous controversies and drawbacks, the rapper moved forward and eventually found his way back into the limelight. His fourth and fifth albums, Tha Carter and Tha Carter II, came as proof that the rapper finally found his style. He became the president of the record company Cash Money Records and founded an imprint called Young Money Entertainment in 2005.

For Tha Carter III (his sixth album released in 2008), the rapper was nominated for eight Grammy’s. He won four awards. Next, Lil Wayne released his first rock album called Rebirth in 2010 and was named by MTV as the second hottest MC behind Jay-Z. His album I Am Not a Human Being launched in the same year as Rebirth and earned the artist plenty of praise from fans and critics alike.

In 2009, Lil Wayne’s documentary The Carter was screened at the Sundance Film Festival. It documents Carter’s endeavors prior and immediately after the release of Tha Carter III. The doco earned plenty of praise from critics, who called it provocative and revealing. Another album, Tha Carter IV, was released in 2011.

Lil Wayne was hospitalized for seizures before the launch of his album I Am Not a Human Being II. There was plenty of speculation that the rapper was on drugs, but he later revealed that he has epilepsy and has kept with health condition private up to that point. The rapper continued to achieve massive success with his subsequent releases – Free Weezy Album and Tha Carter V.

Lil Wayne Net Worth: How Vast Is His Fortune?

Google Lil Wayne Net Worth and you’ll stumble upon several conflicting numbers. The best estimate, however, as of 2019 at least, is $120 million. Thanks to his successful music career, the bulk of the rapper’s fortune comes from album sales and tours. He also wrote a memoir, released in 2016, that focuses mainly on his experiences in prison. Lil Wayne flirted with entrepreneurship as well – he has a clothing line and he founded a record label, Young Money Entertainment. Plus, he collaborated with plenty of other artists throughout his career – colabs which certainly boosted the Lil Wayne net worth.

Lil Wayne: Personal Life

The rapper’s childhood wasn’t a particularly happy one. His mother had him when she was 19 and his father abandoned the family two years after. Lil Wayne’s stepfather Rabbit was murdered before Carter became a star. He revealed that he decided to drop the D from his given name when coming up with a stage name because he is named after his father. The artist isn’t willing to pay tribute to him in any way.

Lil Wayne has four children. The first one was born when he was only 16, to his high school sweetheart. The two got married but divorced shortly after. His other children were born to radio broadcaster Sarah Vivan, actress Lauren London, and singer Nivea. The rapper was arrested multiple times and served a one-year sentence in Rikers Island on weapons charges.

Lil Wayne: The Future

Lil Wayne hinted that he would like to retire at 35, but that doesn’t seem to be in the cards just yet. The Carter V was a massive success, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time. He’s also one of the richest rappers in the world, has a lucrative liquor deal with a rum label, is touring with Blink 182, and is working on a new album titled Funeral. While some are in awe of his success, others call him self-destructive. Whatever might be the case, you have to admit that the rapper’s work ethic is exemplary. He wouldn’t be where he is now without tons of hard work.

Image source: pitchfork.com

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Dogs have been a part of battles and war since ancient times. These animals have been used in wars by people of ancient Rome, Egypt, Persia, and Greece. Their skills of tracking, smelling and their scouting capabilities have made them a crucial part of armies. The United States military has also adapted to this technique and dogs are now officially enrolled and trained for combats. Dogs from different breeds are trained for specific purposes and are always efficient at their duties.

In the earlier centuries, dogs were trained to target the enemy. Examples include strapping the dogs and training them to run under enemy tanks, pouncing on the enemy and killing them, etc. However, the training didn’t really prove beneficial to these purposes. Soon the idea was abandoned and since then, dogs are used for purposes other than a direct attack on the enemy.

Chips – The American War Dog

dog

Image Source: Flickr

Chips was a sentry dog who was trained to be a part of the U.S. Army during the World War II. The dog was donated by a private owner to the U.S. Army during the war time. After the training, Chip went on to serve as a military dog in France, Sicily, North Africa, Italy, and Germany. During his time in Italy, Chips pounced on a group of Italian soldiers who were targeting Chips and his owner using machine guns.

Chips was injured during this incident but four of the gunners were forced to surrender thanks to the dog.

In order to honor Chips for his bravery, the dog was presented with the following military awards:

  • 1
    Purple Heart: This award is presented in the President’s name to American soldiers who are injured severely or are killed on the battlefield during a war. The Purple Heart is the first military award of the United States Army.
  • 2
    Silver Star: This is a special medal which is presented to American soldiers who show outrageous courage and bravery on the battlefield. The Silver Star Medal is one of the highest medals that is rewarded to soldiers for displaying exceptional courage in combats.
  • 3
    Distinguished Service Cross: This is the second highest military awarded that an American soldier can receive. This medal is given to those who are extremely courageous and risk their lives during an armed battle. Although Chips well deserved these awards, they were revoked due to a policy that terminated commendation of war dogs. However, in 2018, Chips' bravery was acknowledged and he was awarded the PDSA Dickin Medal. This medal is similar to the Victoria Cross medal but is specifically reserved for military animals. This medal is awarded to animals who show courage and bravery during war time.

Sergeant Stubby

What is the highest military rank achieved by a dog? Sergeant Stubby is the one who is known for being the first ever officially promoted animal Sergeant. This dog was the heroic military animal who served alongside the American Army during World War I. This brave canine holds the title for being the only dog ever to be nominated and also elected as a Sergeant. Stubby has participated in a total of seventeen battles in the Western Front. The Western Front was the most crucial place during the World War I where many major events occurred. Sergeant Stubby had even helped in capturing a German soldier by holding him still until the American soldiers arrived. The dog was able to sniff out gas bombs and could easily track down injured American soldiers, saving many lives in the process.

cute dog

Image Source: Flickr

Stubby was also known for his 18 months long brave participation in the Trenches of France alongside the 102nd Infantry Regiment. During his days in the battlefields, Sergeant Stubby was injured a lot and had many wounds.

After the war, Stubby led many parades in America and met three U.S. Presidents as well. After the dog’s death, he was preserved and is still on display at the Smithsonian Institution.

Canines in Modern Warfare

a military veteran and a canine

Image Source: Pixabay

Dogs are now a crucial part of armies as they are efficient in sniffing out drugs, explosives, and even people. In some ways, dogs are also trained to attack the enemy. Military dogs start training usually at the age of 1.5 years and are familiarized with their handler from the beginning itself.

The safety of military dogs is highly prioritized and any mistreatment leads to serious consequences on the handler or anyone who is guilty of the action. The United States Army Department and many other Militaries around the world now have established dog training camps. The U.S. Army even has a puppy development program that prepares newborn puppies for their duties in the near future.

Just like Chips and Sergeant Stubby, many courageous dogs have been a part of armies all around the world.

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Original Name of the Big Mac?

 

Ahhh, McDonald’s.

McDonald’s is part of the American landscape. It can be seen on every corner and is trusted to satisfy your most profound cravings.

Almost everyone has a deep treasure trove full of memories of chicken nuggets, perfectly salted fries, and Ronald McDonald.

As children we would beg our parents to skip the dinner at home and instead head over to McDonalds for a Happy Meal. Hidden inside would be a prize. A toy we could add to our growing collection. The ultimate victory of our childhood minds.

Behind the McDonald name lies a long history and a tale of how even the poorest and least known people can build a legacy that can become part of the fabric of what it means to be an American in the land of opportunity.

Part of the legacy is the classic hamburger that holds the number one spot on McDonald’s list of menu options, the Big Mac.

How did the Big Mac become the Big Mac?

Below we dive into the history of the McDonald legacy and the story behind its signature burger. We’ll also answer the question –

What was the original name of the Big Mac?

 

The History Behind Those Golden Arches

 

In the late 1930s, the McDonald brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonald, made a move from Manchester, New Hampshire to Hollywood, California.

At first, the brothers worked as stage movers and handymen in the Motion-Pictures Studios but later began working with their father, Patrick.

Patrick had opened the food stand, the Airdrome, where he sold hot dogs. They later added hamburgers and orange juice. Eventually the menu expanded to 25 items, mostly barbeque items, and the now restaurant branded McDonald’s Bar-b-que.

After the brothers realized that most of their profit came from hamburgers, the brothers simplified the menu to include hamburgers, cheeseburgers, and later, fries and milkshakes.

They eliminated their drive-in and replace it with an assembly line-based self-service operation. The named was simplified to match the new mindset of maximum efficiency becoming “McDonalds”.

By the early-1950s the brothers needed a new space and hired a designer to help them design a restaurant that would maximum on both efficiency and effective marketing.

The golden arches were added to this design, along with white-and-red tiles and signature cone-shaped cups for drinks to force the customers to hold their cups. This would speed up the eating process move the restaurant from being a sit-down to a fast-food restaurant.

With this design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchising. They met Ray Kroc in 1954, who quickly bought the rights to set up franchises all over the country.

Recognizing the power of investing in advertising, Kroc paid for the slogan “Look for the Golden Arches” with the Golden Arch logo becoming official in 1962 and Ronald McDonald was added to its marketing in 1963.

The Filet-O-Fish made its debut in 1962, quickly becoming a signature and the Big Mac made its national debut in 1968.

 

The Making of the Big Mac

 

The Big Mac had its beginning in the Philadelphia area in Pennsylvania, where it debuted in 1967.

The Big Mac was created by the franchisee, Jim Delligatti. Delligatti was an early Ray Kroc franchisee who had several restaurants in operation in the Pittsburgh area.

The Big Mac was originally created to compete with the Big Boy hamburger, a signature burger made by a local McDonald’s competitor in Pittsburgh.

So, what was the original name of the Big Mac?

It had two prior names before getting its current name, Big Mac, created by the 21-year-old advertising secretary, Esther Glickstein Rose.

The first was The Aristocrat, which was eventually dropped because customers found it difficult to pronounce the name.

The second name was the Blue Ribbon Burger (arguably worse than the first).

The third time was the charm and Ms. Rose gave us the signature Big Mac name.

 

The Big Mac Legacy

 


Often being served as part of a combination meal, the Big Mac is often used as a symbol of American capitalism.

It has even been used to determine the standard of living in other countries.

This Big Mac Index is also known as Burgernomics.

The Big Mac is made with two beef patties, its signature “special sauce”, American cheese, iceberg lettuce, pickles, onions, and a three-part sesame bun.

The recipe for its “special sauce” is actually not that secret anymore being easily accessible online. At its core, it’s a variation of Thousand Island dressing.

What was the original name of the Big Mac?

Turns out that maybe its original name was more of a foreshadowing as the Big Mac has certainly become The Aristocrat among burgers worldwide.

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What Was the First American College to Become Coeducational?


Coeducation has been part of societal debate for centuries. In ancient civilizations women did not have many rights and as such were thought to not need an education.

While women were given more opportunities to be educated during the medieval and Renaissance periods, the predominant view still remained that education was harmful for women and even unnecessary.

The 19th century brought about the view that women should be allowed to be educated as the principle caretakers of children in the United States. The push for women’s rights further advanced the view that women indeed had the same right to an education as men.

Progressive institutions eventually allowed for women to be educated alongside men in institutions of higher learning.

