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Dear reader, my name is Erika and I am an actress, arts teacher and film analyst. I studied theatre and film for over four years, and changed more than 15 part-time jobs. What can I say? It is a tough industry. I love dance, especially tango, music, and basically anything art-related. I also enjoy writing about the captivating and dynamic world of entertainment. When I work, I seek the perfect balance between usefulness and beauty. I like to describe myself as the most optimistic person alive.

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It seems like nearly every guide to giving gifts for men includes cufflinks somewhere on the list. But they never answer the most important questions: What are cufflinks, and when should you wear them, anyway? As a woman, I may never put on a pair of cufflinks myself — but I’d still like to know more about them so I can steer the men in my life in the right direction. Plus, maybe they really do make great gifts.

As it turns out, cufflinks do precisely what they sound like: secure the cuffs of a shirt in place. Although they’re considered jewelry, their function is practical as well as decorative. They’re usually worn with business and formal wear.

However, there’s more to the world of cufflinks than just these basics. I took a deep dive to find out everything I could about men’s styling with cufflinks — here’s what I learned.

What Are Cufflinks?

OK, so we know that cufflinks can fasten the cuffs of a dress shirt closed. But what are cufflinks, how exactly do they work, and where do they come from?

The predecessor to cufflinks was actually the strings men used to tie together the sleeves of their shirts in the 1500s. Fancy, decorative cuffs were fashionable at the time, but men had started to realize that they weren’t very practical unless tied down in some way.

By the 1600s, the impractical ribbon ties had started to give way to easy-to-use sleeve buttons. Those buttons often sported fancy designs, sometimes with entire paintings in miniature on each one.

Of course, they were only accessible to the upper class, who had the luxury of investing in fashion. Royalty would even have commemorative cufflinks made for special occasions.

These buttons were first made of glass, then jewels like diamonds. Some attribute their widespread popularity to Alexandre Dumas, the famous French writer. A character in his 1844 novel “The Count of Monte Cristo” wore large diamond cufflinks. After it was published, interest in wearing cufflinks spiked.

However, they didn’t become popular among working-class men until the Industrial Revolution spread around the world. Modern manufacturing techniques made things like cufflinks much more affordable. Suddenly, even men who weren’t rich could go out and buy them, instead of watching the upper class and wondering “What are cufflinks?”

These modern versions became simpler, often made of metal rather than jewels. However, they were still made using creative designs of all sorts, reflecting the style of the times. For example, in the 1920s, Art Deco cufflinks became popular.

If Shirts Have Buttons, Why Use Cufflinks?

Man wearing a grey suit

​Image via Pexels

Over time, retailers who mass-produced shirts realized that people wanted an easy way to fasten them without jewelry. Today, almost all dress shirts have buttons on the cuffs. We know the answer to “What are cufflinks?” now, but why do they still exist?

Basically, cufflinks offer a fancier alternative to buttons. Instead of using a simple, mass-produced plastic button, cufflinks make a statement with a dash of shine and personality.

Today, we generally reserve cufflinks for formal occasions like weddings. If you work in an old-fashioned office and wear a suit every day, cufflinks also might be part of your daily work wear. And anytime you’re going to a black tie or white tie event; cufflinks are a must (more on those later).

However, you can technically wear cufflinks with any shirt that has cuff buttons. Some men choose to make a fashion statement by wearing cufflinks where they’re not expected.

Cufflinks or studs?

When researching “What are cufflinks?” I also found a lot of information about studs. Studs are a similar men’s jewelry item, but they aren’t the same thing.

Cufflinks are only used on a shirt’s sleeves, while studs can replace the buttons on the front of a tuxedo shirt. Wearing cufflinks creates a formal or semi-formal look, but adding studs makes it even fancier.

How to Wear Cufflinks

Knowing how to answer “What are cufflinks?” doesn’t help much when it’s time to actually put them on. These accessories take a little finesse to wear.

First, look for shirts designed for wearing with cufflinks (more on those in a bit). You can also take your existing dress shirts to a tailor and have the buttons removed so you can add cufflinks.

Now, it’s time to put your cufflinks on. Basically, they work by going through the holes on each piece of the cuff, then fitting together to keep the cuff closed. Cufflinks typically have a decorative “top” or “head” part, a post to fit through the holes, and then a hinged toggle end to keep the whole thing in place.

You’ll slide the post of the cufflink through the sleeve’s holes, with the hinged part closed so that the base forms a straight line. Then, you can move the hinged end to its “open” position to secure the sleeve. Once your cufflinks are on, only the decorative top part will be visible.

Stud-style cufflinks are also popular. These have two parts: a back piece and the decorative front piece. You’ll fit the two pieces together on either side of the sleeve.

There are also a few other styles of cufflinks, but these two are the most common. Each of them can be a bit difficult to put on, so it’s a good idea to practice before the day you plan to wear them.

Styling with Cufflinks

Image of a person wearing a suit with a blue cufflinks

​Image via Pexels

Cufflinks aren’t just something you throw on with any old shirt. To wear them well, you’ll need some styling knowledge. (As a woman searching for the answer to “What are cufflinks?” these tips will help you make sure the men in your life wear them right!)

Here are the shirts to style with cufflinks, and a few styling ideas for different events.

Choosing the right shirts

When deciding which shirts to buy or have tailored, you’ll want to look for a couple of main styles that pair well with cufflinks.

First, there’s the button-cuff option. These shirts aren’t super formal, and they come with buttons attached that you’ll need to remove. This is your basic men’s dress shirt, worn for work and business-casual occasions.

However, men traditionally wear cufflinks with a French cuff shirt (sometimes called a double cuff shirt). This super-formal style has long cuffs that you’ll fold back for a layered look. Cufflinks hold the layers together.

French cuff shirts don’t have buttons, but they do already have holes for your cufflinks. They give a very traditional look that most people reserve for special occasions.

The events to wear cufflinks to

Different kinds of cufflinks

​Image via Pexels

Now, let’s take a look at some of the places where it makes sense to wear cufflinks, and how to style the right look for each one.


Only the most formal work environments require cufflinks. However, even in workplaces that don’t require them, some men may choose to wear them to make a good impression.

​Cufflinks let you add personality to your work clothes in subtle, office-appropriate ways. Most cufflinks are easy to pair with a basic white dress shirt. But if you want to wear them with a colored dress shirt, you’ll need to take a bit more care to make sure your cufflinks don’t clash with the color.

​Cufflinks in black, white, or metallic colors are easy to pair with just about any dress shirt for work.

Black tie affair

If the invitation says “black tie” is the dress code, cufflinks may not be required, but they are a good choice.

​Pick a sleek, simple design in a classic color, like these in onyx and mother-of-pearl. While your work cufflinks might show more personality, your formal cufflinks should be classy and subtle — although they can still have stylish, interesting designs. Many high-fashion designers make logo cufflinks that look great with formal wear, for example.

White tie affair

White tie is the most formal evening dress code in the Western world. These invitations are rare, but if you get one, you’ll want to make sure cufflinks are part of your look.

​For a white tie event, your cufflinks should be the most formal of all. Simple, understated designs with luxe constructions work well. This is an excellent time to try cufflinks made from precious or semi-precious stones, although classic metal is a good choice, too.

Special occasions

Even if the invitation doesn’t specify black tie or white tie, you might opt for cufflinks to special occasions, from weddings to work parties. In these cases, you can choose your cufflinks based on how formal of an impression you want to make. For example, you could wear fun, colorful cufflinks to a friend’s laidback wedding, but save your more conservative styles for a networking event.

​Should You Give Cufflinks as a Gift?

Now that we can all answer “What are cufflinks?” and many other cufflink questions, one more issue remains: Do they really make good gifts for men?

The answer all depends on what sorts of events he has to attend. If you know a man who already wears cufflinks to work regularly, they’ll make an excellent present. They can also be a nice gesture ahead of an exciting or intimidating occasion, like a big job interview. If he doesn’t typically wear cufflinks, you could gift them alongside a nice dress shirt to wear with them.

However, as you can now see, cufflinks are reserved for more formal occasions. If you’re shopping for a man who rarely dresses up, even for work, those cufflinks might just sit in a drawer and collect dust.

What do you think? Would you buy cufflinks as a gift (or, as a man, would you buy them for yourself)? Leave a comment and let us know!

Featured image via Pexels

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what is the purpose of a cover letter letter-of-application-application

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Job-hunting is hard. It's tough. Someone somewhere once said you need to write a cover letter to go with your resume, but what is the purpose of a cover letter?

Isn't that just more work you're putting into your already-time consuming and frustrating job hunt?

For each position you look at, you're up against who knows how many other candidates with qualifications like yours. You're probably also aware that you get just a few seconds of the company's attention before they move on to the next candidate. You've probably even asked yourself hundreds of times how to make yourself stand out from the competition.

That is where the purpose of a cover letter comes in. Done right, your cover letter will make you shine.

What Is the Purpose of a Cover Letter, Anyway?

Unless you’re applying for your first job that requires a cover letter and resume, you probably find cover letters extremely annoying. They have to be specific. They have to be tailored. And all of that means that writing a cover letter takes more time than you feel it really needs to.

So what is the purpose of a cover letter?

First off, how do you set yourself apart from other candidates? Your resume lists your previous jobs and job duties, highlights a few accomplishments, and lists your educational background.

In other words, unless you have some unusually good accomplishments, your resume alone will look like the hundreds of others that the hiring manager receives daily.

Secondly, you can use your cover letter to explain employment gaps in your resume. Hiring managers generally don't like to see employment gaps. However, if you can briefly explain that you have a 16-month employment gap because you were ill, then that gap on your resume isn't as likely to stand out as a red flag.

But most importantly, a cover letter is where you introduce yourself to the hiring manager and really showcase your abilities. You need a way to tell the company why you’re the best fit for that particular job, and your resume alone won’t do it.

Your resume also won’t tell the hiring manager whether you know your audience. Companies like applicants that have done some homework. If you can give them an idea of how your skills match their needs, they'll take a harder look at you.

Finally, your cover letter personalizes your resume. It helps make you stick in the hiring manager’s mind so they’ll come back to you when they’re deciding who to interview.

What is a cover letter?

A cover letter is a formal business letter. You don’t want to inject too much humor, inspirational quotes, or anything like that into it. You attach it to the front of your resume so the hiring manager will see it first.

Why you need to know how to write a cover letter

A whopping 45 percent of job-seekers don’t submit cover letters with their resumes. So if you send one, you’ve probably already set yourself apart from almost half your competition.

But that alone isn’t the only reason why you need to know how to write a cover letter. As we said earlier, this is your chance to tell the company who you are, why you’re awesome, and whether or not you understand the company's needs and the job for which you’re applying.

Think of it like a map that matches your skills and accomplishments to the company’s needs.

You can also think of it as a sales pitch. When a cover letter is well-written and contains the right information, hiring managers can see that you understand their needs in addition to whether you’re qualified for the job.

That’s the essential purpose of a cover letter: matching your qualifications and accomplishments to the company’s needs. If you can’t demonstrate that you understand them, they’ll toss your resume aside without much more than a glance and pick up the next one in their pile.

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Essential Elements of a Good Cover Letter

what is the purpose of a cover letter job-search image icon

Now you have an answer to, "What is the purpose of a cover letter?"

You also understand why you need to know how to write them.

But how do you write a good cover letter?

What do you need to put in it?


All good letters start with a good greeting. That's also where you get your first chance to demonstrate that you've done some homework on the company. Don't say, "Dear Sir/Madam," "Dear Hiring Manager," or "To Whom it May Concern." Don't use the name of the company in your greeting, either.

Instead, do some research and find out who the hiring manager is. "Dear Mr. Peterson," comes across far better than, "Dear Sir/Madam," or anything generic. Generic greetings look lazy, and the last thing a hiring manager wants to do is waste time on someone they don't believe will work very hard.

If you can't find the name of the hiring manager online or in the company's info, give them a call and ask. The last thing you want to do is blow your chance at that coveted interview with a lazy greeting.

There's always a chance that you won't be able to find the hiring manager's name. In that situation, skip the greeting altogether and just go straight to your introduction. It's far better to do that than it is to toss in a generic greeting.


Why are you contacting them? Are you responding to a job ad, or are you doing the equivalent of cold-calling?

Introduce yourself and tell them what you're doing. For instance, if you're responding to a job announcement, tell them where you heard about it or saw it.

By the same token, if someone referred you, tell the hiring manager who that person is. Ideally, you'll already have their permission to use them as a reference in your application. If the hiring manager knows and trusts your referral's judgment, you've got a leg up on some of your competition.

You might want to open your introduction with something unique -- but skip the cliches and the lines from inspirational posters and motivational speakers. Make it about the company, like this: "I saw your job announcement in the newspaper, and I was intrigued, so I looked further into your new initiative in the Midwest. I believe my skills and experience will help you achieve your goals in this area."

Cover Letters: The Ultimate Step-by-Step Guide to Writing a Successful...
  • Austin, James (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 50 Pages - 08/10/2017 (Publication Date) - CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (Publisher)


The body of your letter should be concise and limited to just one or two short paragraphs. However, this the meat of your cover letter. Here is where you get to draw your roadmap between your skills and qualifications and the company's needs.

Or, to put it another way, the purpose of a cover letter is to sell yourself and your skills. When you walk into a store, and a salesperson comes to you to ask if they can help, you're going to tell them what you need.

A good salesperson will show you what they have that can address your needs and explain why that particular product or service will meet those needs.

So, if you're having trouble picturing a roadmap, then think of yourself as a salesperson. Put yourself in the hiring manager's shoes and think about what you would need if you were in their position.

Avoid rehashing your resume, though. Many people just restate their resumes in their cover letters, and that's not what you want to do. You need to draw a picture for the hiring manager. Expand on your resume. If you have a particularly impressive or relevant accomplishment, go into detail about it.

Tell the hiring manager exactly how that makes you the best fit for the job.

Closing paragraph

This paragraph should be concise and to the point. In your closing paragraph, briefly explain again why you're interested in the position, why you want to work for the company, and what you can do for them.

Remember, the primary purpose of a cover letter is to tell them how you can meet their needs, not the other way around. Tell them you're excited about the opportunity to help them further their goals.

Don't over-explain or rehash everything. If you can't read your closing paragraph in just a couple of seconds, chances are the hiring manager will view it as chatter.

Other things to consider

Number one, keep the whole letter short. It's incredibly tempting to put every detail of every one of your skills and qualifications in a cover letter. However, the purpose of a cover letter is to grab the hiring manager's attention quickly.

You only have a few seconds to make a huge impact. The longer your cover letter is, the more likely it is the hiring manager won't even read it.

Number two, keep it formal. Don't get too familiar with them by asking them how they are or how their day is going. Avoid starting your introduction with, "Hey there," "Hi," or even, "Hello." Get straight to the point, and keep your tone professional throughout.

Stand Out Cover Letters: How to Write Winning Cover Letters That Get...
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  • 101 Pages - 07/19/2016 (Publication Date) - Independently published (Publisher)

So What Is the Purpose of a Cover Letter Again?

Simply put, the purpose of a cover letter is to draw a picture between your background and how it can meet the company's needs. It's your chance to set yourself apart from your competition and make the type of impact your resume won't.

This letter is where you market your background and skills as a service that will help the company.

As you compose your letter, keep the purpose of a cover letter at the forefront of your mind. Yes, it's tedious and hard work. Yes, you might find yourself frustrated.

But since the purpose of a cover letter is to set yourself apart and help the company get to know you, it's well worth your time and effort.

Have an idea for how to write a stellar cover letter that we missed? Leave it in the comments!

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If you’re currently contemplating your future career options and are good with computers, your future looks pretty bright. Computer engineers earn pretty well – but while the job can be demanding, the benefits are well worth the overtime. Workers generally specialize in hardware or software. Hardware refers to computer systems and their components, like circuit boards, memory devices, and so on. Meanwhile, the term software includes various applications that enable users to make the most of their devices. So what is the average computer engineering salary in the US?

Hardware engineers make about $72.094 per year on average, while software engineers earn a little more – about $77.982 annually. Generally speaking, wages range between $40.901 and $112.657 for computer hardware engineers. Software engineers, on the other hand, earn between $53.816 and $112.657.

The average computer engineering salary depends on skill and experience, regardless of specialization. It can also fluctuate based on the city workers operate and, of course, the employer. Read on to find more about the profession and cash compensation/bonuses.

computer engineering salary hardware engineer at work

Average Computer Engineering Salary and Benefits

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, computer hardware engineers earned an average of $114,600 per year in 2018. Computer software engineers or software developers earn a median pay of $105,590 per year according to the same stats. The website PayScale, however, depicts lower averages. According to them, engineers specialized in hardware take home $81,057 on average and software developers $83,681 per year.

Besides your average computer engineering salary, the job also comes with perks, which usually involve yearly bonuses and profit shares up to $20k. Additionally, both careers benefit from medical, dental and, in some instances, even vision insurances.

Computer Engineering Job Description

Engineers dealing in hardware are employed by companies which are specialized in research, design, development or testing computers and components. They also may be hired by companies which deal with computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, as well as for scientific use. The job description includes the supervision and installment of computer or computer-related equipment and components.

On the other hand, software developers deal with researching, designing, developing and testing operating systems-level software and compilers. They also handle network distribution software for a series of different fields. They include medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications. To earn their computer engineering salary, workers are required to apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering and mathematical analysis during a regular workday.

What Tasks Does a Computer Engineer Perform?

Below we will list the tasks computer engineers in each field.

Workers specialized in hardware do the following:

  • Research, design, develop and test computer or computer-related equipment.
  • Provide technical support to team members.
  • Define and coordinate corrective action changes.
  • Write documentation and test specifications.

Tasks for workers specialized in software:

  • Write, modify and debug software.
  • Design and develop application components.
  • Test and document software.
  • Analyze requirements and transform them into technical designs.

Computer Engineering Job Requirements

Computer Engineering Training, Education & Certification

Both fields of work require a Bachelor’s Degree and some companies might require potential employees to have a Master’s Degree. The BA must be obtained in areas such as engineering, computer science, or related fields. Certificates for various skills, such as Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), will not only increase an applicant’s chances to obtain the post, but might also help secure a better paycheck – mainly higher than the average computer engineering salary.

General Skills Engineers Specialized in Software Have in Their CV

  • Programming Skills.
  • Active Learning Skills.
  • Critical Thinking Skills.
  • Complex Problem Solving.
  • Troubleshooting Skills.
  • Judgment and Decision Making Skills.
  • Quality Control Analysis Skills.
  • Time Management Skills.
  • System Analysis Skills.
  • Systems Evaluation Skills.
  • Equipment Selection Skills.
  • Mathematics Skills.
  • Technology Design Skills.
  • Reading Comprehension Skills.

General Skills Engineers Specialized in Hardware Have in Their CV

  • Critical Thinking Skills.
  • Speaking Skills.
  • Active Listening and Learning Skills.
  • Complex Problem Solving Skills.
  • Judgement and Decision Making Skills.
  • Science Skills.
  • Systems Analysis Skills.
  • Operations Skills.
  • Systems Evaluation Skills.
  • Monitoring Skills.
  • Coordinating Skills.
  • Management of Personnel Resources Skills.
  • Quality Control Analysis Skills.
  • Mathematics Skills.

Software Computer Engineer Skills Influencing Pay Check

  • Knowledge of C, C++, Python, UNIX, Linux programming skills.
  • Knowledge of database languages: SQL – Structured Query Language.

Hardware Computer Engineer Skills Influencing Pay Check

  • Knowledge of C, C++, Verilog, programming skills.
  • Knowledge of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming skills and Engineering Design.

Computer Engineer Work Hours

The vast majority of software developers work full time. Long hours are very common. In 2012 alone more than a quarter of all software computer engineers worked more than 40 hours per week. The same applies to hardware computer engineers. They perform tasks indoors in an office or laboratory and work full-time, at least 40 hours per week. Both professions however are very demanding, prolonged working hours being a common trait.

Computer Engineer (Software) Salary by Industry

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a computer software engineer’s paycheck differs depending on the industry in which he or she activates. Some of the highest paying industries for this profession are offices of real estate agents and brokers, computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing, rail transportation, manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media, and support activities for mining.

IndustryEmploymentHourly Pay RateAnnual Average Computer Software Engineering Salary
Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing23,040$53.85$112,020
Other Information Services5,080$53.07$110,380
Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers1,000$52.06$108,290
Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media280$51.37$106,860
Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing5,690$51.22$106,540

Computer Engineer (Hardware) Salary by Industry

The top-paying industries for this occupation according to BLS are electrical equipment and component manufacturing, software publishers, financial investment activities, communications equipment manufacturing.

IndustryEmploymentPercent of industry employmentHourly  Pay RateAnnual Average Computer Hardware Engineering Salary
Other Information Services1,0000.48$70.08$145,760
Other Electrical Equipment and Component Manufacturing800.06$62.06$129,080
Software Publishers1,2400.41$61.18$127,260
Other Financial Investment Activities1300.03$58.16$120,970
Communications Equipment Manufacturing1,0501.13$57.92$120,460

Computer Engineer (Software) Salary by State

StateEmploymentHourly Pay RateAnnual Average Computer Software Engineer SalaryEmployment per thousand workers
New Hampshire2,420$48.95$101,8203.915
New Jersey13,180$48.15$100,1503.423

Computer Engineer (Hardware) Salary by State

StateEmploymentEmployment per thousand jobsLocation quotientHourly Pay RateAnnual Average Computer Hardware Engineer Salary
District of Columbia1,1001.632.88$54.78$113,940

Job Prospects – Computer Engineer Jobs 

Software engineering employment numbers are seen to be on the rise in the next decade. In 2012, the number of employees active in this field was 1,018,000 million; and it is projected to rise to 1,240,600 in 2022. This results in a 22% increase in the next decade. In 2019, the BLS updated the numbers and projects a 24% growth for the next ten years. As a result, the demand is high and grows much faster than the average. Also, that might mean that the average computer engineering salary might grow as well.

Prospects for computer engineers dealing in hardware do not look bad either. According to the same source, in 2012 there were 83.300 jobs in this field of work. Until 2022 there will be a projected rise of 7%, resulting in 6.200 more jobs. Although the rise is slower than the average, it does offer better job prospects than other occupational fields. According to updated numbers in 2019, the rise dropped to 5% until 2026, so it’s expected to be steady.

Quick Computer Engineer (Software) Job Facts

Annual Average Computer Software Engineer Salary$103K 
Entry-level Salary$61K 
Mid-level Career Salary$71K 
Experienced Salary$90K 
Late-career Salary$166K 
Education RequirementsBachelor’s Degree (minimum)Master’s Degree (optional) 
Computer Software Engineer Training & CertificationCertifications provided by software firms such as Microsoft 
Work Experience RequiredMost applicants underwent internships 
Work Environment Computer systems design and related firms Software Publishers 
Best Paying Employer Google Inc.($104-147K) 
Best Paying Metropolitan AreaMountain View, CA ($106k) 
Lowest Paying MarketMinneapolis, MN ($73K) 
Job Prospects 2016 – 2026 24% employment growth (+ 222.600 Software engineer jobs) 
Work Schedule40 hrs/ week and over

Quick Computer Engineer (Hardware) Job Facts

Annual Average Computer Hardware Engineer Salary$114K 
Entry-level Salary$66K 
Mid-level Salary$82K 
Experienced Salary$100K 
Late-career Salary$172K 
Education RequirementsBachelor’s Degree (minimum)Master’s Degree (optional) 
Database Administrator Training & CertificationCertifications provided by software firms such as Microsoft 
Work Experience RequiredLess than 5 years in a related field 
Work Environment Computer system design and related services finance; Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing; Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing; Research and development in the physical, engineering and life sciences 
Best Paying Employer Apple Computer Inc($102-135K) 
Best Paying Metropolitan AreaSanta Clara, CA ($105k) 
Lowest Paying MarketAustin, TX ($80K) 
Job Prospects 2016 – 2026 5% employment growth (+ 6.000 Hardware engineer jobs) 
Work Schedule40 hrs/ week and over

Would I Make a Good Computer Engineer?

While the median computer engineering salary may change in the years to come, the skills needed to make it in the industry will likey stay the same. If you love dealing with computers, that’s a good sign. But passion isn’t enough to build a successful career in the field. You also need dedication and desire to improve your skills constantly. This is an industry that’s evolving every day, so you need to be ready to keep up. Your education won’t end once you graduate. Quite the opposite – it will be a life-long process. If that makes you excited instead of panicked, you’re on the right track to climbing the computer engineering ladder.

People who work in the field generally have great analytical skills, since they are required to figure out what users need and then design software or hardware that fix certain problems. Moreover, they need great communication skills, since they don’t only have to work as part of a team, but will likely be required to interact with customers, possibly to explain how a piece of hardware or software works. Next, those who want to excel in the industry should also be detail-oriented and have a knack for solving problems.

Besides formal education, you may also want to take advantage of online courses to advance your skills. Not only will you be able to stand out from the crowd, but your resume will have a better shot at impressive potential employers. Our advice is to work on hard skills – mathematics, programming – but also on soft skills like communication, public speaking, and time management. They will become invaluable once you enter the industry. 

We hope our information on the average computer engineering salary in the U.S. will prove useful to job seekers in this field. For more articles on average salaries and educational requirements for diverse professions, please check our Education Section. Good luck!

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Gucci Mane net worthGucci Mane, born Radric Delantic Davis, is a successful rapper and one of the pioneers of trap music. He gained notoriety due to his flourishing music career, but also managed to diversify his income from acting roles and business ventures. But since we can’t possibly bring up the phrase ‘Gucci Mane net worth’ without listing his many accomplishments, let’s review exactly how the Alabama native rose to fame.

Gucci Mane: Short Biography

In 2010, Forbes listed Mane as #20 on their list of Hip-Hop’s Top 20 Earners. He ended up sharing his entry with Lil’ Jon and Rick Ross. Mane will go down in history for pushing trap music, a hip-hop subgenre, into the mainstream. He was among the first artists to significantly promote trap to the general audience, to great success. As a result, the Gucci Mane net worth reflects the enormous influence he has in the musical industry. But how did he get here?

The rapper was born in Birmingham, Alabama. His single mother raised him in Atlanta, Georgia, where he currently resides. Mane began his rap career in 1994, at the age of 14. In 2005, he independently released his debut album, Trap House. The American rapper had ten other singers featured on his very first production – Young Jeezy, Young Snead, Boo, Torica, Khujo, Bun B, Mac Bree-Z, Lil Scrappy, Jody Breeze, and Killer Mike.

Mane’s first big single, Freaky Gurl, landed on the #12 spot on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart and #62 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2006. In 2007, Mane started his own record label, 1017 Brick Squad Records. He eventually signed fellow rappers Waka Flocka Flame and Chief Keef.

In 2009, Mane’s first taste of major label success came with the release of The State vs. Radric Davis with Warner Bros. Since then, the rapper released several successful record and mixtapes, which he keeps doing to this day. His most popular records include Everybody Looking, The Return of East Atlanta Santa, El Gato: The Human Glacier, and Evil Genius.

Mane’s history is riddled with multiple arrests on drug and assault charges. In 2005, Mane was charged with murder, but the charge would later be dropped. He was also arrested multiple times for drug possession, probation violations, traffic charges, and assault. His last lawsuit took place in 2014 when Mane pleaded guilty to possession of a firearm by a convicted felon. The judge sentenced him to prison; he was released from United States Penitentiary in Terre Haute on May 26, 2016. While the Gucci Mane net worth took a hit during the time he was incarcerated, he managed to bounce back quickly. The judge, Steve Jones, had some crucial advice for Gucci Mane he decided to dispense during the proceedings:

“You have a full life ahead of you… [but if you continue to break the law] you’re going to wake up one morning broke. You’re going to wake up one morning back to prison. I don’t mean any disrespect, but according to young people, my nieces and nephews, you are quite cool.”

Gucci Mane Net Worth: How Much?

So how impressive is the Gucci Mane net worth in 2019? The rapper is reported to have amassed a $12 million fortune, even though he’s no stranger to hard times. His spending habits are erratic and he faces numerous legal issues regarding child support, tax evasion, and alleged theft by former associates.

In November 2013, Mane filed a lawsuit against former manager Debra Antney and her son, former Brick Squad artist Waka Flocka Flame, along with several other parties affiliated with the label. The suit accuses them of fraud, racketeering, and breach of contract. Mane also accused Antney of withholding royalties, manipulating the costs of label expenditures, and theft of some of his personal assets, including several expensive pieces of jewelry.

Wondering how Mane managed to make his money? Besides his successful music career, the rapper is also known for his skills as an actor and entrepreneur. Mane made his acting debut in 2012, in the movie Birds of a Feather. He also appeared in the hit movie Spring Breakers during the same year. He published a memoir, The Autobiography of Gucci Mane, which he mostly wrote during his time in prison. He’s still presiding over the label he created, 1017 Records, and has a clothing line called Delantic. Having multiple streams of income is not only smart but pretty much mandatory when you work in an industry so volatile like the music biz.

Gucci Mane: Personal Life

Davis is married to wellness entrepreneur Keyshia Ka’oir, founder and owner of Ka’oir Cosmetics and Ka’oir Fitness, back in 2017. The wedding was an extravagant affair, sponsored by BET, which produced a reality show to mark the occasion. Gucci Mane & Keyshia Ka’Oir: The Mane Event followed the two as they organized the proceedings and tried to bring their families together. The ceremony itself was as glamorous as celebrity weddings get – Ka’oir walked down the aisle on a carpet sprinkled with diamonds.

Elsewhere, Mane revealed in his biography that he has a son he only found out about in 2016. The rapper also made a name for himself as a controversial figure after his many feuds with fellow artists, including Young Jeezy, Keyshia Cole, and Waka Flocka Flame.

Gucci Mane’s Spending Habits

  • Mane’s first big purchase when he began to attain some success was a yellow 2004 Chevrolet Corvette, valued at $60,000. Since then, Mane continued to boost his collection of cars, which includes a Ferrari 458 Italia and a heavily customized Dodge Challenger, worth $150,000.
  • Mane had all of his teeth encased in solid gold fronts, which he later had removed, only to get them redone in the same style a few years later. Mane’s love of gold extends to his living room. This place supposedly includes a solid gold sofa, loveseat set, and a gold sheath that preserves an antique samurai sword.
  • Mane proudly flaunts his diamond necklace which, according to him, is valued at approximately $250,000.
  • Gucci Mane split the bill for slain rapper Slim Dunkin’s funeral with Waka Flocka Flame. The cost of the funeral was not disclosed. However, the event included large floral arrangements, a dove release ceremony, and a carriage with horses for the procession.
  • In 2016, Gucci Mane purchased a luxurious mansion valued at $9,000,000. This asset underlines the rapper’s expensive lifestyle.

Gucci Mane’s Earnings Statistics

  • Mane’s highest selling album to date, The State vs. Radric Davis, has sold over 424,000 copies. The album reached #1 on the Billboard Top Rap Albums Chart and #10 on the Billboard 200.
  • In 2011, a child support case revealed that Mane’s combined monthly earnings from touring and album sales were roughly $28,000. This estimation put his annual gross income at about $300,000.

What Is the Rapper Up to Now?

The rapper’s career continues to be on an upward spiral. He released a new album in 2019, Delusions of Grandeur, which includes collaborations with Wiz Khalifa, Justin Bieber, and Rick Ross, among others. The album was well-received, with the record debuting at No. 2 on Billboard’s Top Rap Albums chart. If the rapper keeps producing quality music and staying away from legal troubles, we can only expect the Gucci Mane net worth to keep growing over the next few years.

Image source: 1

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Consistently regarded as one of the richest rappers in the world, Snoop Dogg managed to build a bona fide empire throughout the years. Worth millions of dollars, the rapper is known for his successful music career, TV appearances, and multiple entrepreneurship endeavors. But how much is Snoop Dogg worth in 2019? Let’s take a quick look at his impressive rise to fame and crunch the numbers.

how much is Snoop Dogg worth

Image source: Business Insider

Snoop Dogg: Brief Biography

Snoop Dogg has managed to create one of the most recognizable brands in hip-hop. He is known for his mellow nature and grand enjoyment of all the good things in life, including women, marijuana, and good wine. Although currently among the richest rappers alive, Snoop hasn’t always been dabbling with millions. In fact, his origins are quite modest.

Born on October 20, 1971, in Long Beach, California, Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. got his nickname early on from the Peanuts character Snoopy. Calvin started playing the piano when he was very young and began rapping in the sixth grade. As a teen, he ran into plenty of trouble with the law. He was arrested for possession of cocaine shortly after graduating high school and was in and out of jail for the next few years. This is also when he started recording mixtapes and managed to catch the attention of Dr. Dre. The rest, as they say, is history.

Snoop Dogg’s debut record Doggystyle was a huge success, staying on the Billboard charts for several months. His second album, Tha Doggfather, was released in 1996. That’s around the time when Snoop was eager to leave his gangsta life behind – his friend Tupac Shakur was shot in the same year. Snoop Dogg continued to achieve massive success with his next releases as well, including Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told, No Limit Top Dogg, and Paid tha Cost to Be da Bo$$. He released an autobiography in 1999 and embraced a pimp image.

Next, Snoop Dogg continued to drop albums and tour the world. If we’re talking about notable releases, we should mention R&G (Rhythm & Gangsta): The Masterpiece, Tha Blue Carpet Treatment, Ego Trippin’, Malice n Wonderland, and Doggumentary. He briefly rebranded as Snoop Lion in 2012. More recent releases from the rapper include Neva Left (2017) and Bible of Love (2018).