But, what was the first institution in America to become coeducational?

Let’s take a brief dive into the history of coeducation in America and abroad.

 

History of Mixed-Education in America

Coeducation, or mixed-education, is simply a system of which the education of both men and women occurs together rather than separately.

Coeducation has become the standard system in most Western civilizations, though a system in which men and women are educated separately is more common in many Muslim countries.

Single-sex education was the standard in Western civilization in the nineteenth century and the merits of coeducation are still being largely debated today.

In earlier civilizations, education took place informally, often taking place within the household. During the time that education started becoming more formal, like in ancient Rome and Greece, women held very few rights, and, thus, education was primarily focused on the males in society.

The later part of ancient Roman history brought the extension of education to women, but separately from that of men. This trend continued throughout the early Christian and medieval periods, though only the privileged were able to access formal education even during the Reformation.

The Council of Trent in the 16th century brought about the establishment of free elementary education to both girls and boys. Coeducation was introduced to Western Civilization after the Reformation in an effort to teach both genders how to read the Bible.

Coeducation, along with universal education, began to take stronger hold in both England and the United States, with coeducation becoming the norm after the American Revolution.

What was the first institution in America to become coeducational?

The first college to become coeducational in the United States of America was the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Oberlin, Ohio. This institution opened its doors on December 3, 1833, welcoming 44 students in total, including 29 men and 15 women.

 

Why Was This Institution Able to Become the First Coeducational Institution?

 

The Oberlin Collegiate Institute was founded by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart. It was later also the first college to admit African American students.

The town itself was founded in the same year the college was founded. Shipherd and Stewart were Presbyterian ministers with a vision that was geared toward the formation of a religious community as well as a school. The college has continued in their mission to be an institution “peculiar in that which is good”, often supporting progressive ideals.

Asa Mahan served as Oberlin’s first president, along with serving as chair of moral and intellectual philosophy and professor of theology. Mahan’s liberal philosophy became part of Oberlin’s overall philosophy which was geared toward abolition and anti-slavery.

This led to Oberlin opening its doors to students of all races only two years after its founding. Oberlin college graduated its first African American student in 1844. The student, George B. Vashon, when on to become one of the founding professors of Howard College and the first African American lawyer to be admitted to the Bar in New York State.

The first women admitted as full students were the four women Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford, and Elizabeth Prall. The first African American woman, Mary Jane Patterson, graduated in 1862.

Women were soon to make up a third to a half of the entire college population. It became the second oldest continuously operating coeducational liberal arts college after it was forced to close down for seven months between 1889 and 1890 due to the lack of funds.

Oberlin College continued to be the hotbed for progressive movements, such as abolition, Civil Rights, and women’s rights.

Nancy Dye became Oberlin’s 13th president and first female president in 1994. She was known for her inclusiveness and her efforts to expand Oberlin College, continuing Oberlin’s legacy of progress.


 

Coeducation Today

 

Coeducation continues to be a hot topic for debate with feminists holding the view that perhaps it’s better for women to learn in an environment free of competition from men.

While there is merit to this argument, today men and women both have a choice in of whether to receive whichever kind of education they prefer.

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The annual Academy Awards ceremony is one of the most anticipated events of the year. The entire nation and beyond tunes in to watch the ceremony and speak about the results.

The Academy Awards, hosted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, is a star-studded event that aims is to award its set of 24 awards, or Oscars, in recognition of “cinematic achievement”.

The importance of the Academy Awards is grounded on the idea that it is a reflection of the identities and interests of the American nation. It represents the American gold Standard.

The honor is hard to achieve and only eight sequels have ever been nominated with only two ever winning the Academy Award for Best Picture.

 

What is the Significance of an Oscar Win?

 

The Oscars was originally intended to celebrate the greatest works of art for the year that it occurs. The Oscar for Best Picture is usually left as the last award to be presented and is considered the most prestigious honor of the Academy Awards ceremony.

There have been 549 movie nominations and 90 winners of this prestigious award since its inception, as of 2018. The award for Best Picture is closely tied to that of Best Director. Only four directors have won the Best Director Award without the film they directed having won the award for Best Picture.

The Academy Awards is often a platform that goes beyond the selection of the best works of art. In fact, the winners for Best Picture are a lot of the time not the best works of art, but rather, a matter of what which films best speak to the current societal issues are most important during the time the awards show.

The Oscars have become an arena on which issues such as racism, diversity, LGBTIQ issues, and others are given a voice, or rather, are expected to be given a voice. Films that are nominated are often a result of how the Academy wants to present themselves. Recent examples of this are the nominations of films such as “Moonlight”, “La La Land”, and “Hidden Figures”.

The Oscars has become something we view as a “cultural figurehead”. Because of this we expect more from the Oscars than the lack of nominations for films directed by women or people of color. There is also a lack of consistency for the nomination of films that deal with queer subjects.

So, what does it mean to win an Oscar?

It means that you have produced the film the Academy if proudest of having been produced in Hollywood.


The Sequel that Won it All


The difficulty of winning the Oscar for Best Picture is unquestionable. Especially with when considering the above often abstract standards held by the Academy.

Sequels have an even harder time. There have only been two sequels that have ever won an Academy Award for Best Picture – The Godfather Part II and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.

So, what was the first sequel to win an Oscar for Best Picture?


The Godfather Part II.


The Godfather Part II is an American crime film released in 1974 and directed by the famous Francis Ford Coppola. The film starred both Al Pacino and Robert De Niro and acted as both a prequel and sequel to the 1972 film Godfather.

The film received 11 nominations during the 1974 Academy Awards and won six – Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor, Best Screenplay, Best Art Direction, and Best Music Score.

How did The Godfather II end up being the first sequel to not just win one, but six, Oscars?

The 1970s marked the peak of Coppola’s career with his film The Conversation also in line for Best Picture. It was impossible to ignore his genius as a director. The atmosphere within the Academy might have also helped the film win its awards as it was very “anti-Hollywood” at the time.

This is the perfect example of the Academy’s long history of choosing films based on more than just a film’s artistic merits.

 

What Can We Learn from the First Sequel that Won Best Picture?

 

Today’s political and social climates are sensitive and charged with the many cultural and humanitarian issues surrounding us.

The Godfather II dealt with many cultural issues but was also released during a time in which the nation was experiencing a lot of change.

We can learn to support those directors and films which represent our voices as individual’s and start affecting the opinions of those who choose which cinematic features should stand above the rest.

What was the first sequel to win the Oscar for Best Picture?

The one that represented the interests of the Academy.

How will we contribute to the future of Hollywood?

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Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1

While Bluetooth 5 is already out, many existing devices such as smartphones don’t support it yet. You may still need to understand the difference between Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1.

It may be hard to believe, but the Bluetooth technology has been around since 1994. When Bluetooth first caught on with the public, it was with wireless earphones for cellphones. Suddenly everyone had a small oblong headset attached to one ear.

As Bluetooth evolved, it became the de facto standard for anything that needed to be connected wirelessly to your smartphone, tablet, or even desktop computer.

What Bluetooth is Used For

Bluetooth wireless technology does more than connect you wirelessly to your smartphone via a remote headset. It also can power:

  • Wireless keyboards
  • Music headphones
  • Wireless speakers
  • Fitness trackers such as FitBit
  • Wireless game controllers
  • Internet of Things (IoT) objects

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Bluetooth continues to evolve in part because of its potential application for the real future of the Internet: The Internet of Things (abbreviated IoT).

The Internet of Things is all about creating connections that can make life more convenient and efficient, whether it is for business or personal use.

For the home, this might be a refrigerator that can determine when it is low on milk and order more for you from the store for delivery.

For the office, it might be a device that can track inventory or help with managing the supply chain.

Because of the potential added demand of Internet of Things, Bluetooth technology has to become more powerful. Among its improvements over the years are:

  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Range
  • Power Consumption
  • Wireless game controllers

How Bluetooth Has Improved Over the Years

Each new iteration of Bluetooth improves on these five areas:

1. Speed

Speed of data transfer is important, even for mundane tasks such as playing music through speakers. If you want to have the highest quality music streamed through Bluetooth, then the speed of data transfer must be high.

2. Reliability

Reliability includes the reliability of the connection while Bluetooth is operating. If it keeps disconnecting, then that will simply create more frustration.

3. Range

The original Bluetooth technologies had a very short range. You could only use your Bluetooth headset when you were very close to your cellphone. As Bluetooth evolves, the range becomes greater, and it is starting to rival Wi-Fi.

4. Power Consumption

Power consumption is very important. If your Bluetooth device is eating up electricity and needs to be recharged constantly, it isn’t of much use. Starting with Bluetooth 4, new “Low Energy” technologies have worked to make Bluetooth devices much more energy efficient.

5. Ease of Use

Bluetooth needs to be easy to use. Unfortunately, this doesn’t seem to be improving as much as other metrics. Bluetooth devices are still difficult to pair frequently.

One commenter, Jacob, wrote: “I don't care so much about all those improvments in the standards ... BT is still user unfriendly in terms of connecting/pairing/unsing ... sometimes a pain in the ass.

Why dont they improve that?”

Good question, Jacob.

What About Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1?

As we already mentioned, Bluetooth 4.0 already made huge leaps in regards to energy consumption. Bluetooth 4.1 also fixed the problem that Bluetooth 4.0 had in conflicting with 4G signals.

Bluetooth 4.1 also offers “smart connectivity” so that device manufacturers could determine how often the device needed to reconnect.

Data transfer was also significantly improved by taking out the smartphone as the “middleman.” The 4.1 Bluetooth device can act as both hub and end point so that data can move directly from one Bluetooth device to another.

Bluetooth 4.0 vs 4.1: What Can I Do to Upgrade?

Realistically, you can’t do much to upgrade your existing devices. You may have gotten an “over the air” update that would have already automatically updated your Bluetooth 4.0 device to 4.1. However, this would be at the discretion of the manufacturer.

If you have a really old device, such as an original iPad, the actual hardware may not support the Bluetooth version needed by a modern device such as a FitBit wrist fitness tracker. You can sometimes by external dongles for older devices that can add the functionality of a more recent version of Bluetooth.

Bluetooth 5 and Beyond

New iPhones and other devices are now supporting Bluetooth 5, and soon Bluetooth 4.0 and 4.1 will be old technologies. As Bluetooth evolves, look for more range and better data transfer. We can only hope that they will fix that pesky, perpetual problem with faulty Bluetooth pairing once and for all.

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If you want to understand modern science, you need to understand the difference between hypothesis and theory.

If you do not understand how hypotheses and theories work, then you really cannot fully appreciate how Western science and thinking works.

What’s the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory?

The basic difference between hypothesis and theory is this:

1. Hypothesis

The hypothesis comes first. This is the idea that someone has about how the world really works. For example, let’s say you think that the sun might be hot because it’s made of melted cheese. That is a hypothesis.

As you can see, a hypothesis is just an idea, and it doesn’t need to be a good one.

As you can also see, a lot of what we call “theories” in modern, everyday language are not theories at all, but hypotheses.

If you are hanging out with your friends at the bar, and you say: “I have a theory that the single guy over there at the bar always comes here and leaves without picking up any women, because he’s terrible at talking to women” that is really a hypothesis.