With songs like Drop It Like It’s Hot and Gin and Juice, Snoop epitomizes the ideal life for young men who have “Made It!” – something he definitely knows a lot about as one of the richest rappers in the world. But while many can make money, the truly successful are able to expand their brands into other endeavors. Snoop has branched out into sports, music, television, and movies. The rapper has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide, but his vast fortune includes multiple streams of income.

Snoop Dogg: Film Career

Besides his music career, the rapper is also a successful actor. When wondering how much is Snoop Dogg worth, we should consider his many appearances in movies and TV shows throughout the years. He has starred in three TV programs – sketch-comedy show Doggy Fizzle Televizzle, variety show Dogg After Dark, and reality show Snoop Dogg’s Father Hood. Besides, he had cameos in shows like Monk, One Life to Live, King of the Hill, and more. As you can see, being one of the richest rappers on the scene wasn’t enough for Snoop – he felt the need to expand his horizons.

On the movie front, Snoop starred in The Wash, Bones, and Mac and Devin Go to High School, but also had minor roles in Half Baked, Starsky & Hutch, and more. He even dabbled in pornography – he directed two adult movies, Snoop Dogg’s Doggystyle and Snoop Dogg’s Hustlaz: Diary of a Pimp. In 2005, he founded his own production company, Snoopadelic Films.

Snoop Dogg: Big Spender

Not only is Snoop after making money, but he also likes to spend it on the finer things in life. Like his primary fan base of young men, Snoop loves basketball, football, baseball, and soccer. He also loves cars and he’s always willing to invest in some old-school beauties. Some of Snoop’s favorite rides:

  • 1967 Yellow Pontiac Parisienne Convertible
  • 1967 Gold Cadillac Snoop deVille
  • 2008 Dodge Challenger

Snoop’s Claremont, Diamond Bar, California home has 6,500 square feet. Besides this impressive surface, it is estimated to be worth $2 million. Hawaii is one of his favorite vacation destinations, which says a lot about the way he is spending his cash.

That being said, the rapper is also passionate about helping the less fortunate. Some of his charities include the Save the Music Foundation, Shriner’s Hospitals for Children, Snoop Youth League Football, and the Orca Network. He may be one of the richest rappers still standing, but that doesn’t prevent him from giving back. Considering his expensive tastes and charitable nature, how much is Snoop Dogg worth? Let’s find out.

So How Much Is Snoop Dogg Worth in 2019?

If you’re wondering how much is Snoop Dogg worth, the number revolves somewhere around $135 million. One of the richest rappers alive, he makes his money primarily through his music and acting career, but also thanks to brand endorsements and various businesses the rapper owns. In 2005, Snoop launched a line of cannabis products called Leafs By Snoop. He also released an app, Snoopify, that lets users plaster stickers of Snoop’s face. Moreover, he invested in several start-ups.

Here’s an interview where he talks about his money and business:

Snoop Dogg: What Is He Doing Now?

Eager to catch up with Snoop Dogg? All you need to do is turn on your TV. Ever since 2016, Snoop and his friend Martha Stewart host a successful VH1 show called Martha & Snoop’s Potluck Dinner Party. The rapper also hosts a revival of The Joker’s Wild, a game show which moved from TBS to TNT at the beginning of 2019.

All in all, the rapper seems to be doing well. And with such impressive net worth, who could blame him? Being one of the richest rappers in the world certainly pays off.

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Revisiting the Hotel vs. Motel options holds a very important topic for traveling singles, couples, and family. We understand that there exist some confusions between the two.

When you need to stay away from home overnight, or a few nights, the service industry offers options to choose from when determining where to book a room.

When making your pick, make sure to understand the tenets of Hotel vs. Motel. Read on to learn the crucial differences so that your trip remains as comfortable as possible as a motivated employee!


Outdoor View of Lamington Company that serves both Hotel and Motel services to better understand Your Options on Hotel vs. Motel

Image: CC by 2.0, Jan Smith, via Flickr


Your Options: Hotel vs. Motel

For most people, hearing things about a hotel vs. motel does not mean a lot. They just know that hotels as fancy and motels go with the smaller ones.

Primarily, hotels hold the place where swimming pools, heavy curtain rooms, and continental breakfasts. While people consider motels as trashy places where people stop for its affordability.

What Makes a Hotel a ‘Hotel’?

Outdoor View of Five star hotel and yacht marina built on a coal dock yard at London Borough to better understand Your Options on Hotel vs. Motel

Image: CC by 2.0, George Rex, via Flickr

While previously said differences remain factual, we bring you more professional variance for the discussion of hotel vs. motel. I guess everyone listening to the Hotel California song by the Eagles gives you a glimpse of this ‘lovely place’.

The Food Service

Hotels provide lodging, various guest services, and meals. Most hotels have room service, while some smaller ones have fewer amenities.

Commonly, they offer a free breakfast in the morning that includes things like coffee and bagels. But, not a menu to choose specific meals from.

With so many delivery restaurants around now, some hotels keep menus from local eateries and fast foods in the rooms. Especially, this happens when the hotel doesn’t have a restaurant or kitchen within.

This practice remains common in hotels.

The Rooms

Business Dictionary points out that certain specifications for a place to be called a hotel.

  • It needs to have at least six rooms available for guests
  • Three of those rooms need to have private bathrooms

While staying at your hotel room, try to tune in with five TV shows you have to watch this summer. For those who works as a real estate agent, basic knowledge of these comes handy.

Rating System

From one country to another for a hotel vs. motel, there exists a difference in the hotel rating system. The 1 to 5-star rating system used for hotels has no specific method.

Also, the classification does not require any law. That means that what a 5-star hotel offers in one country differ elsewhere.

The Hotel Rating System

The Great Hall of The Venetian Macao as a Five-Star Class Hotel to better understand Your Options on Hotel vs. Motel

Image: CC by A-SA 3.0, WiNG, via Wikipedia Commons

It helps to know the rating system generally used in the U.S. if you want to understand hotel vs. motel among themselves. A 5-star hotel remains very different from a 1-star hotel:

1-Star Rating

The lowest rating in hotels, the 1-star hotel doesn’t offer guests much. You can be sure the place will be clean and tidy, but don’t expect a pool or room service.

These have extremely limited amenities, and special things like unavailability of wi-fi. Prices for these rooms run around $80 a night.

2-Star Rating

2-star hotels are a small upgrade from the 1-star. This upgrade includes a few extra amenities. Some 2-star hotels even have pools.

Although it will probably be outdoors and not as fancy as a 5-star hotel. Rates for 2-star hotels remain just over $100 a night.

3-Star Rating

Notably, expect a 3-star hotel to have even better amenities. Moreover, this includes a 24-hour service which usually misses 1 and 2-star places.

3-star hotels appear more decorative within the rooms. There may even be a 1-star restaurant on the premises. Your room here remains under $200 per night.

4-Star Rating

If you’re looking for luxury when it comes to your overnight stay or weekend away, start with 4-star one. Here, someone parks your car and bring your luggage in for you.

Also, bet on a pool becomes available, probably even indoors. You pay to get great amenities. And, because of that,  expect to pay close to $300 a night to stay here.

5-Star Rating

5-star hotels have it all such as a gym to exercise in. You get to enjoy pools, spas, and a sauna. The 4 and 5-star hotels offer you fine dining. Furthermore, expect room service availability as well.

The 5-star hotels also have childcare available for busy professionals and people enjoying a vacation. The priciest option, rooms remain usually still under $500 a night.

What Makes a Motel a ‘Motel’?

Living Room inside a room at the Clown Motel at Tonopah with Dim Lights to better understand Your Options on Hotel vs. Motel

Image: CC by A-SA 2.0, Will Keightley, via Wikipedia Commons

As we promised, we bring you more professional variance for the discussion of hotel vs. motel. Accordingly, motels get their name from the style of rooming they offer.

They don’t offer a ton of parking, no large lots like a hotel. This motor hotel is a quick roadside stop when you need a place to crash for the night.

The Services You Think Of

There exist no room services; the office usually has set hours. However, rates average around the same as a 1-star hotel, maybe a little cheaper.

Ultimately, you have to know one of the biggest differences between a 1-star for hotel vs. motel.  The fact remains that the motel often has fewer rooms.

These days, if you think of motel vs. hotel, private bathrooms in each room always come with the rate. Some sort of heating and air conditioning, and daily room cleaning.

Making Your Mind: Hotel vs. Motel

Hotel room at the Wynn hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada to better understand Your Options on Hotel vs. Motel

Image: CC by 2.0, William Warby, via Flickr

Now that you know the distinctions for hotel vs. motel, it may be easier to decide where to stay. If you’re on the road and need a break, a motel is a great option.

If you’re on your honeymoon, you may want a nice hotel. Nonetheless, you might even want to consider staying at a bed and breakfast.



Featured Image: CC by 2.0, Jan Smith, via Flickr

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Basketball Ball about to fall through the hoop at a court that shows kinetic energy exerted by the player

Image: CC by A-SA 4.0, Ildar Sagdejev, via Wikipedia Commons

Kinetic Energy (KE) pertains to the energy of an object of an object brought by motion. The object gains during the acceleration and maintains it unless the speed changes.

When we study topics on energy, we definitely encounter confusing terms. Other than kinetic energy, this physics discussion includes potential energy, heat, power, source, ionization, chemical energy, mechanical energy, thermal energy.

Taking a look at these topics needs some examples to better understand it. If you need to grasp this complex concept, there are some simple definitions to understand.

What is Energy?

Energy, simply put, signify the ability or power to move, think, or otherwise remain active. Also, we define energy as a usable power or even the sources that enable that power.

Without energy, an object doesn’t move, flames cannot flicker, and people cannot walk or think. Understanding the famous Theory of Relativity goes along with this discussion.

What Kinds of Energy are There?

Energy comes in many forms, fueled by many sources.

  • Mechanical
  • Magnetic
  • Electrical
  • Gravitational
  • Ionization
  • Chemical
  • Nuclear
  • Elastic
  • Chromodynamic
  • Mechanical wave
  • Soundwave
  • Radiant
  • Rest
  • Thermal

Within these forms, any object that has energy possess have kinetic or potential energy.

What is Kinetic Energy?

Billiard Player Successfully making a Jump Shot of a Billiard Ball that shows kinetic energy exerted

Image: CC 0 by Public Domain, Skitterphoto, via Pixabay

Kinetic energy remains as a term in physics used to describe the energy of an object in motion. The word “kinetic” comes from the Greek word that means motion.

A very basic definition of kinetic energy tells us that the energy an object has due to its motion. Also, the

work needed to accelerate an object to its velocity from a state of resting.

We usually say that kinetic energy means the energy of motion.

What is the Potential Energy?

Potential energy is not being used, but it is energy that could be used. The position of an object, or its parts, determine its potential energy.

For example, a roller coaster that’s flown down one slope and is sitting atop the next slope has potential energy. If it is “nudged” forward, it will fly down the tracks, using its potential energy to become kinetic energy.

What is Velocity?

Basically, velocity is the speed of motion of an object. The higher the speed, the higher the velocity of an object.

An object’s KE increases as its velocity increases.

What’s the Difference Between Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy?

The difference between kinetic energy and potential energy is whether or not the object is in motion. An object, like a frisbee in someone’s hand, has potential energy, but once it leaves the person’s hand and is in motion, it has KE.

Examples of Kinetic Energy

To further explain, we’ll offer a variety of examples of kinetic energy.

Airplane in Flight above below the cumulu-nimbus clouds that shows kinetic energy exerted by the player

Image: CC 0 by Public Domain, Pamter, via Pixabay

Example 1

An airplane in flight has kinetic energy. The high velocity and large mass of the airplane mean it has significant kinetic energy.

Example 2

At the top of a hill, a downhill skier has potential energy. Once he is in motion, and gliding down the hills, his potential energy becomes kinetic motion, which increases as his velocity increases.

Downhill skier in the heavy snow and pine trees that shows kinetic energy exerted by the player

Image: CC 0 by Public Domain, Pexels, via Pixabay

Example 3

Using a hammer has both potential and kinetic energy at work. As you swing the hammer, you use KE.

That pause before a backswing happens when the potential energy “accumulates” in the hammer swing back toward the original position.

When the hammer head strikes the nail head, the velocity and power of the swing transfer into the hammer strike. You see this on how a nail gets driven into wood.

Example 4

A vehicle in motion uses KE to move it forward on the road. This object combines the forms of electric, mechanical, and gravitational energy.

The explains why fuel gas remains expensive. It even moves a heavy vehicle with liters of this ‘black gold’

Example 5

A marathon runner at the start line has potential energy. She has fueled up with food, water, and has the training background.

This ensures a whole lot of kinetic energy exerted once the starter pistol fires. Once the runner leaves the gate, she exerts KE.

Race Marathon Runners on a league that shows kinetic energy exerted

Image: CC 0 by Public Domain, tookapic, via Pixabay

Example 6

A crawling baby appears as an example of KE. The child has potential energy until he starts moving.

At the time of the motion, the potential energy transfers into motion. Then, the baby moves forward via KE.

Example 7

A golf ball sitting on the golf tee has no energy. However, the golf club coming towards uses the potential energy from the backswing translated into kinetic energy of the forward motion.

This creates a potential for the golf ball to use KE. Moreover, this occurs once the velocity of the club sets it into motion.

Man Who Just Hit a Golf Ball using Golf Club that shows kinetic energy exerted

Image: CC 0 by Public Domain, markusspiske, via Pixabay

The Kinetic Energy and Putting Them to Use

Any moving object has kinetic energy. The energy transferred from its position during the resting state remains as the kinetic energy of an object.

Or, more simply put, kinetic energy acts as the energy or power of an object in motion. Airplanes flying, cars driving, runners running holds the very basic examples of it.

Also, this explains why the task of nuclear engineers and chemical engineers requires heavy mastery of the skill. The same goes for industrial engineers and petroleum engineers.


Featured Image: CC by A-SA 4.0, Ildar Sagdejev, via Wikipedia Commons


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Julia Scarlett Elizabeth Louis-Dreyfus was born on January 13th, 1961. Actress, producer and comedienne, she is best known for acting in “Seinfeld” during the nine years the comedy series aired in the United States. Her acting career later led her to star in two other comedy TV series: “The New Adventures of Old Christine”, which aired for four years between 2006 and 2010, and Veep, that is still on the air. Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth has only increased over the years, given her extreme talent and versatility.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth

What is Julia Louis-Dreyfus Net Worth?

According to the latest statistics, Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth is of $200 million in 2018. Her father, billionaire Gérard Louis-Dreyfus, had an estimated worth of $3,4 billion in 2006. She in the top ten richest celebrities in Hollywood today.

About Julia Louis-Dreyfus

Born in New York City, Dreyfus’ mother was a writer and her father the chairman of a French conglomerate. Julia’s great-great-grandfather founded Louis-Dreyfus Group almost seventy years ago. With an English, Scottish, French and German ancestry, Dreyfus was one year old when her parents decided to separate. She spent her childhood in Washington, D.C with her mother and her stepfather, L. Thompson Bowles, who was the Dean of the University Medical School. Owing it to her stepfather’s line of work, she traveled extensively during her childhood years in various countries, including Tunisia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Career

Dreyfus was a part of the improvisation theater group “The Second City”, which also hosted Steve Carrell, Tina Fey and Amy Poehler. After the group’s performance for the 50th Anniversary Jubilee, Julia Louis-Dreyfus joined the cast of “Saturday Night Live”. It is here that she got the opportunity to meet Jim Belushi, Eddie Murphy, and Billy Crystal.

She remained at SNL for three years. After her departure in 1985, she acted in various movies, including “Hannah and her Sisters”, “Soul Man” and “National Lampoon’s Christmas Vacation”.

The early 1990s found Dreyfus playing the role that would bring her global fame. She played the roles of Elaine Benes for nine seasons. She didn’t appear in only three episodes. One of the three episodes in which she doesn’t appear is the first one when Elaine Benes didn’t exist yet. However, when the executives from NBC realized the show lacked feminine characters, Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld were asked to create another character. They cast Julia Louis-Dreyfus as Elaine Benes, winning the role over Rosie O’Donnell, Megan Mullally, and Patricia Heaton.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Awards

Julia Louis-Dreyfus received great critical acclaim, received nominations and won a plethora of TV show awards in the 90s. Her performance on “Seinfeld” brought her a Golden Globe Award, five American Comedy Awards and another five Screen Actors Guild Awards. After seven nominations for the Primetime Emmy Award, she received the distinction in 1996 for Outstanding Supporting Actress. By this time, her net worth was still increasing and could even rival the fortune of basketball star Shaquille O’Neal.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Post-Seinfeld

Julia Dreyfus at the Emmys

TV Shows

Dreyfus’ efforts to remain a comedy actress prompted her to create a new sitcom in 2002 alongside her husband, Brad Hall, and Steve Carell. Entitled “Watching Ellie”, the premise of the TV series was to offer viewers an in-depth view of a jazz singer’s life. The show received mixed reviews and was first met with curiosity by the public. However, the interest died down with the release of the second season. The sitcom ended up being canceled in 2003. This only fueled the rumor circulating in the press claiming that none of the “Seinfeld” actors could ever be successful in the TV industry again.