You don’t have any basis for your idea (other than your perception).

2. Theory

A hypothesis becomes a theory after it has been rigorously tested and reviewed for its veracity (truth).

In the case of the guy at the bar, we could test the hypothesis by having women go over and talk to him, and see how they might rate his conversational skills. We might also observe him over a series of nights to see whether or not he is successful at meeting women.

If, after doing a significant amount of research into this man and his behaviors with women, we might be able to say with some certainty that “That man cannot pick up women because of his poor conversational skills.”

However, it is still a theory, not 100% fact. It is possible that one woman might still want to date this man, perhaps because she finds his lack of social skills to be endearing or charming.

If this is the case, we might adjust the theory to say: “That man does not pick up most women he interacts with because of his poor conversational skills; however, some women do like him.”

Well-known scientific theories are the Theory of Evolution hypothesized by Charles Darwin and the Theory of Relativity first hypothesized by Albert Einstein.

Don’t Forget: Theories Aren’t Hard Facts

Most average people today do not understand that modern science is constantly evolving. Scientists will change their opinions on things as new information comes out.

This is why the term “settled science” is in fact, an oxymoron. While it is tempting to use this phrase in political discussions to support popular theories that have the weight of a good portion of the scientific community, it actually hurts science overall.

Good, objective science is never fully settled.

Generally speaking, a theory in science is probably true. While it might be difficult to put a percentage on it, let us just say for argument’s sake that a theory needs to make the hypothesis at least 80-90% plausible before it graduates to a theory.

Theories can still be changed or deemed unproven with new information.

The Theory of Evolution

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, for example, has a lot of evidence, such as fossils, to support it.

The Theory of Evolution explains pretty well how natural selection favors certain “mutations” over others to create different types of life. We can see a lot of evidence for this.

For example, our selective breeding used in dog breeds, for example, is all about favoring certain traits over others. Dogs “evolved” into different breeds, not using natural selection, but human selection.

Darwin’s theory also leaves a lot unexplained. Why, for example, does any organism become more complex in the first place? How did human conscious arise out of evolution?


Intelligent Design


A competing hypothesis, “Intelligent Design,” posits that some sort of outside force, or creator, guided evolution to create more complex lifeforms.

However, without any sufficient evidence to prove this, Intelligent Design is simply a hypothesis, not a theory.

Intelligent Design still does not explain how the creator itself came into being, or what or who the creator is. That would require a different hypothesis.

Intelligent Design may seem far-fetched, however, some scientists are now hypothesizing that our reality is actually a hologram or a sort of computer simulation. If this could be proven, then this might change the Theory of Evolution and explain it as being driven by a computer program.

So you never know how the worldview might change.


Science Constantly Evolves


When you understand hypotheses and theories, you realize that true science is really all about questioning the world with an open mind.

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man with shaving cream

When it comes to shaving your face, whether you're a guy that shaves regularly or you're shaving off your “No Shave November” beard - you need a shaving cream that will moisten those hairs and keep your skin smooth and healthy.

When it comes to shopping the best shaving cream for your shaving needs, it's a matter of your priorities and how well you want to care for your face.

How to Pick the Best Shaving Cream


Unless you don't care about getting a nice smooth shave and protecting your skin, you shouldn't grab any old shaving cream off the shelf when you're shopping.

Take a little time to get to know the products, what ingredients are in them, what type of skin you have, and use this knowledge to help you pick a product you can be proud to use.

Some shaving creams contain products that can dry your skin out. Some of them even contain allergens that can make your face itch.

Below are the three things to look for that will help you pick the best shaving cream:

1. Who Makes It?


Do a little research and allow yourself a chance to gain some brand awareness.

Find out if the company lives up to the standards you'd want them to. Some things you might consider is how long they've been around, if they're made in the USA, if they specialize in men's products, if they test on animals, and if they generally get good reviews.

Don't assume because a company has been around for a long time it makes them the best choice. However, it does help to know a company has had a good amount of time creating products that do the job right.

You also want to know what kind of ingredients they're putting in their products. When using natural products, they still need preservatives to ensure they last when sitting on store shelves.

Do a little research on ingredients you're not sure about. Look for natural ingredients at the beginning of lists of what the products contain.

2. What's in It?


When you use products on your skin, those products can be absorbed into your body, and upon doing that, it can end up in your bloodstream. That gives you a lot to consider when it comes to purchasing any product that is going to go on your skin, including your shave cream.

Good ingredients you want to look for are natural ones.

The best shaving cream will be made with natural oils, like jojoba. Essential oils are great for the skin, inside and out. Look for things like lavender, sandalwood, and other natural essential oils in the ingredients. Avoid “fragrances.” These can cause rash and other issues, since they are filled with nasty chemicals.

Look for products that specify they are paraben free. Parabens have been linked to many skin allergies. Parabens are common in the beauty and skin care industry, but that doesn't make them a good thing.

3. What Type of Skin Do You Have?


Make sure you consider whether you have dry, oily, or combination skin.

Using a shaving cream that makes your skin oilier may cause you some uncomfortable skin issues, just like using something that dries your skin when you have naturally dry skin.

For those that have dry or sensitive skin, it's important to avoid alcohol as an ingredient. Alcohol dries the skin out more and can cause itching.

From causing breakouts to causing rashes, it's important to choose the products that will enhance the health of your skin.


Picking the Best Shaving Cream


There are many choices out there, though not all of them use the natural ingredients you want to be looking for.

Because people want to know what's in their products and are always looking to improve on what's out there, there are always new businesses offering the next best thing for guys that want a clean shave.

Here are six of the best shaving creams to consider right now:



Taylor of Old Bond Street Sandalwood Shaving Cream Bowl, 5.3-Ounce
  • Cream helps prepare your beard for shaving and moisturizes your face
  • A classic fragrance with top notes of geranium, lavender, rosemary and liquid amber supported by a heart of carnation,...
  • Cream is contain a plastic bowl making lathering easy, Sandalwood shaving cream bowl

One of the best and most loved shaving creams out there is made by Taylor of Old Bond Street.

The company has been around since the mid-1800s, and they bring a classic British-style to men's skin and hair care. At around $15 for a little over 5 ounces, this is no cheap shaving cream. You're paying for natural ingredients and a product that is made to do its job well.

Speaking of the ingredients; this shaving cream is made with botanicals that promote healthy skin, and it comes with a blend of scents that any man will enjoy (sandalwood has a woodsy scent). It's made to work with all skin types.

Baxter of California Super Close Shave Formula, 8 fl. oz.
  • Hydrating shave cream for men
  • Provides a protective cushion between the skin and razor
  • For a close shave without redness or irritation

Baxter of California's Super Close Shave Formula gives you a nice smooth shave.

One of the reasons it works so well is that it uses coconut oil in the ingredients. Part of why it works well is the fact that it uses coconut oil in the ingredients. That's not the only ingredient within that will help keep your skin healthy. It also contains witch hazel, tea tree oil, and peppermint, among other things.

No irritation with this formula, it's made to keep your face feeling great.

You can grab 4 ounces of this shave cream that's great for even sensitive skin for just a little bit over $15. It works great for all skin types.

Sale
Jack Black Beard Lube Conditioning Shave, 6 fl. oz.
  • Lightweight, penetrating formula not only helps prepare your beard by penetrating and softening whisker growth, it holds...
  • Unique see-through texture lets you see where you're shaving, helping to prevent nicks and cuts -- especially great for...
  • Macadamia Nut Oil, Jojoba Oil and Glycerin provide a lubricating, protective cushion

Not to be confused with the actor Jack Black, this shave company is a completely different entity.

The Jack Black company is popular for guys that like a clean shave. They are another company making products for those with sensitive skin. The Beard Lube Condition Shave Cream does three things; it's a shave cream, it helps lube your face for a smooth shave, and it's conditioning your skin while you use it.

This shave cream contains jojoba oil, macadamia nut oil, peppermint, eucalyptus and more. It's also alcohol-free so that it won't dry your skin out. You can get a hefty 65 ounces for around $15.

Sale
V76 by Vaughn CLEAN SHAVE Hydrating Gel Cream Formula for Men
  • Blue lipospheres filled with Vitamin E smooth and remove dryness by helping skin retain its natural moisture levels
  • Aloe vera locks in moisture and soothes irritated skin
  • Perfect for those who prefer a lightweight shave gel or cream

If you suffer from dry skin, your very best option in shaving creams is this hydrating gel cream from V76 by Vaughn.

Why is this such a great product when it comes to hydration? It's the ingredients. It contains vitamin E, which soothes and heals your skin. It also contains aloe, which does the same. It also has a lovely cooling sensation.

It's about $19 for almost 6 ounces. You can be assured this product contains no parabens. It's also gluten-free, cruelty-free, and contains no petroleum or sulfates.

Proraso Shaving Foam, Refreshing and Toning, 10.6 Oz
  • Quick and easy shave without any compromise
  • Eucalyptus oil purifies and tones, Menthol refreshes and revitalizes
  • Natural-based formulation without mineral oils or artificial colors

If you like the cooling sensations that come from eucalyptus and the hydrating effects of coconut oil, then Proraso's Shaving Cream is the choice for you. And, if you're looking for a toning and refreshing facial product, you'll get it with this product.

Another great thing about Proraso is that it gives you a great price for a great product. For just under $10 you can get your hands on a little more than 5 ounces of shaving cream that will make you look and feel cool.

The Art of Shaving Shaving Cream, Sandalwood, 5 Ounce
  • The unscented preshave oil is the first step of the perfect shave
  • Shave Oil helps protect against irritation and razor burn by promoting razor glide.
  • Before shaving, rub a small amount of oil on your hands and massage into beard

When creating a list of the best shaving cream, you can't forget to include a product name like The Art of Shaving.

The  Art of Shaving's Sandalwood Shaving Cream offers a shaving cream rich in amazing ingredients that have anti-aging properties, and also helps heal your skin. It contains coconut oil and essential oils, including sandalwood (obviously).

Five fluid ounces for around $20 is a bargain for this shaving cream that will change your life. No skin irritation means this is good for sensitive skin.

Each of these shaving cream options offers you a smooth shave. Each of them will make you enjoy shaving again.

Comparison Table

Using Your Shaving Cream


Some of these cream options can be applied with a brush; some are better applied by hand. Look into the best applications before making your choice if you're particular to one way.

By applying with a brush, you get the benefits of lifting whiskers up off your skin for a better shave and your natural skin oils on your fingers don't have a chance to affect the properties of your shave cream.

It's important to use shaving cream every time you shave. It will help you avoid rashes, dry skin, and it will ensure you get a smooth shave.

What type of razor you use will affect how many passes you need to make and whether or not you should use pre-shave oil. Some of these best shaving cream options double as pre-shave oils though, since they are made with natural oils that add slickness and moisture to your skin.


Which Shaving Cream Is Best for You?


With this list of best shaving creams out there, you can start to determine which shaving cream is best for you.

You can find them in multiple sizes, so why not try a smaller purchase while you determine which one is right for your beard and your skin.