2005 was a luckier year for Julia Louis-Dreyfus. She was cast as Christine Campbell in “The New Adventures of Old Christine”. The TV show aired for five years, from 2006 to 2010 and revolved around Christine, a single mom who runs a gym. The sitcom re-established Dreyfus as one of the funniest women on the screen, surpassing Ellen DeGeneres. She won a Primetime Emmy Award for Lead Actress in a TV comedy show.

In 2007, Julia Louis-Dreyfus rejoined the cast of “The Simpsons” in her role as Gloria for an episode. She reappeared on the show again a year later. “Curb your enthusiasm”, the sitcom of Larry David, reunited the “Seinfeld” cast in four episodes in 2009. These garnered great critical acclaim and received a lot of media attention.


Julia Louis-Dreyfus’ first short film was created with the help of her husband and was called “Picture Paris”. The movie was released in January 2012. This was closely followed by the premiere of the actress’ new TV show, “Veep”. Her performance received incredible praise from critics. Dreyfus received compliments on her acting. It was said to rival her “Seinfeld” role. Her “Veep” character won her not only the sympathy of magazines, critics, interviewers, and reporters, but also a slew of awards. She won several Primetime Emmy Awards and Critics’ Choice TV award.

Besides “Veep”, Julia Louis-Dreyfus appeared in the animated movie “Planes” in 2013, lending her voice to Rochelle. The animation grossed more the $200 million worldwide, which helped increase Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth. However, she’s still far from achieving the impressive fortune of J. K. Rowling. in 2018, the comedy actress also acted in “Enough Said”, which was produced by Nicole Holofcener, marking her first role as a lead actress in a full-length movie. Her performance did not disappoint. She attracted favorable reviews from critics, with Rotten Tomatoes scores giving the movie 95 percent out of 152 reviews.

Image sources: playbuzz.com, etonline.com

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    What is Madonna net worth as of 2018? A lot more than you would think! So much so that it could provide a steady monthly income for countless people. The fact is, so much worth for a single person is literally mind-blowing. And I’m not using that cliché word for nothing, mindboggling is the least we could say about the humongous sum of money Madonna makes every year. To be noted, even Forbes, the world’s presumed authority on money, says that the following number is only an estimate.

    Madonna Net Worth

    What is Madonna’s net worth? $80 million? $100 million? $200 million? How about $520 million! She’s number one on the wealthiest women musicians list published by the magazine and even number 28 on the whole list of the richest women that have constructed their image themselves. How did the Madonna net worth come to be?

    "madonna net worth what is the net worth of madonna"

    How Did Madonna Net Worth Get So High?

    Madonna’s rise to stardom is a very well-documented subject. The Queen of Pop was once a little girl in Bay City, Michigan. At about the age of 19, Madonna Louise Ciccone moved to New York City where she wanted to enter the world of dancing. However, the world had other plans for her.

    Her first album, Madonna, came in 1982. It was a raunchy mix of pop which immediately became a classic of pop history. Although Grammies seemed to elude her, she didn’t appear to care. Topping charts all over the world, Madonna became instantly recognizable through such hits as “Like a Virgin”, “Like a Prayer”, “Material Girl”, and many, many others.

    Wildly controversial with the more conservative critics, Madonna pushed boundaries of music production and breaking through the lyrical status quo of the time to bring about simpler yet somewhat more profound lyrics. Naturally, the Madonna net worth back then was also through the roof.

    She eventually got a long overdue Grammy award for her Ray of Light album in 1998. She would only win one other Grammy for Confessions on a Dance floor in 2005.

    However, the story of the Madonna net worth and its growth doesn’t stop here. As a true worldwide star, she entered the movie business and appeared in several great movies, including Evita in 1996. The latter brought her a boost in worldwide fame and a Golden Globe, ironically before her first ever Grammy. He also went in as a businesswoman, starting the Maverick Company, now a worldwide entertainment corporation.

    Will the Net Worth of Madonna Grow?

    The Madonna net worth continues to wow people everywhere. However, with 300 million records under her belt, it’s more than feasible that she got so high on the list. And when you add all the other amazing things this incredible artist has done, it really puts things into perspective. As for us, we only predict the Madonna net worth will continue to grow, and we wish her all the best!

    Image source: wikimedia.org.

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    The BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) tells us that the average fashion designer salary for the year 2014 was $64,030 per year and $30.78 per hour. This equals to approximately $1,200 per work week (accurate data does not exist from BLS).

    Although this represents more than decent pay on a national level, there is a very big difference between the annual wages for the lower 10 points percentile and the higher 10 points percentile. The lowest mean for an annual wage is $33,260, while the highest annual wage is at $129,380. As one can see, the latter estimation is almost twice the average fashion designer salary. It is to be deduced that the sum of $64,030 varies extremely depending on experience and skill.

    Despite wage statistics being unavailable as to the fashion designer salary proportionality between men and women, we can look at the general salary for designers. According to BLS data from 2015, there were 291,000 women employed in this position, earning a mean wage of $918 per week. On the other side, men employed in this position numbered 301,000, and they earned a mean wage of $1,099 per week.

    The following table shows us the average fashion designer salary in the highest paying industry areas:

    Industry Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    Management of Companies and Enterprises $43.28 $90,020
    Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing $39.73 $82,630
    Employment Services $36.73 $76,410
    Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services $36.19 $75,280
    Clothing Stores $34.37 $71,490

    "fashion designer salary fashion designers salary fashion design salary salary of a fashion designer salary for fashion designer what is the salary of a fashion designer"

    Fashion Designer Salary by Location

    As with most other positions, different states give a different salaries. On the other hand, there is a significant number of states that have a high employment rate for fashion designers. The highest paid fashion designers, according to the table below, are in New York. However, 2nd place is quite an uncanny surprise.

    The following list presents the best paying states for fashion designer salaries in the US:

    State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    New York $38.89 $80,890
    Massachusetts $36.96 $76,870
    New Jersey $35.61 $74,070
    California $35.23 $73,270
    New Hampshire $35.20 $73,210


    Still, Massachusetts may have a high mean fashion designer salary, but its levels of employment for this job are pretty low. Here are the states with the highest level of employment:

    State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    New York $38.89 $80,890
    California $35.23 $73,270
    Texas $29.11 $60,550
    New Jersey $35.61 $74,070
    Massachusetts $36.96 $76,870


    Fashion Designer Salary Change over Time

    Here are the ways in which a fashion designer salary will change over time:

    • Entry level fashion designers are expected to earn as much as 19% less than the average fashion salary.
    • Mid-career fashion designers are expected to earn about 10% more than the average fashion designer salary.
    • Experienced fashion designers are shown to earn about 29% more than the average fashion designers salary.
    • Late career fashion designers get 47% more than the average fashion designer salary.

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    Becoming a personal trainer is one of the most popular career paths in the US today. Apart from a passion for working out, potential personal trainers need many more skills and a deep awareness of their contribution to improving lifestyles and even saving lives. Learn how to become a personal trainer and see if your skills and education can help you excel in the profession.

    As one of our most popular posts is about the personal trainer salary, we considered it is time to provide our readers with more insights into this challenging and rewarding profession. Check what the essential steps are to succeed in the field. We hope our guidelines will help you speed up the process of becoming a certified personal trainer.

    how to become a personal trainer

    How to Become a Personal Trainer: The First Steps

    Before looking into the certification requirements, there are a few essential questions to address yourself:

    • Am I physically qualified for this career?
    • Am I a self-motivated individual?
    • Am I capable of motivating others as well?
    • Do I believe in the power of physical training to change people’s lives?

    Discover Your Potential & Develop Your Skills

    Becoming a personal trainer involves the development of particular skills and having the right attitude. Prior to applying for a certification program, let’s take a look at the essential skills a personal trainer (also referred to as to a fitness trainer, fitness instructor, physical trainer) should have.

    • Physical skills

    The passion for working out is crucial, but so is an optimal physical shape.  Personal trainers are their clients’ examples of what it means to be healthy and in excellent shape. As a physical trainer you will need to demonstrate them how to carry out exercises in order to help your clients perform better and better.

    • People skills

    The power to motivate other and help them achieve their goals is another skill a personal fitness instructor should have. The message you transmit to your clients is as important  as the exercises you demonstrate. And here we refer to the fundamental power of physical fitness to enhance their look and overall health.

    Apart from motivational skills, people skills also include listening and speaking abilities. Personal trainers must listen carefully what clients tell them in order to determine their level and potential, as well as motivate them verbally.

    • Intellectual skills

    This career requires a deep understanding of human anatomy. The exercises you recommend to clients need to be suitable for their body. Knowing how further a person can go when exercising is key to improving fitness and staying safe at the same time.

    • Business Skills 

    Whether you work as a self-employed personal trainer or as a fitness instructor at a recreational sports center, you are selling a service. Dealing with clients implies not only motivating them to achieve their fitness goals but also to sign up and ultimately pay for a program you lead. Being polite and customer-oriented is important if you wish to maintain an effective and profitable relationship.

    Learn How to Be a Personal Trainer from the Best

    If you want to become a successful personal fitness trainer, one of the clever things to do is hire yourself an instructor. Observe what traits make him or her good at his or her job, as well as his or her approach to your training. Don’t worry if you find traits that do not define you. Every personal trainer has his or her own style. This experiment is all about exploring as much as you can the details of this profession before investing in a degree. Being a personal trainer is a challenge that not everybody can face.

    How to Become a Certified Personal Trainer

    The next major step in becoming a personal trainer is sorting out the certification process.

    Research on How to Aquire Your Certification

    How do you become a personal trainer? Most fitness clubs, health centers or gyms require a personal training certification.

    Why is it important to conduct research before choosing a study program?

    While we are here to help you with essential information, it is up to you to review every program you

    How to Become Certified  Personal Trainer: General Requirements

    • as concerns minimum age, it is required to be at least 18 years of age.
    • CPR or AED certification is another requirement before a Personal Training Certification can be issued for you.
    • weight training experience is not mandatory, but it is strongly recommended.

    Note: If you are wondering how to become a personal trainer and nutritionist, there are additional certification requirements you need to fulfill. Nutrition is one of the specialties you can add to your resume to make it more competitive. What is more, a nutrition specialty course helps you earn credits that all major certifying agencies consider part of the continuing education process.

    Choose a Study Program & Obtain Personal Training Certification

    • How long does it take to become a personal trainer?

    For those who want to limit their activity to basic exercises, courses can take as little as a few days. However, for those who want to offer a broader range of services and get to study areas like fitness testing, nutrition, and biomechanics, personal training certification can take a year.

    Furthermore, for those interested in extensive training and acquiring a personal training certification from a national organization such as The National Academy of Sports Medicine, a degree may take  a minimum of two years of study. Such programs cover health and exercise courses, from fitness training techniques to nutrition and business administration.

    • How much does it cost to become a certified personal trainer?

    In order to complete a professional training program be ready to spend between $450 and $800. If you have a limited budget there are self-study online courses you can choose for about $450.

    For top personal fitness certification, you may want to take a closer look at the programs offered by the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM), the Aerobic and Fitness Association of America (AFAA), the American Academy of Exercise, and the National Federation of Professional Trainers (NFPT).

    You can also become an ISSA trainer. In such case, you need to register for an ISSA Certification (International Sports Sciences Association). ISSA is the first fitness organization to be nationally accredited the Distance Education Accrediting Commission in the United States.

    There are many other organizations that offer personal training certification and these can be searched by the state of your residence to make sure you comply with any particular requirements.

    If you live in Texas and wonder how to become a personal trainer in Texas, for instance, the prerequisites include holding a baccalaureate degree, a CPR certification with live skills check from the American Red Cross or American Heart Association, a proof of ID, paying the licensing fees, and arranging for an athletic program apprenticeship. This documentation needs to be sent to the State of Texas and as soon as it is approved you can start providing fitness services.

    What is important to mention is that you can prepare for your personal trainer certification online or onsite. How to become a personal trainer online? Search for accredited online certifications by the NCCA – National Commission of Certifying Agencies.

    AFFA’s Personal Trainer Certification Online, for instance, is a course composed of 14 video lectures that are created in accordance with the criteria established by the National Board of Fitness Examiners (NBFE). The fee for this course is $499. 

    Just to get a bigger picture, here are some of the lecture topics this course consist of: “Understanding Wellness”, “Anatomy and Kinesiology”, “Flexibility”, “Behavior Modification and Communication Skills”, “Injury Prevention”, “Nutrition and Weight Management”, “Cardio Programming”.

    Pass the Exam: Become a Certified Professional

    Next, after choosing a study program you find suitable for you, the next step is to apply for a written and practical examination that will officially earn you the title of certified personal trainer.

    Stay Certified – Continuing Education for Personal Trainers

    Now that we have answered to “how do I become a personal trainer?”, it is also important to mention that this career requires you to remain certified. All accredited professional trainers need CECs – Continual Education Credits – for both major certifying agencies and clients to assess their professional growth.

    By choosing to continue your education not only you  get to improve your experience and professional level, but also become more successful as this is a critical component in clients’ view.

    Finding Opportunities at a Gym vs Starting Your Own Business

    Now that you have learned how to become a licensed personal trainer and ace the business, the final step in becoming a successful personal trainer is, naturally, getting a job and performing at your best.

    Many personal trainers choose to work in recreational sports centers or gyms. A convenient choice for some professionals, on the other hand, is working as online personal trainers. How to become an online personal trainer. 

    If you consider starting your own business, there are further implications to take into account such as renting a studio, choosing an optimal insurance plans, paying taxes, dealing with payrolls and regulations specific to the state of practice. Also, you have to learn how to advertise your business (find a catchy name, build up an online community by using social media tools).

    All in all, one of your strengths should be the way you develop your relationships with your clients. Build up a strategy and be creative as well. Don’t forget that a personal trainer’s pay is commission-based. So, your success is measured in the number of clients you have and keep.

    Further Resources

    Carrer Outlook

    According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for personal trainers (fitness trainers and aerobics instructors) will increase with 13 percent until 2020 as many people continue to recognize the benefits of fitness programs. Please note that the most favorable job prospects are for certified personal trainers or professionals with a high level of formal education in health and fitness.

    Sample Personal Trainer Resume 

    Learning how to become a personal trainer is not enough. Learning how to promote yourself as a professional is key. Here is a sample of a personal trainer’s resume for you to assess. It includes description of role and areas of expertise, as well as professional experience.professional personal trainer resume

    Image Source: DepositPhotos, ImgBestSampleResume.com.

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    To put it straight, the answer to “what does the attorney general do” is that he or she is the counselor to its legislature as well as to state agencies. At the same time, he or she acts as the “people’s lawyer.” As the primary legal officer, the attorney general office is the place from where investigations are conducted.

    The position originates from 13th century England. Back then the title was “King’s Attorney”. The position, up until the American Revolution, became that of an advisor to both the Royalty and agencies that composed the government. Nevertheless, the roots for the position of Attorney General can be seen in England during the Middle Ages.

    what does the attorney general do

    There are 50 state attorney generals, one for each state. Each one of them is nominated by the President and approved by the U.S. Senate. However, there is only one General Attorney, also appointed and confirmed by the President and U.S. Senate. Although there is no fixed term for the attorney generals office, the President can remove  the state attorney at any time. Furthermore, the Congress can impeach and trial the general attorney at any time, if necessary.

    Throughout the history of the United States of America there have been 83 Attorney Generals. Janet Reno has held the office of Attorney General for eight years, making it one of the longest serving U.S. attorney generals. She served from March 12, 1993 until January 20, 2001. However, William Wirt served for twelve years as the head of the Justice Department, from November 15, 1817 to March 3, 1829. Other important Attorney Generals who served for more than four years are:

    • Eric Holder
    • William F. Smith
    • Thomas Gregory
    • Benjamin F. Butler
    • Herbert Brownell, Jr.
    • Caesar Rodney
    • Charles Lee
    • Homer Cummings


    What Does the Attorney General Do: Daily Duties

    • Represents the United States government in legal matters.
    • Supervises and directs both the operations and the administration of the Department that is made of bureaus, divisions. boards and offices, including the state attorney office.
    • Provides opinions and advice, both formal and informal, to the President, Cabinet and the leading executive heads of various departments and agencies within the government. All of these actions must be given on legal issues.
    • Provides to the President recommendations for positions of U.S. Attorneys and U.S. Marshals. All of these recommendations must be provided in regard to federal judicial and Department seats.
    • Acts as the representative of the United States Government in all courts, both domestic and foreign, the Supreme Court included.
    • Supervises all duties needed as shown by the statute or Executive Order.