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We love our pets. It’s a fact. We love them so much that we like to involve them in almost everything we do, and that includes our technology. Although not all the tech in our lives is particularly pet friendly, app designers and web developers are realizing that to us, pets are people, and as such they need to be part of the new wave of exciting innovations and developments online.

So just what kind of things can our pets (with a little help) do on a smartphone, tablet, or laptop?

puppies and a kitten

Take Selfies

Yes, with the advent of some pretty spectacular foresight and clever thinking, there is now an app that allows you to take the perfect picture of you and your pet – a pet selfie. You can also use it to take a photo of your pet on their own if you prefer to stay out of the spotlight. The app is called Pet Camera, and it works by letting out a series of animal noises when you’re ready to snap the shot. That guarantees your animal’s attention, so they will be looking at the camera when the photo is taken. Neat!

Pet Sitting

Pet sitting is big business, and when we do need a little alone time – or when we’re forced to go out and leave our lets alone – then having someone reliable come and watch them for us is a relief. It may not be the same as staying home and snuggling up, but it’s the next best thing. DogVacay is an example of an app that makes choosing a pet sitting much easier than it usually is. Using this app you are able to be connected to over 30,000 verified pet sitters, and you can whittle them down in terms of location, cost, and even their likes and dislikes.

golden retriever photoThe Slots

Sometimes you and your pet just need some downtime, and everyone has a different way of relaxing. Something that is becoming more and more popular is online gaming, and in particular slot machines. And of course, there are plenty of animal themed slots to keep you occupied including Pretty Kitty, Bar Bar Black Sheep, Hound Hotel and more; and all of these can be found at the excellent Red Flush Casino. You don’t even have to spend any money to play most of these games, so you can play free slot machines without making a real money deposit. It’s the perfect way to unwind.

Pet Collecting

Now you might have quite the collection of pets at home already, but there is an app that allows you to get even more without anyone ever having to know about it. It’s called Neko Atsume, and it’s all about enticing cats into your virtual home. Once they’re there, you can play with them to your heart’s content! It’s a fun game that is completely absorbing.

cat in wool scarf

Image sources: 1, 2, 3.

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According to the BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S), a Cardiologist is registered under the section of Physician or Surgeon, and the 2015 Median cardiologist salary  is equal to or greater than $187,200 per year or $90.00 per hour. The entry level education requires a Doctoral or professional degree, and the profession has a 14% job outlook, regarded as much faster than average.

Cardiology is the second best paid medical specialty in the USA, after orthopedics, while pediatric care ranks at the bottom of the chart. There are various areas for a med student who is interested in cardiology to work in after finishing his academic studies. He/she can become a surgeon, veterinary cardiologist or a cardiology consultant. 

Green line measuring the heart beat

A cardiologist in the Unites States can earn even more that other Physicians or Surgeons, because of the profession’s specific requirements. Location and tenure can greatly impact the average salary, but in general, the annual pay should exceed 6 figures. According to PayScale, a cardiologist should earn around $243,000 per year. The ratio of men to women for this profession is greatly unbalanced, the number of male cardiologists (86%) exceeding greatly the female professionals (14%) in this field.

Their duties include patient care, performing tests and delivering diagnoses to cardiovascular system related afflictions. Cardiologists also have to oversee treatment and offer follow-up tests if necessary. There are two main branches of this profession: invasive and non-invasive cardiology. Invasive cardiology’s main focus is cardiovascular procedures, being an interventional branch while non-invasive cardiology deals with heart complications or heart failure. An interventional cardiologist salary ranks above the one of his non-invasive counterparts due to the most specialized skills necessary.

There are pay differences between the various cardiologist specializations, making invasive cardiologists earn more than their non-invasive counterparts. An invasive cardiologist’s annual pay may range between $242,588 – $571,165, while a simple physician earns between $153,998 – $388,791, according to PayScale.

A survey from 2015 shows that top paying states for cardiologists are in the Southwest area while they are likely to earn much less in Northwest states. These are the yearly salaries of cardiologists with residency in the United States, starting with the highest paying regions.

Geographical region Annual compensation
Southwest $486,000
Northwest $484,000
North Central $450,000
South Central $412,000
Great Lakes $379,000
Southeast $372,000
West $364,000
Mid-Atlantic $354,000
Northeast $322,000

Highest pay for Cardiologist is in Seattle with 21% above national average and San Diego, 2% more than the overall average.  The location is an important factor as doctors working in Boston earn 49% above national average! For a practitioner living in Houston or NYC, the salary is below the national average by 18% and 17% respectively.

Around the world people, the average cardiologist salary varies from AUS$180,000 annual in Australia, between £22,412 and £120,000 in the UK, a median of C$203,472 in Toronto, Canada and Rs 1,190,509 for a doctor working in India.

Experience level Annual Salary
Entry-level (0-5yrs) $204,000
Mid-Career (5-10 yrs) $243,000
Experienced (10-20 yrs) $287,000
Late-Career (>20 yrs) $270,000

The annual pay is also influenced by experience, a rule that applies to all related professions, such as a technician, assistant or nurse.

Currently, there are openings for cardiologists in California and Chicago clinics, where the salary has been steadily growing since 2013. An important aspect to be remembered is a that the pediatric cardiologist salary amounts to less than the average for the other branches.

Image source: 1

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After recent laws and regulations that force food and beverage manufacturers to state the amount of sulfites contained in their products, people have started a crusade against these substances. But what are sulfites? The problem is that the specifications are unclear, and people fear things they don’t understand. There hasn’t been any reliable scientific proof to show that sulfites are inherently bad for regular people, but still a lot of consumers believe that these substances cause headaches or other associated symptoms.

The truth is there are different types of sulfites with specific effects, some of them naturally present in our fruits and wines. They are mostly harmless to people who do not suffer from asthma or similar conditions, and they help preserve out food. So, what are sulfites? If you want to get a clear idea and understand the nature of these chemicals, read our article, and you will be able to make up your own mind.

What are sulfites?

Sulfites or sulphites are chemicals that can be found in various foods, either as a natural component or additives. They are compounds and contain a sulfite ion, which is the base for bisulfite. Recently, people have been increasingly more worried about the allergenic hazards that these substances may produce, but their worries are mainly unfounded.

The confusion comes from the lack of proper understanding of terminology. A label marked “May contain sulfites” may turn customers away at first sight, but why? Sulfites are naturally present in most wines, and they are also used as added preservatives for various foods.

FDA Regulations and Health Effects

The trouble for sulfites started in 1986 when the substance was identified as an allergen by the FDA. This happened after cases of asthma were linked to the intake of sulfites and as a result, the FDA banned them from fresh fruits and vegetables. The problem is that sulfites are commonly used as preservatives in various foods, so after the ban, they have been replaced with increased quantities of salt and erythorbic acid.

At the same time, it was required for sulfites quantities to be clearly marked on the labels of wine bottles if they go beyond 10mg/L. In the US, the presence of sulfites has to be indicated on the label if they have been used specifically as preservatives, and not simply added at the regular food processing stage.

However, many companies prefer to state the presence of sulfites in their product to avoid any liability in the case of eventual lawsuits. Regardless of this, the law only requires the chemicals to be listed only if the quantity present in the finished product goes beyond 10 parts per million (PPM).

Sulfites in wine – bad or good?

Red wine glasses on the table

Sulfites have been used for wine preserving and fermentation control since Roman times because they are responsible for stopping your favorite wine from turning to vinegar. Because wines are volatile, they need preservatives to ensure that they don’t go bad after you open the bottle. Sulfur has been used in wineries to stop the growth of various bacteria and yeasts, and also because it helps achieve the perfect red color of the wine.

The PPM number varies depending on different factors such as the production method and also the color of the wine. The wine sulfites range from 10 to 40 PPM, which qualifies as no-added-sulfur to 350 PPM. As a rule of thumb, red wines contain less sulfur than clear wines, while the sweeter wines need more than the dry ones to prevent fermentation.

After answering the main question of what are wine sulfites, we need to see what’s all the fuss about. Knowing that sulfites are a normal presence in wine raises the question: should we worry about it? Well, specialists say that unless you suffer from asthma or have a high sensitivity to foods, there’s no reason for you to give up wine.

What Food Products May Contain Sulfites?

Sulfites are present in large quantities in the products that traditionally require preservation, such as frozen juices or jams. They can be found in dried fruits or packaged potato products like French fries. In general, everything that has to or can be stored for longer periods of time contains a various quantity of sulfites. Prepared soups, packaged meats, and even soda have sulfites in them, so there are not only present in wine, as people used to think.

The so-called “sulfite sensitivity” is not really an allergy, although people have been complaining about it. Some people are under the impression that sulfites are to blame for the headaches caused by wine drinking, but scientific research doesn’t agree with this supposition.

If you think you are affected by sulfites and want to avoid these chemicals you should start with products that contain them in more quantities than wine.  Taking into account that sulfites are present in the over-processed foods that we all consume, a good idea would be to start reducing the quantity of packaged foods that you eat, before letting go of wine for good.

Sulfites got bad publicity after being associated with breathing difficulties for asthmatics and possibly sufferers of salicylate sensitivity. These categories are the ones who are at risk and can experience allergic reactions to sulfites, although life-threatening situations seldom occur. The witch hunt for sulfites began out of concern for public health, but studies have shown that these substances are just as bad or good as other preservatives such as salts we most commonly use.

In the end, sulfites are present in our foods, in various quantities, so avoiding them is virtually impossible. If you are among the categories that have a higher sensibility to these substances, you should undoubtedly pay attention to the labels and eliminate sulfites from your diet, but if not, there aren’t many reasons to worry.

You have now discovered the answers to the pressing question: what are sulfites? At the moment, it’s up to you to decide whether or not you should avoid high-content sulfites products such as dried fruits and potato chips. Just remember that the claim that red wine headaches are caused by sulfites is not supported by science, so you probably shouldn’t blame sulfites for your painful hangover.

Image source: 1

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John Legend is one of the most appreciated American singer-songwriters, whose career and vocal abilities turned him into an overnight sensation. He has performed his songs in many talk shows, such as “The Oprah Winfrey Show” or “Late Night with Jimmy Kimmel”, and he was even one of the performers at the 2017 Oscars. Keeping all of these things in mind, if you were to guess the John Legend net worth, how much would you guess? Regardless of whether you’re his fan or you’re just curious to find out more about his career, today’s article focuses on  several John Legend net worth details and his overall career.

John Legend Singing playing piano against black background

John Legend Net Worth 2018

The soul and R&B singer and producer has a net value of $20 million, which is quite impressive, and one of the reasons why he’s one of the richest musicians on the market. His remarkable net worth comes from a life-long career dedicated to music, and from his songwriting style, which is highly personal. He’s known for his incredible vocals, passionate lyrics, and outstanding interpretation, much more than for the John Legend net worth we’ve just mentioned. The mix between his warm voice and his use of piano is the main ingredient that turns all of his songs into instant hits, and himself into a celebrity.

Early Life and Musical Background

Born John Roger Stephens, Legend was passionate about music from an early age. Luckily, his family encouraged him to pursue his talent. He began singing in the local church choir at the age of four. Since then, music became one of the most important things in his life. Years later, he pursued his musical passion by studying piano and joining the a cappella band Counterparts. Lauryn Hill heard him play piano, noticed his raw talent, and offered him a chance that proved worthwhile.

After this first big break, he managed to release two independent albums and enter the Hollywood music scene. Kanye West noticed his potential and offered him a contract with his record label. Legend agreed, and he started a long-time partnership with the American rapper. After signing the contract with West, he also chose his stage name, John Legend. Then, he went on to release his debut album “Get Lifted”. The album was an instant success, and Legend’s career exploded, making him famous.

Career Accomplishments and Awards

The album “Get Lifted” won the Grammy for Best R&B Album two years after its release. After this first award, Legend managed to add 9 other Grammy Awards to his ever growing collection.

He has appeared on multiple shows and performed live at the Grammy Awards in 2014. He also got the honor of performing both at the 2015 and the 2017 Academy Awards. There, he delivered some of the most touching live performances the Oscars ever witnessed. The song “Glory”, that he composed alongside Common and sung in 2015, brought the pair an Oscar for best original song. His single “All of Me”, released in 2013, went on to become a worldwide sensation. It actually managed to reach the number one spot on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

john legend posing with his wife and oprah

Legend has released five studio albums, “Get Lifted” (2004),”Once Again” (2006), “Evolver” (2008), “Love in the Future” (2013), and “Darkness and Light” (2016). He also guest starred on various television shows, from “Curb Your Enthusiasm” to “Dancing with the Stars”. He was featured on numerous tracks from other artists such as Janet Jackson, Kelly Clarkson, and David Guetta.

Apart from being a successful singer, Legend is also an accomplished actor and music film producer. He contributed to the soundtracks of hits such as “Crazy, Stupid, Love”; “Django Unchained”; and “Pitch Perfect 2”.

Personal Life and Humanitarian Work

After a relationship of more than six years, Legend married model and television presenter Chrissy Teigen in 2013. The ceremony took place in a romantic setting near lake Como, in Italy. Numerous A-listers both from the music and the film industry attended. in 2018, Legend and Teigen welcomed their first baby, a daughter named Luna Simone.

Apart from his remarkable career, John Legend is also known and appreciated for his charitable work. He’s a supporter of various humanitarian projects, and he has been involved with charities from Africa and Asia. Most recently, he has fought to ensure clean water provision for the people of Tanzania. Due to his extensive charitable work, Legend got the BET Humanitarian Award in 2010.

Musical Style and Influence

John Legend’s touching lyrics and soothing sounds have won the hearts of millions around the world. Due to his distinctive musical style, he’s part of a more innovative sound movement in soul music, and fans and critics alike eagerly expect his albums. He’s one of the singers who managed to bring R&B music back into the spotlight.

In 2009, Legend was included in top 100 Most Influential People In The World, a list released by Times Magazine. His influence is difficult to miss. For instance, famous musician Quincy Jones considers Legend a genius, and is reportedly extremely impressed by his remarkable career.

Summing It All Up

Even if he’s just at the start of his career, John Legend has managed to impress the public with his multiple talents, which include singing, songwriting, producing, and so on. Only 38 years old, the famous R&B star still has a lot to offer, and his career will certainly flourish even more. This means that the John Legend net worth we mentioned in today’s article can only increase as well.

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Have you ever experienced pain in the front part of your lower legs after a long jog? If the answer is yes, then you have suffered from shin splints. What are shin splints? Most people don’t know what shin splints are, although mostly anyone who has tried to go on a long run after a period of less or no physical activity has felt their unpleasant effect. Shin splints are the most common injury faced by runners, especially by those who run on hard surfaces.

Running man against mountains background in the morning

Shin splints manifest by acute pain along the tibia, also known as shin bone, and are very common in athletes such as runners, tennis players and even dancers. If you want to learn more about what are shin splints caused by and how to prevent and treat them, read through our article, and get all the answers. This way next time you go running, you will know how to protect yourself and avoid this painful syndrome.

What are Shin Splints Caused by?

Nobody wants to get injured when they are exercising, so to be able to prevent an accident, you need to know what signs to look for and what to avoid before putting on your running shoes. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), as it is called in medical terms, is caused by various factors. The most common causes that produce shin splints are:

  • Lack of proper stretching
  • Inadequate shoes
  • Running on hard surfaces
  • Changes in the regular routine
  • Running on steep terrain

Athletes and amateur joggers alike should dedicate enough time to stretching. Most of the people rush through the stretching part and head on to running, without being aware of the stress they are putting their bodies through. To avoid the painful shin splints, do a proper stretching session before starting your lap. Otherwise, you might damage your bones, muscles, and tendons.

Wear good shoes! Invest in quality shoes that are resistant and offer you comfort for long runs. If you need to know what are the best running shoes for shin splints, go to a specialized shop and explain your problem, and they will refer you to the perfect option for you. As a rule of thumb, the best shoes should provide stability, comfort and support your foot without causing blisters or any kind of pain when you run.

Avoid running on hard surfaces or steep terrain, especially if you’re a beginner, and don’t change your regular routine without the advice of a trainer. This way you avoid discovering what are shin splint at your own expense.

What Are the Symptoms of Shin Splints?

Shin splints occur when you overstress and overwork the muscles and tendons in your lower legs. They manifest as an acute pain localized either in front or behind the shin and they often afflict runners who are at the beginning of their training.

Shin splints are quite easy to be confused with other leg problems such as stress fracture or compartment syndrome, that also include pain and muscle weakness. It’s not enough to have pain in your shins to be certain you have shin splints; that’s why you should check with a doctor because you might have some other condition that can damage your legs.

There are some movements you could make to see if you have shin splints or some other problem. Generally, shin splints feel worse in the morning because during the night the soft tissue tightens, so this would be the first sign to look for to determine if your pain is caused by shin splints or something else. Also, if the pain increases when you force your foot up at the ankle and try to flex it, that means you probably suffer from shin splints.

Best Treatment for Shin Splints

Now that you know what are shin splints symptoms, there is another one important question to ask: how do you treat them? You have learned what are shin splints; running can cause them, and bad, overused shoes are a sure way to develop this painful syndrome. But what should you do to treat this painful affliction that can keep you away from your regular training?

Well, specialists and sports researchers say that shin splints can be tears in the muscle or a localized inflammation of the muscle. Some scientists believe that the pain might also be caused by the inflammation of the soft tissue that covers the tibia. Happily, they all agree on the best treatment to follow.

  • Stop or reduce your training
  • Ice your leg to reduce inflammation
  • Try to go swimming until your shin heals
  • If you are still running, use a protective wrap
  • Avoid hills and hard surfaces
  • Allow your shin to heal by doing slow movement exercise

If your pain is very intense, you should completely stop running until your legs heal because otherwise you will produce even more damage. For the first days apply bags of ice on your shin until inflammation is reduced, and if you still continue training, go for sports that don’t put too much pressure on your shin.

Return to running gradually and use protective wrap around your shin. Choose shoes that are comfortable and offer the support your legs need, and avoid running up steep terrain as much as you can.

There is a series of restoring exercises you should do at least twice a day to recover your flexibility and reduce pain and inflammation. Sit on a chair and use your toes to trace the alphabet on the floor, alternate walking on your heels with regular walking and then rest. This is the answer to what are shin splints treatment; there are no other tricks except for rest and regular stretching of your legs.

If you want to avoid such a painful experience, don’t do anything rash when training, stick to your routines and use quality shoes that support and protect your feet and legs. There’s no secret to being a healthy runner, other than be careful with your body and don’t apply unnecessary stress on your joints and muscles.

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What are parabens and do you need to worry about them? These are questions that everyone who uses skin or haircare products should know the answer to. We have all seen the warning “May contain parabens” on our shampoo or face cream bottles, but not everyone knows what parabens are and what their utility is when it comes to our beauty routines. Recently, they have been made out into the villains of the cosmetic industry, but are parabens really that bad?

The debate is still on-going, and research is done to clear this matter, but still opinions are very different. Cosmetic manufacturers present one side of the story and concerned scientists another side, and they haven’t yet come into agreement. Read our article and find out for yourself whether or not you should be in the search for paraben-free products.

Generic white jar face cream

What are parabens?

Parabens are a common substance present in our cosmetics due to their ability to help preserve the products we use for skin and haircare. Face and body creams contain them and so do most of the shampoos or conditioners. Their purpose is to prevent fungus, microbes, and bacteria from developing in our creams and makeup products and ensure that they are safe to use.

Because we generally store them in the bathroom, this warm environment is an attractive space for damaging bacteria to evolve. Parabens prevent this growth in shampoos, body lotions, mascara or foundations. Recently, there have been growing concerns among scientists regarding the damaging effects parabens may have on our skin, and safety regulations have been set in place to make sure everyone knows what they are using.

Are Parabens Harmful?

Scientists are trying to discover if the rise in breast cancer incidence is in any way linked to the use of parabens. Parabens have a low ability to mimic estrogen, and the chemicals have been found in breast cancer tumors, which raises concerns for scientists. Another cause of concern is the reported declining sperm counts and increased occurrence of breast cancer in male patients.

These problems lead scientists to ask whether or not the fact that these substances are absorbed by our skin might have a damaging effect. Parabens and sulfates, the other substance used as preservative for cosmetics, are easily absorbed by our skin, and they might be linked to an imbalance in the endocrine system. The answer is not clear yet, but there are researchers who think we should be concerned.

The main topic of debate is breast cancer. Taking into account that we know there is a link between estrogen exposure and the development of breast cancer, some scientists consider that parabens, which are a weakly mimicking estrogen, might have a damaging effect.

Available Alternatives to Parabens

natural oil bottle surrounded by leaves alternative to parabens

There are paraben-free products available on the market, but they are much more expensive and have a shorter time span before the expiring date. The reason why is very simple, without parabens, which are cheap and really effective preservatives, the cosmetics can’t be safely used for long before they go bad.

Manufacturers of organic, paraben-free products explain that lotions are the toughest to create and maintain because they are the perfect environment for bacteria and fungus. The use of natural ingredients with preservatives effects such as thyme, lavender oil or grapefruit seed extract can only provide a temporary solution. At the moment, researchers and cosmetics producers are looking for better, organic alternatives to the chemical preservatives such as parabens and sulfates.

What Products Contain Parabens?

More than 80% of cosmetics on the market right now contain parabens. What are parabens used for? The answer is simple: they are a cheap way to preserve the product and ensure safe use for longer periods of time, even if the cosmetics are stored in the bathroom, and not the fridge. If you want to know what are parabens in, you should be prepared for a long list.

From hair products such as conditioners, shampoos, and masks to body lotions and creams, as well as deodorants, paraben is all around us. It’s in our makeup products such as mascara and foundation and in our body scrubs. You should note that there is no real, conclusive proof to show that the use of cosmetics that contain parabens in small amounts cause or are linked with breast cancer. Presently, the amount contained in cosmetics is generally small, and health organizations consider it safe at reduced levels.

Laws and Regulations

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the institution which regulates the use of parabens and other chemicals in our daily products. They are aware of the growing concerns towards these chemicals, but studies have shown that the various parabens propylparaben, methylparaben, and butylparaben are safe to use in cosmetics up to 25%. They are currently used at levels starting from 0.01 up to 0.3%.