    General Attorney Job Description

    The office of Attorney General was created in 1789, as a result of the Judiciary Act in the same year. The Congress adopted in June 187o the law “An Act to Establish the Department of Justice”. Through this law, the Attorney General was given direct supervision and control of the Department of Justice, U.S. Attorneys, and U.S. Marshals.

    The Attorney General must also supersive and administer the operations of the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Federal Bureau of Investigation and Bureau of Prisons. All of them are within the Department of Justice.

    What does the attorney general do apart from the duties enumerated above? According to the job description, the Attorney General must also enforce federal laws, engage in legal counseling within federal cases, describe and enact laws that govern executive departments, investigates supposed violations of federal laws. It is important to make the distinction between state and general attorney.

    For example, both Ohio attorney general office and the Texas attorney general office are state attorney generals. There are some differences between the two. For instance, the Texas office of the attorney general can sentence people to death if not proven otherwise.

    Therefore, the office of the attorney general, head of the U.S. Department of Justice must first and foremost provide legal counseling to state agencies as well as the President, in legal matters that threaten the U.S. Government.

    Skills Needed to be an Attorney General

    As the head of the U.S. Department of Justice, the Attorney General must be a law school graduate. Afterward, the person must be a licensed attorney who practiced for at least five years. Other than that, the person must have U.S. citizenship and to be a qualified voter.

    Other skills implied are patience and also be versed in law enforcement psychomotor skills. The Attorney General must also be a good administrator. This is due to the fact that there are many bureaus and offices under the direct supervision and administration of the Attorney General.

    We hope that our answers to “what does the Attorney General do?” are most helpful in learning about this well-regarded occupation. If you know of other Attorney Generals that have served for long periods of time, or know more about the position of Head of the Justice Department, please let us know. You can leave your feedback or inquiries in the comment section below.

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    Braces have always been an expensive treatment for crooked teeth, with or without insurance. Although the cost of braces can be lower if you have insurance it is important to keep in mind the type of braces as well. This aspect will greatly impact the overall cost. So let us find togheter how much do braces cost for adults and kids.

    How Much Do Braces Cost for Adults and Kids

    How Much Do Braces Cost for Adults

    First of all we must break down braces into categories. This is the main factor that influences the cost.

    • Metal Braces. The most common type of braces to be found, metal braces are also the most visible. Nevertheless, they remained the most widespread due to the fact they are most reliable. Durability is the main keyword here. Cost wise they range between $4,937-$3,407 depending if you have insurance or not.
    • Ceramic Braces. Although not as visible as metal braces, ceramic ones have a reputation of breaking. They blend in with the teeth yet are susceptible to damage. The cost for such braces range from $4,572 without insurance to $2,570 if you do have insurance.
    • Lingual Braces. The most expensive braces on our list, lingual braces are hidden behind teeth. However, speech problems and tongue injuries are usually attributed to them. Due to the side effects many orthodontists do not recommend them. The cost range for such brace is between $5,000-$13,000.
    • Invisalign Braces. Commonly used by people with minor alingment problems they have the unique feature of being almost invisible. Without insurance they cost on average $5,600. Otherwise, expect to pay around $2,100 if you benefit from insurance.

    The type of braces is barely the first step. A very important aspect we have to keep in mind is the orthodontist fees. This will highly impact the overall cost of braces. Also important to know is that some types of braces require less maintenance than others. This influences the visits to the orthodontist and subsequently the overall cost.

    How Much Do Braces Cost for Kids

    Having to do what is best for our children can often be costly. The main factor that influences how much do braces cost is given by the length of time needed to wear them. So let us see how much does it cost to get braces for kids.

    • Metal Braces. The most despised type of braces by children, these braces have steel ties. Their role is to retain wires between the brackets. The cost usually revolves around the sum of $3,000 but that is not all. Another important aspect is the number of visits to the orthodontist. This highly influences how much do braces cost. Usually they are worn between one and three years.
    • Damon Braces. Possibly the most costly among all the braces for kids, they can go up to $8,000. However, the number of dental appointments is reduced due to the braces self-ligating attribute. This means less money spent on dental visits.
    • Invisalign Braces. The cost for these braces usually revolve around $5,000. Children receive a number of aligners. They are meant to be changed every couple of weeks and your child can perform this action himself. This highly reduces the cost for dental appointments. Nevertheless, the cost is influenced by the number of aligners that have to be used.

    Similarly to adult braces, the cost for children braces is influenced by orthodontist fees. This aspect varies from one professional to another. Of course the number of dental appointments is also influenced by the type of braces and of the dental problems your child has.

    How Much Do Braces Cost for Adults and Kids

    Other Aspects That Influence How Much Braces Cost

    In addition to the initial fees for buying and mounting braces there are also some aspects that need to be taken into consideration.

    • Length of Time. It is generally agreed that with braces, people are required to make quite a few visits to the orthodontist. So except to visit the orthodontist once every four weeks for adjustments. This applies especially for metal braces.
    • State of Well-Being. If you are experiencing comfort issues with the braces it might be a good ideea to visit the orthodontist for an adjustment. This means extra dental appointments and this will influence how much do braces cost.
    • Morale. If having braces shatters the confidence in yourself, better visit the orthodontist about installing ceramic braces or Invisalign.

    Depending on the dental problems, braces are usually worn in average for two years. That is why it is important to feel confident with them as they will be with you for quite some time.

    So when answering the question how much does it cost to get braces the answer may vary. How much do braces cost with insurance or how much do braces cost without insurance also varies depending on the insurance provider. The multitude of factor needed to be taken into account highly influences how much dental braces cost.

    If you are wondering how much do invisible braces cost, rest assured they usually cost more. This is due to the fact that they are harder to install and their cost alongside orthodontist fees are higher.

    When tackling the issue of how much does braces cost without insurance it is obvious that the expenditure will be higher. The type of braces and number of dental visits highly impacts how much do braces usually cost.

    How Much Do Braces Cost a Month

    Expect to pay from a couple of hundred dollars to a few thousand depending on the type of braces and number of dental visits. Of course the cost will be higher in the event in which you do not have insurance.

    Nevertheless, having to resort to such a treatment can highly improve the quality of life in the long run. Furthermore, it can prevent a number of issues such as chronic oral problems.

    This brings to an end our article on How Much Do Braces Cost for Adults and Kids. Remember to plan ahead for there might be unforseen circumstances such as comfort that will make you pay a few extra visits to the orthodontist.

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    A real estate agent is the person who helps people buy or rent houses or apartments. This profession has been very sought after due to its lower starting fees than other occupations and massive investment returns. However, before we begin showing you how to become a real estate agent, there are a few things worth mentioning.

    First of all, people who desire to begin a real estate agent career must know that this is a commission based occupation. Therefore, the first few months it is best to have some money on the side before you get on your feet. In addition to that, people must consider the education requirements. In terms of education if people want to know how to become a real estate agent in California, then they will be surprised to find out that just three college level courses are needed.

    If people are asking how to become a real estate agent in Ohio, concerning education requirements the situation differs. In the state of Ohio, 120 hours of courses are required for even thinking of taking the real estate license exam.

    how to become a real estate agent

    Another aspect worth mentioning is that he starting fees for such a career are lower compared to other professions. Expect to pay at least $200 for license fees and somewhere between $150-$600 for the real estate agent courses. Additional costs in regards to starting the business and monthly expenses must also be taken into account. Be prepared to pay almost $2,000 to obtain the license, undergo marketing ads, insurance costs and MLS and board costs. Monthly costs range somewhere between $500-$600. They include office fees, MLS and board contributions, insurance costs and marketing.

    Becoming a real estate agent and real estate careers, in general, can be expensive at the beginning until commission fees start kicking in. But how much do real estate agents make? A realtor salary can jump over $50.000 per month. However, there are many real estate agents who reported even larger monthly incomes.

    Also, if you are an independent real estate agent you can create and run your own business. Other perks include the ability to make your schedule or become involved in real estate investments much easier. Now that we covered the expenses and incomes of a real estate agent we can better understand the steps and requirements of how to become a real estate agent.

    How to become a Real Estate Agent in the US

    As we already stated, there a few steps that need to be completed to become a real estate agent. These steps mainly involve the education requirements, state and national license exams and the aid of a real estate brokerage agency.

    1.  Education Requirements

    First things first, a person who wishes to become a real estate agent must be 18 years old, have a high school or an equivalent diploma and have a United States of America social security number. Then a person must undergo college level courses before applying for a state license exam. These college-level courses are not applied and can be different from state to state.

    Therefore, depending on the state in which you plan to work as a real estate agent, these education requirements can differ. In California for example, a person must undergo three college level courses. If you want to know how to become a real estate agent in Texas in terms of education requirements, these courses last longer, for 180 hours. After finishing the real estate courses, the next step will be obtaining a position in a real estate brokerage firm. This is a mandatory requirement to begin practicing this profession.

    2. Choosing a Brokerage Firm

    Such a company is specialized in selling or renting real estates or apartments. Within the offices of a brokerage firm, many real estate agents alongside brokers work together. Before even finishing your real estate courses it is imperative to get in contact with a broker or a brokerage firm and obtain their support. Although it is a mandatory requirement, there are also a few benefits of doing so.

    So, your education is a nonstop process. A mentor can prove an invaluable asset, as he or she can teach you the subtleties of this profession. A broker has much more experience. In terms of years, we can say that such a person has three additional years of experience as a real estate agent. Through their aid, a person who wishes to become a real estate agent can learn invaluable teachings especially when it comes to selling or listing homes.

    3. Obtaining a Real Estate Agent License

    The last step before becoming a realtor, which is done by joining the National Association of Realtors is to get the real estate license. How to get a real estate license is another matter. When applying for the real estate license exam, participants must show proof of a few requirements.

    They must first show proof of finishing the mandatory courses. Afterward, a person who wishes to become a real estate agent must also make evidence of being part of a brokerage firm. Lastly, before taking the exams, in some states candidates are also required to undergo a criminal background check. Expect to pay at least $200 in exam and license fees.

    After a person obtained their real estate agent license, he or she can choose to join the National Association of Realtors. This is done after getting the sponsorship of a brokerage firm and by attending some NAR meetings.

    smiling real estate agent

    But these are just the first steps in having a career as a real estate agent. What comes next makes the difference between a good and a bad real estate agent. In other words, it all comes down to creating your client base and making a portfolio. Of course, this step takes several months, in general, before commission fees begin to flow. If you wish to know the answer to “how do you become a real estate agent?”, this woul be creating a small business. You invest time and resources to get it started, have a rough patch in the first months until things start to kick off. In these first months, the aim should be that of creating a portfolio. The client base is an ongoing process; that lasts until you retire.

    This brings to an end our article on how to become a real estate agent. In it, we hope people will find the answers they seek regarding this profession. For any questions or suggestions feel free to let us know in the comment section below. Good luck!

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    The annual average pediatrician salary ranges from $90,000 all the way to $200,000. The main factors that influence the annual paycheck are closely related to personal experience and geography. A specialized practitioner in this field can even earn more than $200.000 per year.

    Alongside the usual paycheck, the average pediatrician salary can also be influenced by bonuses and profit sharings. As such, a pediatrician can also earn around or more than $25,000 from bonuses and even almost $50,000 from profit shares.

    As stated above the average salary of a pediatrician is closely related to geography and job experience. The city with the highest pays is San Francisco. Pediatricians in this city earn around 21% more that the national average. It is followed by cities such as San Antonio (+7%), Los Angeles (+6%) and lastly Dallas and San Diego with +5% each.

    pediatrician salary

    Pediatrician Job Description

    A pediatrician is a doctor who specializes in infant, children and adolescents care. Such a professional has a broad range of services due to the intricacies of child healtcare. They take the duty of care-giving from obstetricians immediately after a child’s birth.

    To be active in this profession, a person requires a degree in medicine at an accredited school and must be licensed to practice. Also, a person usually requires between 2-4 years of experience in the field of pediatrics. People who aspire to become a pediatrician usually specialize in this field towards the last stages of medical school.

    The internship and residency programs will mainly be focused on the practice of this field. After completing the forming stages, starting professionals usually work in small clinics or big hospitals. The working program is set during traditional business hours. This field of work employs around 71% and 29% men.

    Pediatrician Tasks

    The field of pediatrics borrows a little bit of almost every other medical field. Nevertheless, a pediatrician’s main responsability is child and young adults healthcare. A pediatrician focuses on detecting from an early stage potential problems and treats them as soon as possible.

    As such they have a wide range of duties:

    • Diagnosing and treating ilnesses.
    • Administering vaccines.
    • Treating accidents and injuries.
    • General oversight on healthcare for infants, children, teenagers and young adults.
    • Provide information to both parents and children on the health, safety, nutrition and fitness needs of the young ones.
    • Recommend and/or collaborate with specialists in the event a child requires medical expertise beyond the pediatrician’s field.

    Alongside having to diagnose and treat younglings from infants to young adults, a pediatrician also must employ certain skills when dealing with young ones and their parents. That is why pediatricians must have quite excellent people skills and good manners when working with children or discussing with parents.

    A very important aspect of this profession is the counseling provided to parents. They provide counseling to many parents on matters that range from advice on physical and/or mental issues with children. As such a pediatrician can also provided diagnoses on diet, psychological or behavioral aspects. In the end, a pediatrician’s role is to assess the illnesses that afflict the young patients as well as to provide assistance and recommendations to parents in dealing with these matters.

    The role of a pediatricians in the lives of young ones ends towards entering adulthood. That is why a pediatrician is most active between the birth of a child until age 2. Afterwards, the pediatrician will do annual check ups for children ages 2 to 5. These check ups should normally continue even after the age of 5. As a result, the pediatrician is the person most often called when the child is sick.

    pediatrician salary

    Average Pediatrician Salary

    A pediatricians salary is greatly influenced by experience and geographical location. A pediatrician starting salary can involve a six figure number. The salary for pediatrician who is at the start of his or hers career, with less than five years experience can sum an annual average of $130.000. The answer to “what is the salary of a pediatrician” therefore involves the experience level. After 10-20 years of labour in this profession, the pediatrician average salary can reach $150,000 per year. After more than 20 years, it can reach an annual average of $160,000.

    As previously stated, another crucial aspect is the location when the person chooses to work. Some cities have higher percentages than the national average. The best paid pediatrician jobs are in San Francisco with 21% higher pays than the nationwide averages. Other well paid cities include San Diego, Dallas, Los Angeles and San Antonio. Cities such as Denver, Philadelphia and Orlando have the lowest scores within the nation. Their scores range from 21%-10% below the national average.

    A pediatrician salary is also influenced by bonuses and profit shares. It was estimated that a pediatrician post has a potential of scoring more than $25,000 from bonuses and almost $50,000 from profit shares. This, especially for those with an experience of more than 20 years, can result in an annual average salary of well over $200,000. Alongside medical benefits, many pediatricians also benefit from dental care. As a result, people who work in this field report high levels of job satisfaction.

    The average salary of pediatrician usually starts at $130k per year. The lowest reported income of such a professional was around $91k per year. On the other hand, the highest pediatrician annual salary was reported at $200k. As such, a pediatricians salary is highly influenced on the years of experience accumulated.

    So there it is, a pediatrician salary is influenced by factors such as job experience and the location where the person wants to practice this field of medicine. In general the average salary of a pediatrician revolves around $130,000 per year. Alongside it bonuses and profit sharing can boost the salary of a pediatrician will almost $75,000 per yer. As such, a person who is employed in this field for more than 20 years can experience a paycheck of $200k per year. Keep in mind that to this sum, bonuses and profit sharing is also included.

    This brings to an end our article on “What is the Average Pediatrician Salary?”. We hope it was useful in providing detailed information on the national averages, as well as the requirements on becoming a pediatrician.

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    Police officers often get less credit than they deserve. Even though there are incidents in which police officers over-extend their job duties and result in shocking events, the vast majority of them risk their lives to protect the communities in which they serve. In this article we will explain how to become a police officer in the U.S.A.

    How to Become a Police Officer in the States?

    First things first we have to mention that police officers have to undergo a series of vigorous trials and that the general misconception that anyone can become a law enforcement agent is false.

    But before even reaching the trials men and women who have the desire of applying for a position in law enforcement have to meet a series of requirements.

    US Police Officer - How to Become a Police Officer Post

    Police Officer Requirements

    Depending on the state they live and apply, the requirements for becoming a police officer can slightly differ. For example, in California the minimum age a person must have before applying for such a position is of 18, while in Florida you have to be at least 19. In Texas however the age requirement is set to 21, except if the applicant has an associate degree or a specific number of credited semester hours from an accredited college or university.

    In order to become a cop, all applicants must be U.S. citizens as well as having a high-school diploma or GED. In Texas applications are accepted from people who have been honorably discharged after at least 24 months of active duty service, thus overcoming the issue of not having a high-school diploma or equivalent certificate. Unfortunately, in the Lone Star State, applicants must also hold a valid “C” driver’s license.

    In every state, applicants must not convicted for felonies or be dishonorable discharged from active service duty.

    Visit Local Police Departments

    It is imperative if anyone wishes to become a law enforcement agent to visit local police departments if they have open houses. In order to get better acquainted with the requirements, life in the academy and test schedules.

    Obviously not everyone is cut out for such a profession the same way as not everyone is made for a career in the army or other high-risk professions. Yet, for those truly dedicated visiting local police departments can be an excellent learning tool. Getting in touch with senior police officer can offer valuable knowledge which can ultimately save you life on field. Like the old saying “a smart person learns from his mistakes, a brilliant person learns from the mistakes of others”.

    In New Jersey for example there is a Pre-Employment Preparation Program which aids applicants to overcome different obstacles they encounter in the physical qualification test.

    Submit Your Application

    After selecting the department in which you want to activate, make sure you verify can agree with the test schedules. Some police departments require a basic training program while in other cases applicants are sent to the police academy after hiring them. So be sure to verify with the police department before continuing with your application.

    Be Physically Fit

    An understatement, nonetheless an important one, a police officer is required to undergo a series of physical trials. Law enforcement agents are meant to do a lot of field work so if you ever find yourself in the unfortunate event of chasing a felon, make sure you cut off those donuts and hit the gym.

    Hit Those Books

    Another general misconception is that police officers are supposed to just know hot to shoot a gun. A law enforcement agent is supposed to be the first bastion of defense in any given community against felons of all sorts. Making the right call, knowing the difference between good and wrong and being able to calm down perpetrators depends a lot on each person’s ability to employ knowledge gained through arduous studying. Having knowledge on civil rights, constitutional law, state or local ordinances may make the difference between life or death.

    Other Skills Required to Be a Cop

    Alongside having insight on many topics which relate to law-enforcement and not only, police officers must have a prerequisite of skills, which can be gained or developed through training. Hearing and vision are just two physical traits which are crucial to a police officer. Moreover, skills such as agility and strength can often be essential if you desire to prevent the use of gunfire.

    Other skills taught in police academies are self-defense and ethics, which certainly are a must. Pretty straightforward, nobody wants a police officer which cannot stand up for those unable to, not to mention that nobody desires a crooked law enforcement agent either. Knowing the difference between right and wrong can often save lives and prevent crimes. In other words, although graffiti is considered a felony in many states, nobody wants to get shoot because of it.

    How to Become a Cop: Prepare for the Interview

    Here we will present a few tips on how to prepare for the interview. Mainly, after a person passes the physical exams, he or she will have to prepare for an interview with a panel of senior police officers. During the interview they will assess your communication and problem-solving skills, because we all know that it is better to prevent a crime from happening.

    After passing the interview you will be submitted to a series of tests before being sent off to the academy. These include a polygraph test, psychological test, detailed background investigation and of course a comprehensive medical exam.

    To make sure you pass the interview be certain that:

    • You are presentable, meaning that you dress accordingly.
    • Employ a speech pattern worthy of a police officer.
    • Know the laws and jurisdiction in which you will activate.

    So there you have it, our tips on how to become a police officer in the U.S.A.

    Remember that such a field of work is not made for everybody and be sure you think it through well before deciding to apply for a position in law enforcement.

    We hope you enjoyed our article on how to become a police officer in the USA. For more detailed information on what it means to become a law enforcement agent you can check our other posts on police officer job description (“What Does a Police Officer Do?”)  and police officer salary (“How Much Do Police Officer Make?”). 

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    If you want to pursue a career in photography, we’ll answer to all your questions about annual earnings, job requirements and most profitable industries to work in. Find out what are the most influential factors affecting overall incomes in the photography business.

    The Average Photographer Salary in the US: How Much Do Photographers Make Nowadays?

    The average photographer salary is $41,393 per year in the US today. Overall cash compensation, including bonuses, profit sharing or commissions, ranges between $20,000 and $88,000. This varies depending on specialty, location, and years of experience.  These figures are based on a survey conducted by PayScale.

    Sadly, as regards benefits, less than 50% of US photographers lack medical coverage.

    photographer with his camera

    Photographer Job Description

    Professional photographers use specific equipment such as cameras, lenses, and tripods to capture moments, record events or visually tell stories by means of images.

    Photographers have both technical and aesthetical skills, but are more concerned with the aesthetical aspect of their images.

    Also, photographers are professionals who might or might have not followed a university program as it isn’t always required. What is really important as regards their competences is operating with digital cameras so that the clients are satisfied with the services provided. They need to be familiar not only with basic equipment, but also with diverse digital media, processing software and high tech printers.

    As regards the work environment of such professionals, some work in studios, but the majority of them are self-employed, like wedding and portrait photographers. They need to advertise and market themselves, pay bills and taxes, and plan projects and contracted work according to their clients’ needs and requirements.

    Other photographers choose to be instructors and work in colleges and universities offering courses in the field or in their studios.

    Photographer Types

    Photographers are divided into:

    • Portrait photographers
    • Commercial and industrial photographers
    • Aerial photographers
    • Scientific photographers
    • News photographers
    • Fine arts photographers
    • University photographers

    Where Do Photographers Work?

    Photographers work in a variety of settings and industries. As statistics show, 60% of them work as self-employed, 27% provide photographic services, while others work for newspapers, television broadcasting, arts and entertainment, or in universities and colleges.

    Work setting considerably varies according to photographers’ specialty. For instance, portrait or fine art photographers work in studios, while travel and nature photographers operate on diverse locations around the world.

    Work environments greatly influence the number of work hours. Some photographers are required to work long hours, even two full days in a row, but others have a typical office work schedule.

    What are the Tasks of Photographers?

    • Capture subjects using digital cameras appropriately.
    • Know a variety of photographic techniques and software.
    • Market their services to diverse clients.
    • Edit images in order to enhance the subject’s appearance.
    • Create an attractive, personalized portfolio.
    • Create a website or a blog to gain greater exposure.
    • Operate various types of photographic tools such as tripods, lenses etc.
    • Achieve high-quality compositions.
    • Review and select best images.
    • Interact with clients effectively.

    Job Requirement


    Even if photographers are not required to hold a bachelor degree in photography or related media, they often apply to courses which can improve and demonstrate their skill.

    There are many universities across the States that offer competitive and highly rated photography programs. The curriculum of such institutions cover foundation courses in photography equipment and techniques, as well as more thought-provoking classes on contemporary art.

    Depending on the industry they work in, photographers may be required to take courses in related fields such as science, biology, medicine etc.


    Most of photographers are genuinely talented and develop more complex skills over years of practice.

    They commonly start working in the photography business as assistants to professional photographers where they learn how to develop both a portfolio and effective communication with clients. Apart from gaining extra skills, this is the usual way they get to have exposure.

    However, there are a myriad of programs, trainings and specialized workshops photographers can choose from to diversify their competences and provide proof of certain abilities.

    Business classes for self-employed photographers provide them with greater chances to develop a successful career in the field.

    Popular Skills Photographers Have:

    • Artistic Skills – Photographers are creative professionals, who work with light, shapes, colors and shadows to achieve a pleasing aesthetic result.
    • Marketing Skills – As more than half of photographers work as self-employed they have managerial and marketing skills as well as they need to plan their activity, find clients and create strategies.
    • Technical Skills – Photographers work with diverse tools, from tripods to flashes and editing software. They also have websites or blogs where they expose their work and communicate with clients.
    • Interpersonal Skills – Photographers interact with clients, each with his/ her needs, thoughts and ideas. They are thus required to have excellent communication skills to understand what clients want and provide them with best photographic services.
    • Attention to Detail – The work of photographers is complex and time consuming, especially when it comes to the post-processing phase.
    • Stamina – Photographers usually work long hours standing and carrying heavy equipment.

    Work Hours

    As photographers perform in various work environments and for different employers or as self-employed professionals, their work schedule vary greatly depending on projects, clients, or established workflow. Most of photographers have flexible work hours.

    According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, over 30% of photographers worked part time as for 2012. However, there are sectors that require an increased number of hours during certain periods of time. For instance, wedding photographers are requested in the spring and summer.

    Photographer Salary by Industry

    Industry Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Photographer Salary
    Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing $36.58 $76,090
    Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories $33.28 $69,230
    Motion Picture and Video Industries $32.29 $67,160
    Scientific Research and Development Services $30.54 $63,530
    Other Information Services $29.37 $61,090

    Is Experience Important?

    When answering to ‘how much photographers make’, the years of experience are quite influential. Those more experienced earn more than the entry-level professionals. Salaries of inexperienced professionals reach a median of $32K, while photographers exceeding 10 years of experience can earn between $40K and $47 annually.

    Photographer Salary by State

    If you consider pursuing a career in photography, find out that best pay rate across the US is offered in District of Columbia, exceeding $30 per hour. That means a professional photographer can bring home more than $65K in average per year. Good salaries are also to be found in New York, California and Hawaii.

    State Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Photographer Salary
    District of Columbia $31.93 $66,410
    New York $25.98 $54,030
    California $25.36 $52,750
    Hawaii $22.95 $47,740
    New Mexico $22.22 $46,220

    Job Prospects

    Photographer jobs are expected to increase with 4 percent between 2012 and 2022, which is considered a slower growth than the average for other occupations. The future is not bright for photographers looking to get hired as companies prefer contracting freelancers.

    According to BLS, photographers held 136,300 jobs in 2012, which means that only 5,900 new jobs will be created over the next ten years.

    Quick Photographer Job Facts


    Average Photographer Salary as for May 2015  $41,393
    Entry-level Photographer Salary (0-5 years) $32
    Mid-level Career Photographer Salary (5-10 years) $40
    Experienced Photographer Salary (10 – 20 years) $47
    Late Career Photographer Salary (>20 years) $50
    Education Requirements  High school diploma (obligatory)Postsecondary degree (optional)
    Training Specialized trainings and workshops are optional
    Top Paying State District of Columbia – $66K
    Work Hours Flexible hours depending on specialty and clients’ needs
    Job Prospects 4% employment growth between 2012 and 2022 (+5,900 new jobs)



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    The average database administrator salary in the US nowadays is $69,564 per year. The wages for this occupation range from $43,281 to $99,171, depending on industry, geographical location and years of experience. Interested in pursuing a job in database administration? Find out more interesting information on the job and cash compensation below.

    Average Database Administrator Salary & Benefits

    According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the average annual database administrator salary was $77,080 in May 2012.

    A Pay Scale survey, however, shows that same professionals earn $69,564 in average per year as for May 2015. According to the individuals reporting to Pay Scale, their pay packages may include bonuses up to $10K and profit sharing between $757 and $8,329.

    Another advantage is that among the benefits database administrators have, medical, dental and vision insurance is covered for the majority of them.

     database administrator

    Database Administrator Job Description

    A database administrator (DBAs) works for companies that require data organization, storage and maintenance. They primary install and configure a database system after previously having discussed the needs of the organization’s management. Once the system is installed, database administrators are in charge of ensuring it operates correctly.

    Database administrators are also responsible for making the information systems user-friendly as there are employers who have access to data for various purposes, such as data analysts. They are, therefore oriented to improving the performance and usability of the installed database system.

    A profession in database administration is quite demanding. This job requires not only excellent computer skills, such as knowledge of database software and programming, but also great attention to details and communication competences. Database administrators interact with technical professionals, but also with different kinds of employees of the companies they work for.

    What Tasks Does a Database Administrator Perform?

    If you wonder what database administrator specifically do, here are their main duties:

    • Determine clients’ needs in database administration.
    • Install, troubleshoot and maintain a database system.
    • Ensure that databases operate without error.
    • Guarantee for the integrity and security of information.
    • Back-up database systems to prevent data loss.
    • Solve problems that may occur with clients’ files.
    • Monitor and improve system performance and usability.
    • Know and use optimization methods.

    Database Administration Job Requirements

    Data Administrator Training, Education & Certification

    In order to become a database administrator you are required to have a Bachelor’s degree in IT, Computer Science or information – related subject, plus a few years of experience in a related filed.

    The majority of database administrators have a degree in Management Information Systems and some hold a Master’s Degree in database management or information systems. Although it is not mandatory to have a master’s degree, employers consider this as an advantage.

    Certifications are another competitive advantage for those seeking a job in database administration. Certifications are provided by software firms and indicate a more complex knowledge and skill in the field. For instance, Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA) certification demonstrate your ability to design, implement, and manage SQL.

    General Skills a Database Administrator Has in His/ Her CV

    • Computer Skills
    • Analytical Skills
    • Interpersonal Skills
    • Problem-solving Skills
    • Attention to Details

    Database Administrator Skills Influencing Pay Check:

    • Knowledge of database software packages and platforms such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2, UNIX, Linux.
    • Knowledge of database languages (SQL – Structured Query Language or variations of it).

    Work Hours

    Most of database administrators work full time, 40 hours per week or more. As this is a demanding profession, more than a quarter of database administrators work overtime. They are required to offer maintenance services off hours, during weekends and holidays.

    Database Administrator Salary by Industry

    Database administrators are typically work in a various environments, from computer systems firms and Internet service providers to companies with large databases, and monetary authorities such as banks. There are also database administrators that are employed by retail companies, educational institutions, healthcare organizations or private companies.

    According to BLS, most popular industries for database administrators in 2012 were computer system design and related services and finance institutions. However, top paying industries for this occupation are the following:

    Industry Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Database Administrator Salary
    Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers, and Other Public Figures $47.55 $98,900
    Beer, Wine, and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant Wholesalers $46.79 $97,310
    Other Financial Investment Activities $46.63 $96,990
    Natural Gas Distribution $46.58 $96,890
    Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing $46.57 $96,870

    As regards employers, Aol, LLC is one of the best paying companies for database administration, with salaries ranging from $94K and $100K.

    Database Administrator Salary by State

    While highest concentration of database administrator jobs is found in Virginia, where the average database administrator salary reaches $90K, the best paying state for this occupation is New Jersey, followed by Colorado and California.

    State Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Database Administrator Salary
    New Jersey $49.20 $102,350
    Colorado $45.21 $94,050
    California $44.89 $93,370
    District of Columbia $44.34 $92,220
    Washington $44.12 $91,760

    Job Prospects – Database Administrator Jobs 2012 – 2022

    As statistics show, database administrators held about 118,700 jobs in 2012. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of database administrator jobs is expected to increase with 15 percent between 2012 and 2022, which means 17,900 new jobs made available.

    The future looks promising for those interested in building a career in database administration. This growth is faster that the average for other occupations and is considered to be driven by increased data needs of organizations.

    Quick Database Administrator Job Facts


    Annual Average Database Administration Salary as for May 2015  $69,5K
    Entry-level Database Administrator Salary $59K
    Mid-level Career Database Administrator Salary $76K
    Experienced Database Administrator Salary $82K
    Late-career Database Administrator Salary $88K
    Education Requirements Bachelor’s Degree (minimum)Master’s Degree (optional)
    Database Administrator Training & Certification Certifications provided by software firms such as Microsoft
    Work Experience Required Less than 5 years in a related field
    Work Environment  Computer system design and related servicesFinance



    Private Organizations

    Best Paying Employer  Aol, LLC ($100K)
    Best Paying Metropolitan Area San Francisco-San Mateo-Redwood City, CA Metropolitan Division ($108K)
    Lowest Paying Market Roanoke, VA ($46K)
    Job Prospects 2012 – 2022  15% employment growth (+ 17,900 Database administrator jobs)
    Work Schedule 40 hrs/ week and over


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    Dear job seeker, you are about to read a very interesting article that will most likely make you appreciate more an industry that not many people know much about! If you are interested in pursuing a career in petroleum engineering, you’ll find that such careers are among the highest paid jobs in the US. The average petroleum engineer salary is $99,343 as for May 2015, but these professionals can reach a total annual pay of $194,836 (including tips, bonus, profit sharing and overtime). Learn more about petroleum engineer salaries, job requirements and influential factors affecting employment in the field in the sections below.

    senior petroleum engineer

    Senior Petroleum Engineer

    The Average Petroleum Engineer Salary in the US

    There is no mystery about how much petroleum engineers earn nowadays. According to employment and wage estimates conducted by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, these professionals earned a median annual salary of $130,280 in May 2012. A more recent survey created by PayScale shows that the average petroleum engineer salary is very close of exceeding six figures, reaching more than $99K per year.

    Now, you may ask yourself why salaries have dropped that much in less than 3 years. Well, that is a different story you might have read about in the papers or any type of mass media and it’s all about the oil price falling, folks. The annual earnings of these professionals currently range between $66K and $195K depending on years of experience, level of individual performance, industry and location. On top of this there are also benefits like medical and dental coverage.

    What Does a Petroleum Engineer Do?

    Petroleum engineers work in the oil and gas industry and are responsible for designing methods of extracting oil and gas from various depths below the earth’s surface.

    They are in charge of finding optimal ways to improve oil & gas production. Their job is also to develop new and safe methods and techniques of extracting oil and gas from older wells.