Regardless, cosmetics manufacturers have to state the amount of parabens present in their product, so you can make sure you know what you apply on your body. While waiting for conclusive evidence in any directions, the FDA assures us that at the present time consumers don’t have any real reason to worry about using products that contain parabens.  At the same time, the institution states that they are keeping up with the discoveries in the field and await conclusive proof on the matter.

You might still be wondering about what are parabens and sulfates and why they are found in our products? The reason is affordability and efficiency; these chemicals ensure that our lotions and makeup products are safe to use for a relatively long period. The tests and studies conducted regarding the possible link between these substances and various cancers are not yet conclusive.

Researchers are working on this issue at the moment, but meanwhile, most of them suggest that we shouldn’t be paranoid about parabens, but treat this matter with caution. Always remember that if you are really concerned about parabens, there are alternatives available on the market, and online, so you can choose what best fits your needs.

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Have you ever dreamed of having a toned, sculpted abdomen that looks amazing when we go out to the beach? If so, you have certainly asked yourself what are crunches?  However, most of us don’t enjoy spending countless hours at the gym and doing complicated exercises that don’t show any results. Everyone wishes to discover a secret recipe for perfect abs, but truth is there is a simple solution, and it’s no secret at all.

Crunches are the best exercise to do if you want to develop your abdominal muscles, and get the defined look celebrities flaunt on the cover of beauty magazines. This simple series of movements doesn’t require weights or fancy gym equipment; the only necessary tool is your own body. All you need to do is learn the different variations to the classic crunches in order to work every area of your abdomen, and the results will show.

What are crunches?

Woman doing crunches at home

Crunches are one of the most common exercises recommended for working the abdominal muscles. Crunches can be done by almost everyone, and they don’t require assistance or additional equipment. If you want to tone your abs or just love a bit of the extra weight on your belly, this simple exercise is the secret for you. If you have the necessary motivation to dedicate 10-20 minutes to it daily, the results will be amazing.

Well, what are crunches? Abdominal crunches refer to the simple movement of lifting your torso off the floor toward your bended knees while supporting your neck with your hands. It’s just as simple as it sounds.

Crunches Step-by-Step

  • You start by laying on your back on the floor, facing upwards.
  • Bend your knees and rest your feet on the floor at a comfortable distance.
  • Place your interlaced fingers behind your neck or back of the head.
  • Slowly lift your torso towards your knees, while supporting your head with the hands.
  • Be careful to not lift your entire back from the floor, only lift your shoulders and upper back.
  • Do not push or tilt your head forward, keep it in a straight line.
  • Maintain your crunch and enjoy the tingling feeling in your contracted abs.
  • Slowly release your shoulders back on the floor.

You should repeat this exercise at least twice a day in series of ten. After ten crunches take a break and breath and then start again. Don’t force your body and don’t hurry through it. You are much more efficient if you do the movement slow and controlled, this way you avoid injuries or back and neck pain.

Crunches Variations for a Perfect Abdomen

Apart from the classic crunch, you might have heard of reverse crunch. Well, what are reverse crunches? As the name suggests, they are an inversion of this exercise that also works your abs, getting you closer to a toned abdomen. For reverse crunches, you have to lie on your back with your feet lifted at 90 degrees. Rest your hands either on your stomach or along your hips, whichever feels more comfortable. Then, lift your bent legs up to your head, until you’re your lower back leaves the floor. As usual, do not force your body, and do not try to lift your entire back off the floor. You will get more efficiency, only possible back injuries.

Another great exercise to try is side crunch. Created exactly for the side muscles in your abdomen, side crunches help you lose weight and tone your abs. It’s not difficult to guess what are side crunches, but you should read through this guide if you want to do them correctly and avoid injuries. For side crunches you lay on your back with your knees bent and placed on one side, one on top pf the other. Place your heads behind your neck and lift towards the ceiling. Do it for at least 10 times on each side.

How to do crunches at home?

After you’ve learned what are crunches, now is the time to learn how to them. The good news about crunches is that you can do them anywhere, even in the comfort of your own bedroom. You don’t need a lot of space or a fancy gym membership. You don’t even need to have shoes on; you can even do crunches in your pajamas. All the necessary equipment is the weight of your own body that will help your muscles develop.

If you don’t feel comfortable lying directly on the floor, use a yoga or fitness mat that will also feel better on your back. Lay down on your mat and start with the regular crunches presented above, then switch to the two variations, reverse and side crunches. Do at least 2 series of 10 repetitions for each, and you will immediately feel the contractions in your muscles.

If you manage to start and end your day with a few series of crunches, you will see the benefits in no time: stronger, more toned abdomen and visible loss of belly fat.

Crunches vs. Sit-ups

There has been an ongoing discussion in the fitness community regarding which option is the best; crunches or sit-ups. Not a lot of people know the difference between the two, and the correct way to execute them. Sit-ups are similar to crunches, as you are seated in the same position, laying on the floor with the knees bent. The difference is that for sit-ups you actually need to lift your entire back of the floor.

The problem with sit-ups is that they are not recommended for people who suffer from back pain or who have problems with their spine. The movement of lifting until your head touches your knees can be damaging to the neck and back. Knowing that sit-ups don’t engage the abs more than crunches, and they don’t provide faster results, but only increase risks, you should stick to crunches.

Fitness experts suggest doing crunches at least twice a day if you want to see results. These classic abdominal exercises are free, effective and available to everyone, regardless of their athletic abilities. Now that you know what are crunches, you should get on your mat and get started. You will certainly be impressed by your new, toned and defined abs!

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Are you getting ready to bake your favorite cake, but you got stuck on the recipe? Do you need to know how many tablespoons in an ounce to ensure you are using the right quantities? If you can’t find your way around conversions from tablespoons, teaspoon, and cups to ounces, and feel discouraged, don’t worry, we have all the answers you need. Read out the article and you will be ready to correctly transform all your number into the right equivalent in the Imperial system.

First, we need to clear our notions a little, before we can get to the actual cooking. There are two types of ingredients for cooking and baking, and they come with different measurements systems. We have the dry ingredients such as flour or cocoa powder and the liquid or wet ingredients, such as milk, water or honey. The dry ones are measured in tablespoons (tbsp.) and cups in the American system and can be converted to ounces (fl oz). For the liquid ingredients, we use table tablespoons, and we can also convert them to ounces, also known as fluid ounces.

Flour and pieces of butter

Tablespoons to Fluid Ounce Conversion – How Many Tablespoons in an Ounce?

Let’s not get confused by the various systems of teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, and ounces. There is a logical progression here, so here are the most common quantities converted in fluid ounces. So, one tablespoon of liquid equals 0.5 fluid ounces, and one fluid ounce contains two tablespoons. This applies to measuring the volume of fluids such as milk or water, which are generally presented in recipes measured in tablespoons. Here you can see how many tablespoons in an ounce to ensure that you get the right quantity.

Imperial American
0.5 fl oz 1 tbsp
1 fl oz 2 tbsp
1.5 fl oz 3 tbsp
2 fl oz 4 tbsp (¼ cup)
2.5 fl oz 5 tbsp (1/3 cup)
3 fl oz 6 tbsp
3.5 fl oz 7 tbsp
4 fl oz 8 tbsp (½ cup)
4.5 fl oz 9 tbsp
5 fl oz 10 tbsp (2/3 cup)
6 fl oz 12 tbsp (¾ cup)
8 fl oz 16 tbsp (1 cup)
9 fl oz 18 tbsp
10 fl oz 20 tbsp

So, how many tablespoons are in an ounce? The answer is two tbsp. per fl oz. If you follow the table, it will be very easy to rapidly transform liquid ingredients in the necessary system, and you don’t even need to count, add or subtract.

Tablespoons to Ounce Conversion for Dry Ingredients

How many tablespoons in an ounce of dry ingredients, you ask? The answer is ½ ounces or three teaspoons. It’s the same as for liquid ingredients, as you can see in the table above. The only difference between measuring liquid volume and the dry measure equivalents is the introduction of the cup. Transforming ounces to cups and tablespoons can get your head spinning, but things are not as difficult as they seem.

The confusion arises when dry ingredients are measured in cups. So, how do you know how many tablespoons are in a cup of flour? Look at the table below and you will see how it works. It’s not that complicated after you understand that tablespoons are a subunit of cups, and there are 16 tablespoons in a cup, 8 in half a cup and so on.

American Standard
1 tbsp 1/16 cup
2 tbsp 1/8 cup
4 tbsp ¼ cup
5 1/3 tbsp 1/3 cup
8 tbsp 1/2 cup
12 tbsp ¾ cup
32 tbsp 2 cups

Although cups match the dry ingredients, you might come across expressions such as “Add one cup of milk” or “Pour half a cup of water”, and if you do, don’t despair. There is a simple solution to convert cups to tablespoons and then to ounces if you need to. Just look at the table above and find the amount presented in your recipe, then transform it into tablespoons.

Various Conversions for Different Ingredients

After you have looked through the two tables, your cheesecake recipe measurement conversions will prove to be as easy as pie. If you need to add butter, for example, four ounces equals how many tablespoons? The answer is eight tablespoons or half a cup of butter. To find out how many tablespoons are in 8 ounces, just double that, so 16 tbsp. How many tablespoons in an ounce should no longer be a tricky question for you.

If you need to convert ingredients from fl oz to tbsp and need to know how many ounces in a tablespoon just look at the first table. The answer is ¼. If you need to add half an ounce of milk to your cake, and you don’t have a special cup all you need to do is find out how many tablespoons in a fluid ounce. You have two add two tablespoons of milk.

Useful Tips to Clear Things Up

If you find yourself stuck in front of a recipe, and you are afraid that you will get the quantities wrong just think about the volume measurements in term of progression. The smallest unity is a teaspoon, then comes the tablespoon, then the ounce and lastly the cup. It will be easier for you to understand the conversions and then measure exactly what you need to make the perfect cake.

Keep in mind that Australian and British people have their own variations that don’t coincide with the American ones, while Europeans use an entirely different system, the metric one. In Europe, they measure the volume of liquids in milliliters, and the weight of dry ingredients in grams.

Another fun fact is that the Australians use the tablespoon as a measurement, but theirs is almost twice as big as the American one. Apparently, cooking and baking are not as simple as they might seem, but still, it will be easy for you to manage after you understood how to measure the ingredients. Now all you have to do is start your oven and then pick a delicious recipe. So, anyway, how many tablespoons in an ounce?

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Before you go for a visit to your dentist, you might want to get a head start about how much money you will have to pay for your root canal intervention. How much does a root canal cost and what should you expect? A root canal is one of the most common dental interventions, and the price varies based on a lot of factors starting from the severity of the intervention, the required treatment, your specific dental insurance and of course, your geographical location.

First, you need to understand what you will be going through, and then inquire about how much does root canal cost.  The root canal can be done on any tooth, from incisor to molar, and it usually refers to the process of cleaning and fixing a damaged tooth. The crown is removed, the nerve and pulp are removed and then cleaned and sealed to prevent infections.

How much does a root canal cost

How Much Does a Root Canal Cost with Insurance?