    Some petroleum engineering jobs are office-based, while others involve working in the field: at drilling rigs or well sites, either onshore or offshore. While other professionals are dedicated to research, working in universities and colleges.

    What are the Main Tasks of a Petroleum Engineer?

    Petroleum engineering is a vast domain where these professionals, subjected to their field of expertise, are responsible of all aspects of oil & gas production, from upstream to downstream, as follows: designing & delivering the prospecting, drilling, pumping & completion operations; optimize the oil production and perform well services & well interventions; designing the processing equipment and oil and gas pipelines.

    From a high level perspective, without getting into too much details, petroleum engineers are:

    • Designing the equipment and extracting processes so to achieve profits.
    • Developing techniques to inject water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to either enable or improve the production.
    • Developing plans to drill in oil and gas fields or to recover the oil and gas from underground deposits.
    • Making sure that wells, well testing, and well surveys are completed and evaluated.
    • Using computer-controlled drilling or fracturing techniques.
    • Installing, operating and maintaining the oil field equipment.
    • Designing and implementing the most suitable drilling methods & all associated operations.

    Types of Petroleum Engineers

    There are several types of petroleum engineers. Here is a brief introduction to popular types:

    Reservoir engineers determine how much oil and gas can be recovered from underground deposits.

    Drilling engineers use drilling techniques, deciding on how to drill a well as optimal as possible. They need to ensure the safety and efficiency of the drilling process, while making sure the costs are not exceeding the budget.

    Completions engineers are in charge with optimal ways of well designing. Their work involves knowledge of tubing, completion tools & processes, hydraulic fracturing, pressure-control methods etc

    Production engineers monitor and optimize the well’s production following the drilling & completion process. Among others, they are in charge with finding ways to increase the amount of extracted resources.

    Petroleum Engineer Job Requirements

    Petroleum engineers are required to have a bachelor’s degree in petroleum engineering or in other related subjects such as mechanical or chemical engineering.

    If you are looking to get a job in this field, you should know that employers value practical experience, including work experience gained, even, during internships or practical courses undertaken over university years.

    Typically, there are internal trainings that every company will provide for their employees in order to make them valuable assets and develop more skills and expertise.

    Education & Training

    In order to become a petroleum engineer a four-year degree program has to be taken. Such programs include both classroom and field studies in engineering, geology, thermodynamics hydraulics etc.

    Some petroleum engineers take a 5-year program that leads to a master’s degree. Post-graduate programs may be an advantage for professionals seeking a job in the oil & gas industry, but this king of graduate degree often helps engineers who wish to work as instructors or researchers.

    Certifications & Licenses

    If you live in the US and intend working in the States as a petroleum engineer, you are required to have a license. Licensed engineers are also known as professional engineers (PEs).

    These are the licensure requirements in all 50 states and the District of Columbia:

    • A degree from an accredited petroleum engineering program.
    • Passing the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam after earning your bachelor’s degree.
    • 4 years of relevant work experience.
    • Passing the Professional Engineering (PE) exam.

    Normally, once you get licensed your license is recognized from one state to another. However, there might be states that require continuing training in order for you to keep your license.

    Also, there are certifications provided in this field by The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). In order to achieve this certification, you need to meet a few requirements like becoming a member of the society and passing an exam.

    General Skills Petroleum Engineers Have in Their CVs

    • Analytical Skills

    Petroleum engineers are expected to be good at planning and anticipating possible problems or complications.

    • Creative Skills

    Creativity is another quality professionals in this field have as they are designing and implementing new methods of oil and gas extraction.

    • Technical Skills

    Petroleum engineers need to have well-developed technical competences, especially those working in the field.

    • Problem-solving skills

    Identifying and solving problems is crucial for petroleum engineers. Not only they have to anticipate potential issues, but also react as pragmatically as possible in case something wrong occurs.

    Work Hours

    Typically, petroleum engineers work on a full time basis. However, professionals who perform their job at drilling/well sites normally work in a rotation that can vary from 84 hours to weeks.

    Work Environment

    The typical work settings for petroleum engineers are the oil & gas companies and drilling sites. Some work in offices, other in the field, while there are professionals who choose to work at universities or research laboratories.

    Most petroleum engineers work in different countries around the world and interact with a variety of professionals and technicians with diverse backgrounds.

    Offshore Platforms

    Offshore Platforms

    According to the US BLS, the industries that record the highest number of jobs in petroleum engineering in 2012 were:

    • Oil and gas extraction  53%
    • Support mining activitie   14%
    • Architectural, engineering, and related services  7%
    • Petroleum and coal products manufacturing  6%
    • Management of companies and enterprises    6%

    Petroleum Engineer Salary by Industry

    Industry Concentration of Jobs Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Petroleum Engineer Salary
    Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services not estimated $110.69 $230,230
    Management of Companies and Enterprises 3,250 $82.25 $171,080
    Oil and Gas Extraction 15,310 $75.86 $157,790
    Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas 720 $74.73 $155,450
    Other Financial Investment Activities 60 $74.22 $154,380

    Among top paying employers, we should mention big companies like Chevron Corporation, BHP Billiton, Anadarko Petroleum Corp, Shell Oil Company, ConocoPhillips Company, and Schlumberger. Most generous salaries are offered by BHP Billiton, where the average salary for petroleum engineers is $163K per year, followed by Anadarko Petroleum Corp with salaries around 158K, and Schlumberger with paychecks of $138K.

    According to the PayScale petroleum engineer salary survey, smaller paychecks can be found at British Petroleum, where the average petroleum engineer salary is $105K, as well as at ExxonMobil Corporation and Baker Hughes. However, there are professional employed by these companies earning more than $300K annually.

    As regards to the factors affecting how much petroleum engineers bring home every year, the geographical location is also important. Good news is that Texas is both the state with highest concentration of jobs in the oil & gas industry and best paying state for this occupation. Let’s have a look at other top paying locations across the US.

    Petroleum Engineer Salary by State

    State Concentration of Jobs Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Petroleum Engineer Salary
    Texas 17,910 $76.33 $158,770
    Virginia 940 $75.19 $156,390
    New Jersey 220 $74.73 $155,450
    Alaska 770 $73.69 $153,280
    Colorado 1,850 $73.06 $151,960

    Based on BLS employment estimates for petroleum engineer salary across the US, these are the top paying metropolitan areas for this field:

    Metropolitan area Concentration of Jobs Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Petroleum Engineer Salary
    Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX 11,570 $80.91 $168,280
    Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Division 740 $79.75 $165,880
    Jackson, MS 90 $78.23 $162,720
    Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX 360 $77.97 $162,180
    Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO 1,450 $77.37 $160,940
    Anchorage, AK 480 $76.00 $158,080
    Greeley, CO not estimated $75.35 $156,720
    Midland, TX 1,580 $74.33 $154,620
    Oklahoma City, OK 1,440 $74.24 $154,420
    Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX Metropolitan Division 960 $73.56 $153,000

    Job Prospects 2012 – 2022

    The future looked bright for petroleum engineers in 2012, when a growth of 26 percent was prospected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics for the next 10 years. Unfortunately, oil prices are the dominant factor determining the level of employment and payment for this occupation.

    As long as oil prices are high, new engineers will be needed to work for this massive industry. However, oil companies find it more convenient to hire people on an as-needed basis which makes job prospects for this sector favorable on one hand, but instable, on the other.

    Experienced petroleum engineers are luckier than professionals at the beginning of their career, as they can team up and develop their own companies for providing services to oil and gas producers.

    Quick Petroleum Engineer Job Facts

    Annual Average Petroleum Engineer Salary as for May 2015  $99,343
    Petroleum Engineering Starting Salary $96K
    Mid-level Career Petroleum Engineer Salary $120K
    Experienced Petroleum Engineer Salary $152
    Late-career Petroleum Engineer Salary $201
    Education Requirements Bachelor’s Degree (minimum)Master’s Degree (optional)
    Petroleum Engineering Training Internal Trainings Provided by Employing Companies
    Certifications & Licenses License in the state of practiceCertification issued by SPE
    Work Environment  Oil & Gas CompaniesDrilling SitesDrilling PlatformsDrilling ShipsOil & Gas Related Services
    Best Paying Employer  BHP Billiton – $163K (median salary)
    Best Paying Metropolitan Area Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX – $168K
    Lowest Paying Market Lafayette, LA – $106K
    Job Prospects 2012 – 2022  26% employment growth expected until 2022
    Work Schedule Full time/ on a rotation

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    If you wonder how much a skincare specialist earns in the US nowadays, stay with us to find out more about the average esthetician salary, best paying employers and the most important aspects affecting how much they make annually.

    The Average Esthetician Salary in the US

    According to a chart created by Pay Scale in May 2015, the annual esthetician salary in the United States ranges from $18,204 to $47,400. Good news is that experience is not one of the essential factors affecting their earnings. The entry-level esthetician salary can reach, in this case, a total of $30,000 per year.

    Esthetician providing a facial treatment to a client

    What is an Esthetician?

    Also known as skincare specialists, estheticians provide skincare treatments that help enhancing an individual’s overall appearance.  This employment sector is dominated by female workers, specialized in beautifying the skin.

    Although all professionals responding to the Pay Scale online questionnaire have reported high levels of satisfaction, their job is not that easy as it may seem. Providing facial and full-body massages and treatments implies spending a great number of hours standing.

    According to BLS, around 27% estheticians are self-employed. Beside physical stamina, good timing and excellent customer service skills, these estheticians are required to have managerial abilities as well.

    However, there are many advantages to this job. Flexible work hours and low level of stress as compared to other professionals treating more severe skin conditions, are just two of them.

    If you consider taking up this career path, you should know that there are tips, bonuses and commissions that you can add up to your hourly payment. But unfortunately, only 30% percent of estheticians benefit of medical cover, and just 17% of dental insurance.

    As regards their work place, salons, spas, and even medical offices are the typical work settings for skin care professionals.

    What Are the Main Tasks of Estheticians?

    • Evaluate their client’s facial and body skin condition in order to provide treatment for a more enhanced appearance.
    • Know about specialized skincare techniques and products such as masks, scrubs, peels.
    • Provide services such as: cleansing, exfoliating, waxing, moisturizing, chemical peels, make-up, massages.
    • Show and explain how to maintain a healthy, good-looking skin.
    • Demonstrate how to apply make-up after having cleansed it.
    • Discuss which alternatives can improve the condition and quality of their clients’ skin.
    • Recommend different kinds of treatment and products according to their clients’ needs.
    • Keep a record of the needs and services provided to each of their clients.
    • Advice clients with skin problems to ask for medical help.
    • Maintain the equipment clean.
    • Order supplies.

    Job Requirements

    If you consider becoming an esthetician, this is all you need to accomplish:

    • Education & Training

    In order to become an esthetician you are required to have a post-secondary vocational degree. As estheticians often work with chemicals and specific equipment, they are also provided with on-the-job trainings by specialized professionals in skincare.

    • Certifications & Licenses

    Estheticians need to be certified as cosmetologists by an accredited esthetician school. This means they have to undergo a cosmetology or esthetician program and pass an exam in the state of practice.  After completing such programs, they need a state license. For more information about each state requirements, you can contact The National-Interstate Council of State Boards of Cosmetology. Find out all you need to know about licensing from them.

    Continuous learning and post-licensing trainings are seen as an advantage by employers and can contribute to a better payment.

    Work Hours

    Estheticians work on a full-time basis. Typically for them is working during evenings, as well as over weekends, depending on their clients’ needs and requirements.


    Esthetician Salary by Industry

    The average annual esthetician salaries do not depend that much on years of experience as they are affected by the industry they work in. Also, the geographical location has much to say when it comes to how much a skin care specialist brings home every month.

    According to BLS, these are the top paying industries for this profession:

    Industry Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Esthetician Salary
    General Medical and Surgical Hospitals $22.89 $47,600
    Outpatient Care Centers $22.24 $46,260
    Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) $20.56 $42,760
    Offices of Physicians $19.76 $41,090
    Employment Services $17.90 $37,240

    According to Pay Scale, best paying employer is Massage Envy, offering a median salary of $28,000. Smallest paycheck is said to be found at European Wax Center, but they also offer salaries up to $47,000.

    Esthetician Salary by State

    According to the Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates made available by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2014, the highest employment level for estheticians is located in California. The average esthetician salary offered in this state is $34,110.

    As statistics show, the highest skin care wages are in Wyoming and Oregon. The average annual esthetician salary in these locations exceeds $50K.

    Employment Facts – Highest Concentration of Esthetician Jobs in the US

    State Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Esthetician Salary
    California $16.40 $34,110
    Texas $15.75 $32,760
    New York $16.57 $34,460
    Florida $15.64 $32,530
    Illinois $14.82 $30,830


    Top Paying States for Estheticians

    State Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Esthetician Salary
    Wyoming $26.22 $54,550
    Oregon $24.42 $50,790
    Virginia $22.29 $46,360
    Vermont $22.27 $46,330
    Ohio $20.59 $42,830

    Top paying metropolitan areas for Estheticians:

    Metropolitan area Hourly Pay Rate Annual Average Esthetician Salary
    Albuquerque, NM $26.31 $54,730
    Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Division $26.01 $54,090
    Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA $25.53 $53,100
    Boulder, CO $23.92 $49,760
    Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT $23.85 $49,610
    Naples-Marco Island, FL $23.12 $48,080
    Portsmouth, NH-ME $22.91 $47,650
    Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC $22.32 $46,430
    Burlington-South Burlington, VT $21.93 $45,610
    Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA NECTA Division $21.65 $45,040

    Job Prospects

    The future looks good for estheticians. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, until 2022 it is expected an employment growth of 40%. More than 44,000 jobs are made available between 2012 and 2022. This expectations are based on more and more people’s desire to improve their physical appearance.

    Quick Esthetician Job Facts

    Esthetician Average Salary as for May 2015  $29K
    Entry-level Average Salary (0-5 years) $29K
    Mid-level Career Average Salary (5-10 years) $33K
    Experienced Average Salary (10 – 20 years) $38K
    Late Career Average Salary (>20 years) $41K
    Education & Training  Postsecondary Vocational DegreeOn-the-job Training 
    Certification and Licenses Esthetician School Certification License in the State of Practice
    Best Paying State  Wyoming
    Highest Concentration of Esthetician Jobs in the US California
    Work Hours Full-time, long evening and weekend hours
    Job Prospects  + 44,400 new jobs until 2020



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    Known in the United States as doctors of optometry and outside North America as ophthalmic opticians, optometrists’ basic occupation revolves around examining eyes and treating visual impairment. But, what is the average optometrist salary? We explore the figures in our post.

    Average Optometrist Salary

    The average optometrist salary in the US falls between $25.13 and $66.85 per hour. On average, the annual wage for optometrists typically exceeds $100,000 according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Their cash earnings range from $71,000 to $134,000. Bonuses, commissions and profit sharing approach a few more thousands of dollars.

    If you wonder what is the starting salary for optometrists, figures show that doctors of optometry typically earn between $69,829 and $91,288 at the beginning of their career.

    average optometrist salary

    Find out the specifications for an optometrist salary

    The most important aspects that influence an optometrist salary are whether he or she works in a public hospital or a private clinic, and the geographical location of such establishments. Check the last section of this article to see employment data of optometrists by state as for May 2014.

    What Does an Optometrist Do?

    Optometrists perform a healthcare profession concerning the eyes. Their job is much more complex than prescribing glasses and contact lenses. They are specialized professionals who are trained to examine, diagnose and treat diseases and conditions of the visual system.

    Their job is not easy as they work with a variety of patients ranging from children to elder people and they have to find the treatment that best suits specific problems. Working inside a hospital or a clinic they also have to interact and effectively communicate with nurses, assistants and technicians as to provide best care for the people they treat. Optometrists also work in centers such as Walmart Vision Centers.

    What Are the Main Duties of an Optometrist?

    Optometrists are physicians who have to fulfill the following tasks:

    • Examine patients with eye defects and visual diseases
    • Conduct tests to identify visual disorders
    • Interview patients
    • Evaluate test results
    • Diagnose problems and impairments of the human eye
    • Prescribe forms of treatment and medications (oral, topical or injectable) and therapy to correct low vision or other eyes disorders
    • Treat and correct eye conditions

    Optometrists Job Requirements:

    If you consider becoming an optometrist, please take into account the following optometrists job requirements:

    Education &Training

    • In order to become an optometrist you are required to be a high school and college graduate and to complete a four-year postgraduate program.
    • This degree includes courses and clinical training in physiological and ophthalmic optics, ocular anatomy, ocular disease and pharmacology, neurophysiology of the vision system, design and modification of the visual environment, vision performance and vision screening, among others.
    • To earn a doctor of optometry title you also have to know about human anatomy, systemic diseases, and other general medical courses, such as general pathology, microbiology, biochemistry and statistics.