You should keep in mind that the average insurance covers only a part of your treatment, so be sure to check that out before heading to the orthodontist. Meanwhile, here is all the information you need regarding the cost of a root canal intervention if you have insurance. Most insurance plans cover between 50% to 90% for procedures like fillings, crowns, and root canals.

If you have good insurance, you should expect to pay an average of around $600 for a root canal on a front tooth, while for the back teeth which are harder to reach, the average is a little over one thousand dollars.  In Ontario, Canada, for example, if you want to get a root canal you will pay between $300 and $750 depending on the state of the teeth. You should keep in mind that your insurance may cover a percentage of your dental care, but you will still have to pay for the rest.

As you have seen, the answer to how much does a root canal cost greatly vary according to multiple factors such as location, insurance and the state of your damaged tooth.

How Much Does a Root Canal Cost Without Insurance?

The question how much does it cost for a root canal is a scary one, especially if you don’t have insurance. The main problem is that apart from the root canal itself you have to get further treatment, a new crown installed, and that means more money out of your pocket.  On average, if you pay cash, your root canal may go up to over $2,000, depending on your location and the clinic you choose.

There are tricks to use if you can’t afford this amount of money, to ensure that you get good treatment for a more affordable price. Stay away from the fancy NYC clinics and go to a dental school for your treatment. The dental students will do the work for a much lower fee, and they are always supervised by a professional, so you don’t need to worry!

Root Canal + Crown Total Costs On Average

As  we’ve already mentioned,  the  root canal is not your only worry, as you have to think about the further  interventions necessary for an actual, proper recovery. What you will certainly need is a new crown installed to replace your natural, damaged one. How much does a root canal cost with the new crown? Well, as you have seen prices vary greatly from area to area and clinic to clinic, and they are also affected by the specific insurance you have (private, NHS , etc.).

The average price in the US is around $500 and $900-$1,000 but don’t be surprised if you find out that your private clinic orthodontist charges around $750  and $1,200$ for the same procedures. Keep in mind that there are better options, but don’t go for the cheapest service, because you might end up with more problems than you had to begin with.

Best Countries to Travel to for Dental Treatment

The concept of medical and cosmetic tourism is not a new one, and the area of orthodontics is one of the most developed when it comes to oversea travels for medical issues. A lot of Americans choose to fix their teeth in other countries due to the lower fees they find there. If you are one of them, you need to think about how much money you save if you get treated overseas, and then make sure that your trip is worth it.

So, how much does a root canal cost abroad?Do a little research before deciding to head out and get your root canal in Australia, and do not wait for your problem to get unbearable before you seek treatment. Remember that emergency should be treated immediately. Otherwise, your tooth may get infected and damage the rest of the teeth.

Here are the countries with the most affordable prices for the specific problem of a root canal for front teeth. Remember that the accommodation and travel costs are not included, just the dentist’s average fee.  Eastern Europe countries such as Ukraine and Macedonia $60 have unbelievable prices; you will have to pay around $32 for a root canal in Ukraine and $60 if you choose Macedonia.  India is also affordable, with an average fee of only $61 per root canal intervention. Keep in mind that Australia, for example, has almost the same prices as the US, so it wouldn’t be a great choice if you want to save money.

What You Need to Know Before Heading to the Dentist

The most important thing to understand is that if you need a root canal, that means that your tooth is greatly damaged, so you should get it fixed as soon as possible. The dangers of an infection that might spread to your blood system cannot be overstated, so do not allow your tooth to get even more infected.

If the amount of money you have to pay makes your jaw drop before going out of the door, remember that there are alternative solutions out there, so you can reduce that gigantic sum. Your insurance will cover a significant part of it, and if you don’t have one, there are still options. Go to a dental school and let the students perform the procedure, the fee will be much lower, and they will do their job right under professional supervision.

Even if the hundreds or possibly thousands of dollars you have to pay give you an even worse toothache, don’t postpone the treatment, because the root canal infections can lead to serious problems. Now you know how much a root canal costs and how you can find a better price, so go in for the treatment.
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Are you eager to find out more about the amazing health benefits of coconut oil? As this oil is such a versatile and popular product these days, the questions we are answering to in this post are:

  • Why is coconut oil good for?
  • What are the benefits and properties of this superfood?
  • What are the best uses of organic coconut oil?
  • How should you cook with coconut oil?

Health Benefits of Coconut Oil

Surprising Health Benefits of Coconut Oil & Its Miraculous Properties

Touching on the organic coconut oil health benefits, we have discovered that it has a significant number of positive effects. Not only it helps to stabilize blood sugar and lowers cholesterol, but also it gives a boost to your immune system.

Let’s have a quick look at the coconut oil health benefits and miraculous medicinal properties:

  • It fights viruses and infections.
  • It improves digestion.
  • It reduces inflammations.
  • It fights memory loss.
  • It helps with weight loss.
  • It has antioxidant and anti-aging properties
  • It speeds up metabolism.
  • It helps with thyroid production.
  • It is an excellent skin moisturizer.
  • It is beneficial for heart health.
  • It reduces triglycerides.
  • It improves blood coagulation.

One of the most popular practices today, related to this wonder oil is the coconut oil pulling.

Coconut Oil Pulling Benefits – Preserving Oral Health

  • Prevents bad breath, cavities & tooth decay.
  • Heals gums diseases.
  • Whitens teeth.
  • Ameliorates acne and other skin conditions.
  • Soothes dry throat.

Health Benefits of Coconut Oil: Weight Loss

Coconut oil is known as being extremely beneficial for weight loss diets. How to use coconut oil for weight loss? Well, the benefits of this superfood are many as regards dietary problems. A coconut oil diet provides you with an incredible energy boost, and improves digestion, to name just two important aspects.

Moreover, coconut is an important fiber source. From the perspective of a dietary diet, coconut has both digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates. According to medical research, very few calories are derived from it.

Interestingly, the coconut oil saturated fat has a positive impact on weight loss. This is said to reduce the blood sugar, and sweet cravings too.

This wonder food has a low glycemic index too and is a great agent against Diabetes. Additionally, it is gluten-free, hypoallergenic and contains no trans-fats.

How to eat coconut oil and maintain your body healthily and beautiful? Check out our last section on cooking, and discover a few tasty coconut oil recipes here.

Learn that a coconut oil diet can also include the use of coconut milk. Is coconut milk good for you as well? The answer is yes! It contains many vitamins, and minerals, as well as high amounts of antioxidants.

As an alternative to a coconut oil-based diet, you can use coconut oil pills that work well as supplements.

beauty uses of coconut oil - moisturizer

Astounding Beauty Uses of Coconut Oil

Have you ever considered using coconut oil not only as food, but also as a beauty product? Well, if not, start swapping out your chemical-based shampoo, make-up remover, and moisturizer, and try out this 100% natural alternative.

Recommended Uses of Coconut Oil for Hair

How to use coconut oil on hair? Make a coconut oil mask, shampoo, and hair conditioner! Coconut oil provides frizz protection and frizz control. What is more, it leaves your hair soft and glowy.

 

Recommended Uses of Coconut Oil for Skin

What are the most popular coconut uses for skin? Whether you make a hair mask, use coconut oil as a moisturizer, or as body oil, its light creamy texture makes this miraculous product one of the best natural anti-aging agent.

Coconut oil is an effective cuticle softener, as well as an ultra-hydrating lip balm. As it is so delicate, it is also beneficial as under-eye cream and make-up remover. Why not use it as a highlighter as well? Of course, the last mentioned use is not recommended for those who have a natural glowy skin.

As a tip, enhance your coconut oil-based beauty products with natural fragrance oils.

Unusual Coconut Oil Skin Benefits and Uses:

  • It removes dead cells used as a body scrub along with sea salt.
  • It acts as a moisturizing and shooting shaving cream.
  • It makes for a safe-to-use, healthy toothpaste.
  • It works well as a sunburn treatment.

interesting health benefits of coconut

Unexpected Uses of Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is incredibly beneficial for pets as well. Wonder what are the health benefits of coconut oil for dogs? Well, learn that by adding it to their water on a daily basis, they will get a fresher breath and healthier joints. If used internally, coconut oil will boost their energy levels as well. So, it is better to talk to your vet about the right dose.

Cooking with Extra Virgin Coconut Oil

Whether you are baking, frying, or roasting, coconut oil is an amazing asset in the kitchen, not only in your 100% ecologic make-up kit.

Research shows that cooking with organic coconut oil is similar to cooking with olive oil as far as the smoke point, and fat alert are concerned. Some studies reveal limited evidence of heart benefits in case of coconut oil diets because of its saturated fat level.

However, medical opinions seem to vary a lot. Here is what Joy Dubost, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, says:

“Coconut oil contains a mixture of saturated fatty acids, some of which don’t adversely affect cholesterol levels.”

Also, there is evidence that people who eat over 60% of their calories from coconuts, specifically those who live in the South Pacific, are in excellent health.

Thus, it is safe to use coconut oil instead of other oils, and even more so instead of butter.

How to Cook With Coconut Oil

As regards coconut oil recipes, according to Health Cleveland Clinic, this wonder aliment is well-suitable for:

  • Sautés.
  • Sauces.
  • Low-heat baking.
  • Medium smoke point.

Coconut Oil Nutrition Quick Facts

When cooking with coconut oil, consider the following brief nutritional values:

infographic: health benefits of coconut oilEnergy per 100g: 862 kcal

Vitamins: E, K

Minerals: Iron

Fat Acids: Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs), Lauric Acid

Saturated Fat per 100g: 86g

Monounsaturated fat: 6g

Polyunsaturated fat: 1.8 g

Cholesterol: 0 mg

Carbohydrates: 0

Sugars: 0

Protein: 0

Sodium: 0

This brings our post on the miraculous health benefits of coconut oil to an end. Hope you enjoyed reading it. If you have any questions, thoughts or suggestions you’d like to share, please do not hesitate to message us.

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Is dental laboratory technology the right career path for you? We are here to help you make a more informed decision. Find out everything you need to know about the average dental technician salary, job requirements and opportunities, as well as information about top paying industries and areas for this occupation in the US today.

The Average Dental Technician Salary in the US

Currently, a dental technician in the United States can earn between $24,867 and $62,789 annually. According to recent statistics, the average dental technician salary is $42,129. Among the aspects that have a great impact on how much a dental technician brings home every year, work location takes first place, followed by years of experience and skills.

 female dental technician at work

What are the Benefits of Being a Dental Technician?

Dental technicians are among those lucky professionals who can earn a little extra cash from bonuses and profit sharing. They can add up to their annual wage bonuses up to $1,973, and a profit sharing between $1,000 and $2,543.

As regards other benefits, more than half of the individuals reporting to Pay Scale have medical cover, around 40% are provided with dental insurance and 20% have vision insurance as well.

What Does a Dental Technician Do?

Dental technicians or dental laboratory technicians provide dental prosthetic services. They work with specific instruments, hand tools (files, polishers) and materials (wax, plastic, acrylics, porcelain) to make dental appliances ordered by dentists. They are also responsible for dental restoration work.

Some dental technicians use computer software either to create models for the appliances they create, or to get impressions from patients.