    After completing your four-year degree you are a doctor of optometry, but to practice you need to:

    • Pass a national examination administered by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry  (the exam has three parts including basic science, clinical science and patient care).
    • Fulfill continuing trainings to stay connected to the latest standards in medical care


     You can choose to go on to complete residencies with training in specific sub-specialty such as pediatric eye care, neuro-optometry or specialty contact lens. This will take you another year or two.

    Work Hours

    Like the majority of physicians, full time optometrists work between 37 and 40 hours per week, each day from 9.00 am until 5.30. They usually work five days a week, with the probability of working during weekends as well.

    What Other Optometrists Benefits are Out There?

    US optometrists earn in average $96,000, but their income can stretch to $130,000 as there are packages that include bonuses and commissions approaching $39,000 annually. The factors that affect the cash earnings of this group of doctors are, as mentioned, the city they work in and the type of legal authority hiring them (public, private).

    According to a salary survey made by PayScale, just under a third of respondents optometrists benefits do not include health benefits. More than 50% receive medical coverage, and over 30% have dental insurance too. Most optometrists providing data for this survey are satisfied with their job.

    Wage Estimates for Optometrists by State

    According to Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates completed by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2014 with data collected from a national survey of employers, the highest employment levels for this occupation are located in California, New York, Illinois, Texas and Florida, with annual mean salaries ranging from $98,970 to $111,620.

    The highest annual wage estimates for optometrists by state are paid in the following states: Alaska, Connecticut, Oklahoma, New Mexico and North Dakota, with average wages ranging from $130,380 to $178,640.

    Among metropolitan areas with highest concentrations of jobs for optometrists are Chicago, New York and Los Angeles. As regards the non-metropolitan areas with highest employment in this occupation, Kansas takes first place.

    If Alaska is the top paying state for this profession, among top paying metropolitan areas are Palm Bay – Melbourne – Titusville, FL, Salisbury, MD and Glens Falls, NY. An optometrist in Salisbury, MD, for instance, can earn an annual wage of $203,980, more than double as compared to a doctor of optometry in Billings, MT, where the average annual salary reaches $88,230.

    Summary of Key Employment and Wage Estimates by States

    State Employment per thousand jobs Annual average salary
    California 0.28 $111,620
    New York 0.29 $130,350
    Illinois 0.28 $92,360
    Texas 0.17 $120,460
    Florida 0.24 $98,970
    Hawaii 0.49 $102,070
    North Dakota 0.37 $130,380
    Alaska 0.17 $178,640
    Connecticut 0.17 $169,380
    Oklahoma 0.32 $146,330
    New Mexico 0.22 $142,900

    Top Paying Metropolitan Areas:


    Palm Bay – Melbourne – Titusville, FL $241,570
    Salisbury, MD $230,980
    Hartford-West  Hartford-East  Hartford, CT $201,230
    Anchorage, AK $187,310
    Lincoln, NE $186,450
    Fayetteville, NC $185,070
    Bellingham, WA $184,790
    Amarillo, TX $177,180
    Oklahoma City, OK $176,260
    Houma – Bayou Cane – Thibodaux, LA $174,640

    For more detailed information on estimated employment and wage fact for this profession please access the US Bureau of Labor Statistics’ website.

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    medical assistant salaryMore and more people are interested in medical assisting as a job. Because of this, the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics has revealed that medical assistant is one of America’s fastest growing careers. An average medical assistant salary is around $30,000 per year, but that sum varies depending on the state you’re in and your training and work experience. Today we’re going to take an in-depth look at medical assisting and the average medical assistant salary.

    What Does a Medical Assistant Do?

    We should begin by clearing up one thing: a medical assistant is not a nurse. So, what does a medical assistant do? Medical assistants do routine clinical and administrative tasks to help the clinics and doctors’ offices run the way they should run. Without a medical assistant in charge, a doctor’s office or clinic would be knee-deep in chaos.

    Medical assistants will answer the telephone, take and schedule appointments, greet patients, handle billing and correspondence and even fill out and update medical records.

    Medical assistants also get to interact with patients, the way nurses do. They will take medical histories, assist doctors during appointments, perform some lab tests and even prepare patients for examination.

    Naturally, every clinic, office and state, has its own guidelines for what a medical assistant can and cannot do. But in general the hob of a medical assistant is a mix of office work and clinic work.

    For example, in the case of optometrists’ and ophthalmologists’ offices, medical assistant can even attend to patients, teaching them how to take care of their glasses and contact lenses or help doctors with various tests. Again, the job description of a medical assistant varies depending on the state and clinic/office.

    Do You Need Training to Become a Medical Assistant?

    Curious about whether or not one needs training to become a medical assistant? Well, we’ve got some good news for you! You don’t need any formal training to become a medical assistant. All you need is a high school diploma and most offices and clinics would be more than happy to hire you, with only that as your education. Medical assisting is a profession where one learns on the job.

    Naturally, if you want to increase your chances of getting a job as a medical assistant, you could enroll in various certification programs that last just one year, or take one step further and attend two-year programs that get you associate degrees where you learn how to do a plethora of lab techniques and clinical procedures, specialized terminology and record keeping.

    You should know that if it ever comes between a person with a high school diploma and a graduate of a formal program in medical assisting, the graduate will always be preferred. Which is why, we recommend you enroll in such programs, if medical assisting is what you want to do. There are plenty of programs that are offered in post-secondary vocational schools, vocational technical high schools, community, colleges and junior colleges and universities.

    Keep in mind that post-secondary programs that last for one year will give you a certificate or a diploma, and those that last for two years result in an associate degree.

    For more information about becoming a certified medical assistant and accredited training programs, go over at the American Association of Medical Assistants’ website.

    What is the Typical Medical Assistant Salary?

    The annual salary of a medical assistant varies greatly across the United States, from state to state, depending on the level of training, experience and medical branch.

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2013, the median wage for a medical assistant was $29,610, a smidge higher than in 2012. Also, the best-paid 10% of all medical assistants across the U.S. made more than $42,000 while the bottom 10% made less than $21,000.

    Next, we will give you some relevant some examples of medical assistant salary across the Unites States. The best place in the U.S., salary-wise, to be a medical assistant is Champaign, Illinois, where the average salary of a medical assistant is a whopping $48,920. San Francisco is also a great place to work as a medical assistant in, as the average yearly salary of a medical assistant is $43,680. In Oakland, California, a medical assistant earns $40,910 per year and in Santa Rosa, California, $40,630 and in Rochester, Minnesota a medical assistant gets $40,150 a year.

    Other states that pay well are Texas (Houston, TX), Louisiana, NYC, NY, NC, GA, NJ, Indiana, Florida, Oregon. Chicago, Michigan and Atlanta are also very generous to medical assistants.

    Wondering how much you’re going to earn if you’re an entry-level medical assistant? Well, then you should know that starting salaries for medical assistants in the front office range from $12.00 to $15.00 per hour. In the back office, a starting medical assistant will earn between $14.00 and $18.00 hourly. Private practice is where the good bucks are made, if you’re just starting out as a medical assistant in a private practice, then you should earn around $17.00 and $18.50 per hour.

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    Working as a respiratory therapist is a serious and very responsible job. But, what is the average salary of a respiratory therapist in the United States?

    How Much Does a Respiratory Therapist Make

    Therapists working in the United States should expect to earn an average of $24.10 per hour. Compensation is estimated somewhere around $18.24 per hour on the lower end up to $32.76 on the higher end. Compensation for this working class is mostly affected by location but also by the career length and the individual firm.

    Out of the RTS’s that participated in these surveys, around 62%, were women. Generally speaking, most Respiratory Therapist jobs offer work that employees really enjoy and find great satisfaction. A large number reported receiving medical coverage from their employers and others collect dental insurance. Non-wage benefits for this career should also factor into one’s decision to seek employment in the industry.

    Salary Of A Respiratory Therapist

    Average Salary of a Respiratory Therapist as of March 06th 2015

    • Respiratory Therapist UKhc – $54,000 / year
    • Neonatal Respiratory Therapist – $23,000/year
    • Registered Respiratory Therapist – $59,000/year
    • Respiratory Therapist Prn – $36,000/year
    • Resp Therapist Req Ped – $52,000/year
    • Director of Respiratory – $118,000/year
    • Pediatric Respiratory Care Practitioner – $55,000/year
    • Respiratory Therapist Riverbend – $52,000/year
    • Respiratory Therapist Pediatric – $64,000/year


    Annual wage of Respiratory Therapists by State

    • 21,550 – $51,110: ND, SD, IA, KS, MO, OK, AR, MS, AL, TN, KY, WV
    • 51,520-$54,700: NE, MT, ID, AZ, NM, LA, FL, GA, SC, NC, OH, IN, MI
    • 54,710-$61,290: WY, UT, CO, TX, PA, VA, IL, WI, ME
    • 61,960-$75,870: MN, WA, CA, NV, AK, HI, DE, DC, NJ, CT, RI, NY


    The top paying states for rts are California (annual wage of $75,870), New Jersey (average annual wage of $69,580)Nevada ($69,340), and Alaska ($68,790 annually). For the metropolitan areas, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Vallejo and Sacramento come in first in terms of annual pay around $90,230, $88,000, $86,620, $85,240 respectively.

    What is the Respiratory Therapist job description

    A Respiratory Therapist, or RTS, works with people who have trouble breathing and often experience cardiopulmonary issues. Many Respiratory Therapist job descriptions deal with premature infants born without fully developed lungs. They also focus on children and adults who suffer from health problems, like cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Usually, this therapist meets with patients and examines them. After, they discuss the results of the exam with a physician and eventually they put together a treatment plan for each patient. Plenty of times, the treatment involves removing mucous from the lungs of a patient, and also inserting a ventilation tube down the throat of the patient and connecting it to an oxygen machine.

    The therapists that work in the emergency room often provide heart attack care and care for shock vitamins and drowning victims. Respiratory therapists, that work in home health care, often require ventilators and other type of life support machines. They also provide directions and equipment functioning to care takers.

    To be a respiratory therapist you need a minimum associate’s degree, even though many of them have a bachelor degree. Many of them have graduated programs that are focused on respiratory training. Students that wish one day to work in the respiratory therapy area, require to complete the classes successfully, including human anatomy, microbiology, physiology and other science and medical courses. They should also expect needing to complete studies in therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, patient assessment and medical terminology.


    Tasks of a Respiratory Therapist

    -to keep up to date the information of the therapy charts of each patient
    -to inspect, clean and test, the respiratory machines
    -to monitor the physiological responses of each patient to therapy, blood gases and the blood chemistry changes or arterial pressure; if adverse reactions occur, they have to consult a physician.
    -to establish the requirements for the treatment, what type, what method and duration of the therapy according to the physicians demands
    -they have to set up and operate the therapeutical devices according to the parameters of the treatment.

    A Respiratory Therapist can earn more money by working as a Physician Assistant where the average pay hovers around the $82,000 per year mark. These Therapists typically advance to positions such as Respiratory Therapy Managers which pays $11,000 more, or Registered Nurses which pay $4,000 more. You can find out more about how much does a Registered Nurse make here.

    Apria Healthcare Group Inc, Lincare Inc., Select Specialty Hospitals, HCA, Inc., and Kindred Healthcare are the lead companies that hire a large number of people qualified as RTS. The best salary is offered by Select Specialty Hospitals, which pay an average salary of $59,000 per year. The salaries there start from somewhere at $42,000 and can max out to about $72,000. The payment at Apria HealthCare Group is far from balanced. The salaries there can reach up to $72,000 per year. The company’s lowest average pay rest at $47,000 for the position.

    Therapists who have participated in surveys, stated that they are using a wide range of professional skills. Workers who are aware of Long Term Care, can expect a serious pay rise, with salaries up to 21% higher than the average.

    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are also places which offer salaries above the average paying between 9 to 21%. Most of the people familiar with Critical Care are also know about Acute Care and Intensive Care Unit.It has been often noticed, that people who have Emergency Rooms skills are also skilled in Intensive Care Unit and Acute Care.

    In this field, experience doesn’t seem to make a big difference when it comes to salary increase.
    Participants in surveys with less than 5 years of experience earn an average of $45,000. While those starting from 5 to 10 years of experience earn an average of $51,000 per year.

    On the medium, therapists are making around $55,000 after 10 to 20 years of experience on the job. Those who have over 20 years of experience earn a slightly bigger pay check at $59,000 with just a few thousands more than less experienced therapists.

    For the respiratory therapists who are looking to make more money, Los Angeles,California is the place to work. The average pay rate is 38% higher than the national level. Also, cities like New York are places where therapists earn more than 27%, San Diego at 16%, Philadelphia at 16% and Milwaukee at 15%. The lowest pay area for respiratory therapists is Pittsburg, paying with only 12% under the national average. Other places known for companies to pay under the average with salaries with 7% and 5% lower are St.Louis, respectively Denver.
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    Are you interested in learning about the Jay Z net worth? In our following post, we’ll tell you about how much is Jay Z worth.

    Jay Z Net Worth: $560 million

    Jay-Z is an American songwriter, rapper and business man. He earned his estimated $560 million net worth throughout his music industry career. He began as a co-founder of the Roc-A-Fella records where he also started his recording career. He released his first album in 1996 with Priority Records and was called Reasonable Doubt. The album ranked 248 in the Rolling Stones 500 Greatest Albums of all Time. After this, the artist released the album In My Lifetime, Volume 1 and signed with the record label Def Jam. This album was mostly about Jay-Z’s life in the earlier years. The album was a great success for the artist and went platinum. A year after his first album was released, Jay-Z released the second one in the series called Volume 2, Hard Knock Life which sold more than five million copies. The artist’s second album is five times platinum. Because of his success, many believe that Jay-Z will eventually reach a $1 billion net worth in his lifetime. This is quite a remarkable achievement for a celebrity. Here are some facts regarding Jay-Z’s incredible success:


    In 2007, Jay-Z sold Rocaware clothing which the rapper also co-founded for $204 million. He also got $35 additional million in Iconix (the company that bought Rocaware clothing) stock.


    Every record released by Jay-Z has been a huge success and has gone platinum.


    The artists has endorsements from Hewlett Packard, Budweiser, Chevy and Armadale Vodka


    Jay-Z’s deal with Live Nation is apparently worth $150 million

    Miscellaneous Facts

    Jay Z also has ownership in the Arsenal Football Club, Def Jam Records, 40/40 nightclubs and the New Jersey Nets.

    His solo career has been very successful but the rapper also collaborated with numerous other artists like Rihanna, Bono from U2, Mariah Carey, The Edge and many others. He even produced a musical with Jada Pinkett Smith and Will Smith called “Fela”, in celebration of the political activist Fela Kuti from Nigeria. Jay-Z is known for his performances that combine his rhyme techniques and rhythm perfectly. The rapper is also known for being able to write lyrics in his head. Jay-Z also appears in movies like Fade to Black, Streets Is Watching, State Property, Black Stage and Paper Soldiers. Fade to Black is a movie about his career. The cast of the documentary has many more other celebrities such as Funkmaster Flex, Bleek, Beyonce and other talented performers.

    The rapper is also a successful entrepreneur and has invested in record companies and clothing stores. Jay-Z also co-owns 40/40 Clubs in Chicago, Atlantic City and New York as well as being part owner of the New Jersey Jets and the co-director of Budweiser Select. He has also been involved in campaigns that try to make people aware of the worldwide water shortage and has donated $1 million through American Red Cross for the victims of the Katrina Hurricane.

    Jay-Z, along with owners Mikhail Prokhorov and Bruce Ratner have announced the move to Brooklyn of the New Jersey Nets. The basketball team has been renamed the Brooklyn Nets.

    He was born in 1969 in Brooklyn, New York and had a very tough childhood. His father was involved in selling drugs and eventually abandoned him. He went to George Westinghouse Career and Technical Education High School, Trenton Central High School and Whitney High School. Even as a young child, Jay-Z felt a lot of love for rhythm and music. He started making his own type of hip hop after his mother bought him a boom box. Jay-Z worked with Beyonce in 2002 for the song “’03 Bonnie & Clyde” and two others called “That’s How You like It” and “Crazy in Love”. He appeared in many Beyonce performances after that. Jay-Z and Beyonce got married in 2008 and have been called the top earning couple in the whole music industry. Blue Ivy, their first child was born in 2012 on January 8th.

    But how much money do the two artists have together? It’s been reported that Jay-Z and Beyonce have a net worth of $1 billion combined. Forbes named The Carters the highest earning couple in the entertainment industry. Beyonce is credited to helping the couple go over the milestone of $1 billion with the help of her “The Mrs. Carter Show” tour, her endorsement with H&M and Pepsi, worth $116 million.

    Jay-Z also made a lot of money by featuring on and producing Justin Timberlake’s album called The 20/20 Experience and by going on tour with him in the United States.  Jay-Z also brings in money from his successful shares in the 40/40 night club, Roc Nation, the Brooklyn Nets and Rocawear. He also makes a lot of money off of Rihanna’s success. Rihanna is signed to Def Jam, which is owned by him.

    Their fortune rose even higher after Beyonce released her latest album in 2013.

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