Even if there is no formal profession training required to become a dental technician, they can specialize in six areas of expertise and perform more complex tasks. These are: complete dentures, partial dentures, implants, ceramics, crowns and bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

Dental technicians work with dentists and oral surgeon to find solutions to dental problems, but the typical work setting is not a dental office. They do not interact with patients, and normally perform only in laboratories.

What Are the Main Tasks of a Dental Technician?

A dental technician produces dental constructions or repairs existing dental prosthesis.

  • Create dentures, crowns, bridges, implants, veneers or other dental appliances.
  • Follow the specifications of dentists.
  • Evaluate problems and find solutions.
  • Analyze and adjust molds of patient’s teeth for accurate results.
  • Choose appropriate materials according to the prescription or treatment plan made by dentists.
  • Use lab instruments and tools such as grinders, files and polishers to polish and shape the appliances they create.
  • Restore dental constructions and appliances according to patient’s needs.
  • Spot imperfections in the devices they create and repair them.
  • Work well with hands.
  • Pay attention to details so that the resulted structures have a natural appearance and function.
  • Follow safety requirements.
  • Clean the equipment they use.

Job Requirements

Dental technicians are not required to undergo specific educational programs. However, there are minimum training conditions in order to perform in the field, as well as optional certifications available.

Education &Training

Most dental technicians in the US hold a high school diploma. This is based on the fact that the majority of dental lab technicians gain experience and skills on the job.

Even so, employers generally prefer dental technicians who have a higher degree or certification in the field. These are also needed for more complex operations and dental structures, such as orthodontic appliances.

Certifications & Licenses

Dental technicians can gain more complex professional skills by following an accredited dental laboratory technician program.

Also, there are organizations who provide certifications in the field, such as The National Board for Certification in Dental Laboratory Technology (NBC). Certified Dental Technicians (CDT) are mainly found in specialized areas such as implants, ceramics and orthodontic appliances.  NBC also provides a Certificate of Competency in each specific skill. Dental technicians are required, in this case, to pass a written and practical exam on the skill they want to specialize in.

To be certified as a dental technician, a minimum of 5-year experience in dental technology is required or having completed a dental laboratory technician program.

For more information on certification requirements and exams, you can visit the NBC official website.

Dental Technician Skills

As dental technicians operate with complex laboratory instruments and machines they need to understand how different tools work and learn to use them appropriately. If you consider choosing dental technology as a field of practice, make sure you have the following skills:

  • Dexterity
  • Technical Skills
  • Attention to Details
  • Precision
  • Analytical Skills

Work Hours

Dental technicians generally work on a full time basis.

 

Dental Lab Technician Salary by Industry

Typically, a dental technician works in a laboratory. But the work settings for such professionals are more diverse than that. They are found in offices of dentists or other practitioners, in dental schools and colleges, or in health care institutions. Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories are, though, the most profitable choices if you consider applying for a dental technician job.

Here are the top paying industries for this occupation:

Industry Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories $32.23 $67,040
Federal Executive Branch (OES Designation) $26.21 $54,520
Offices of Other Health Practitioners $23.21 $48,280
Offices of Dentists $19.69 $40,960
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools $19.40 $40,360

Dental Technician Salary by State

According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the highest employment level for dental technicians is recorded in California, where such professionals can earn $19.52 per hour. However, higher salaries are found in Alaska and Massachusetts, where dental technicians make an average of $26, and $25, every hour. If you want to aim high, relocate in Rochester, NY, where you can earn up to $60,000 per year.

Here is a summary of useful information provided by the US BLS:

Highest Concentration of Dental Technician Jobs in the US

State Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
California $19.52 $40,610
Florida $19.10 $39,730
Texas $18.54 $38,550
New York $23.69 $49,280
Michigan $19.78 $41,130

Top Paying States for Dental Technicians

State Hourly Pay Rate Average Annual Salary
Alaska $26.05 $54,180
Massachusetts $25.24 $52,500
New York $23.69 $49,280
Connecticut $22.44 $46,670
Montana $22.43 $46,650

Top Paying Metropolitan Areas for Dental Technicians

Metropolitan area Hourly Pat Rate Average Annual Salary
Rochester, NY $28.84 $59,990
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA NECTA Division $28.34 $58,940
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT $28.20 $58,660
Appleton, WI $28.12 $58,490
Idaho Falls, ID $27.36 $56,910
Anchorage, AK $26.05 $54,180
New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division $25.42 $52,870
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC $25.06 $52,120
Nassau-Suffolk, NY Metropolitan Division $24.61 $51,200
Waco, TX $24.48 $50,910

Job Prospects for Dental Technicians

According to BLS, the employment level for this profession is projected to grow with 7 % until 2022. This means that 5,600 new jobs are made available over a period of ten years, which is considered a slower growth of job opportunities as compared to other occupations.

 

Quick Job Facts

Average Dental Technician Salary as for May 2015  $42K
Entry-level Average Dental Technician Salary (0-5 years) $28K
Mid-level Career Average Dental Technician Salary (5-10 years) $34K
Experienced Average Dental Technician Salary (10 – 20 years) $39K
Late Career Average Dental Technician Salary (>20 years) $44K
Education Requirements  High school Diploma (minimum)Higher Degree (preferred)
Training On-the-job Training
Certification & Licenses CDT issued by NBC (optional)Certification of Competency  (optional)
Top Paying State Alaska ($54K)
Work Hours 40 hours/ week (full time)
Job Prospects 7% employment growth between 2012 and 2022

 

 

 

 

 

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As a fact, dental professionals are among best paid physicians worldwide. The average dentist salary in the US today is around $123 K per year, which does not include cash compensations for specialists like orthodontists or dental surgeons. Find out what the highest dentist wages are across the States and what factors influence the amount of money they earn.

The Average General Dentist Salary in the US

Statistics show that in average, a general dentist can bring home no less than $75,506 and no more than $232,336 as for May, 2015.

A portrait of a dental assistant smiling at the camera with the dentist working in the background.

What are the Benefits of Being a Dentist?

If you wonder what other benefits are there for dentists, not only that they have paid holidays and medical cover, but also can benefit from bonuses, commissions and profit sharing. If bonuses can reach $25k annually, profit sharing and commissions can exceed $80k.

What Does a General Dentist Do?

To put it simple, everybody knows what dentists do. They ensure we have nice and healthy smiles, taking care of our oral hygiene or teeth injuries. General dentists are professionals that work in the health care system, performing general practice as compared to practitioners who chose to further specialize and perform more complex tasks. These other specialties include endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics, prosthodontics and dental public health, which are far better paid.

What Are the Main Duties of a General Dentist?

  • Examine patients with diseases or injuries of teeth, gums and related tissues.
  • Conduct tests and examine X-rays to identify diseases and malformations of teeth and mouth tissues.
  • Diagnose dental diseases; these may be problems of gums, nerve, pulp etc.
  • Treat problems like decayed or cracked teeth
  • Prescribe forms of treatment and medications to correct teeth damages.
  • Advise and provide preventive care to patients with teeth problems.

How to Become a Dentist?

Becoming a dentist requires time and dedication. The average training a general dentist has to undergo may take 8 years in average. As we have already touched on this subject, please access our post to find out more about how long it takes to become a doctor of dental medicine.

To sum it up, these are the job requirements for this profession:

Education &Training

  • To earn the title of doctor of dental medicine, you need to apply for an undergraduate program at an accredited dental school.
  • Completing a four-year degree if not enough to become a dentist tough. In order to practice you also have to pass a national examination and fulfill continuing trainings.

Residency

If you wish to further specialize, you need to follow additional training depending on the nine dental specialties. This means you will complete a 1- or 2-year residency in a postgraduate program related to the field you chose. Dental surgery may require 4 additional years of training after completing the 4-year degree.

Exams, Certifications and Licenses

All dentists need to be licensed in the state they wish to practice. This may require passing a written and practical examination.

Work Hours

Dentists, like the majority of health professionals work full time, which means 37 and 40 hours per week. Their schedule vary depending on work setting and patients’ needs.

 

Dentists Salary by Specialty

Wonder what’s the best paid dental specialty out there?

If the average salary of a general dentist is around $127K, a pediatric dentist salary can reach an average of $177k and a maximum of $256K. Orthodontists appear to earn $200k in average per year, while prosthodontists can get around $150k. The best pay rate is, though, for oral and maxillofacial surgeons, whose salaries range between $100k and $444 k annually.

If you are curious about how much other dental care workers make as compared to a dental specialist, according to PayScale, the dentist assistant salary is around $31K per year, while the average dental hygienist salary slightly exceeds $70k.

Dentist Salary by Industry

Average wages for dental professionals depend not only on years of experience and specialty, but also on geographical location and industry. As regards the work settings for dentists, these generally perform in public or private offices or as self-employed professionals.

Here are the top paying industries for this occupation:

Industry Annual Average Salary
Offices of Dentists $169,360
Management of Companies and Enterprises $165,180
State Government (OES Designation) $156,270
Offices of Other Health Practitioners $153,380
Employment Services $152,610

Dentist Salary by State

According to Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates conducted by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2014, the highest concentration of jobs for this occupation is located in Massachusetts, with an annual average payment of $175K. Montana is the first runner up, followed by Maryland.

However, highest annual salaries are for dentists working in Delaware, New Hampshire and Alaska, with wages ranging from $204K to $225K.

As regards top paying metropolitan areas, a dentist working in Lafayette, IN can bring home no less than $264K.

 Employment Facts – Highest Concentration of Jobs in the US

State Number of Jobs Hourly mean wage Annual Average Salary
Massachusetts 3,520 $84.27 $175,280
Montana 450 $62.69 $130,390
Maryland 2,500 $76.84 $159,830
Utah 1,240 $54.32 $112,990
South Dakota 390 $79.13 $164,590

 

 

Top Paying States

State Hourly Rate Annual Average Salary
Delaware $108.09 $224,830
New Hampshire $104.92 $218,230
Alaska $98.98 $205,880
North Carolina $98.95 $205,820
Vermont $98.44 $204,760

Top paying metropolitan areas:

Metropolitan area Hourly Rate Annual Average Salary
Lafayette, IN $127.17 $264,500
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX $123.50 $256,870
Wausau, WI $122.92 $255,670
Jacksonville, NC $122.91 $255,660
College Station-Bryan, TX $121.92 $253,600
Merced, CA $120.52 $250,690
Idaho Falls, ID $120.34 $250,310
Holland-Grand Haven, MI $118.03 $245,500
Rochester-Dover, NH-ME $117.34 $244,060

Quick Job Facts

General Dentist Average Salary as for May 2015  $122,949
Entry-level Average Salary (0-5 years) $116, 000
Mid-level Career Average Salary (5-10 years) $138,000
Experienced Average Salary (10 – 20 years) $147,000
Late Career Average Salary (>20 years) $153,000
Education Requirements  Bachelor’s Degree for General PracticePostgraduate Training for Specialists
Certification and Licenses License issued by the State of Practice
Best Paying State Delaware ($224,830)
Work Hours 40 hours/ week + additional hoursFlexible schedule according to patients’ needs
Job Prospects Employment level expected to grow with 16 percent + 23,300 new jobs until 2020

 

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