Home Authors Posts by Rob Davis

Rob started writing from a young age. In high school, he was the editor-in-chief of a magazine he created with his best buddies. With a degree in Political Science, he is now an expert in political behavior and international organizations. When he writes, Rob constantly considers how to provide the best answers to historical dilemmas people might have in mind. He is a knowledge seeker and a very organized person. In his spare time, he enjoys the company of his friends and family. He also has three dogs begging for attention. If puzzled by his posts or want to share your ideas, please do not hesitate to contact him by simply leaving a comment.

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usa flag waving on white metal pole

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The United States has seen many different presidents come and go. Including Donald Trump now, the country has witnessed the rule of 44 presidents. The first ever President being George Washington whose presidential years were 1789-1797. He was also one of the founding fathers of America. Each of these presidents ruled the country in their own way and some of them left deeper marks in history with their unique presidential techniques. Calvin Coolidge is an example of one of such presidents.

John Calvin Coolidge

John Calvin Coolidge came to power in 1923 and was the 30th President of America. During his presidency, Calvin reduced the federal spending  immensely. This led to an overabundance of the budget, boosting his reputation amongst the citizens of United States. Coolidge wiped away much of the corruption that was caused due to the administration of the previous President, Warren G. Harding. Calvin believed in minimum involvement of the government in certain policies and sectors. This ideology is a part of a liberal government. However, some people believe that this liberalism in the business sector led to the great economic depression which shook America soon after Calvin’s presidency.

Living up to his name, Coolidge was known for his cool and calm personality. It is also a known fact that President Coolidge slept for no less than 10 hours a day. According to him, a small government was the right way of running a country smoothly. Citizens knew him as the man who spoke less and spent less.

Coolidge’s efforts at promoting business development did wonders. His ruling years were a part of what is called the ‘roaring twenties’. These years were wonderful for American citizens as entertainment was big during this time. Jazz music, parties, drinks and other leisure activities were prioritized as the economy was flourishing. This, and many of his presidential ways, restored the faith of the American nation in the government.

Silent Cal

During his duties as a Vice President during the 29 th President’s rule, Coolidge became the first ever Vice President to attend cabinet meetings. Although he is known for his remarkable speeches, Coolidge was not much of an extrovert in private parties. It was during his time as a Vice President when he attended parties and people realized how less he speaks.

This characteristic of his was emphasized further when he came to power as a President and refused to use the telephone whilst in office. His reserved style gave him the nickname of ‘Silent Cal’ which has been a part of his identity ever since. An incident that occurred between Coolidge and a columnist named Dorothy Parker highlights his silent personality quite well. When seated next to the Silent Cal at a dinner party, Dorothy told him she had made a bet with someone that she would get him to say more than two words that evening. Upon hearing this, Coolidge only said, “you lose.” If you are wondering what U.S. president refused to use the telephone while in office? The answer John Calvin Coolidge shouldn’t surprise you now!

Although he spoke only if he was asked a question, Calvin observed everything in his surroundings. This is why being the President of the United States was his ideal post. Speaking less and observing more gave him an insight into just about anything. His actions were then beneficial for the country, making him a beloved President of the United States.

It is believed that Calvin was this reserved due to the grief of his mother’s and sister’s death. Calvin was only 12 years old when his mother, whom he loved and looked up to, passed away. When Coolidge was just 18 years old, his sister passed away as well. Despite these misfortunes, Coolidge had a sense of humor which the public witnessed in his rather comical public speeches.

Soon after Coolidge became President, an infection killed his teenage son. It is believed that this sorrowful incident added made Coolidge even more reserved than he was.

Coolidge As A Politician

Coolidge had always been an impressive and ideal politician of the Republican Party. He started with the smallest level and made his way up to the White House. When elected as the Vice President of the United States, Coolidge won by a large number of votes. Later one night whilst he was on vacation with his family in Vermont, he received the news of President Harding’s death.

John Calvin Coolidge’s oath-taking ceremony was quite unique. As he had not installed electricity in their vacation home, the oath was taken in a room full of journalists where only an oil lamp was burning.

After the brief oath-taking ceremony in the middle of the night, Coolidge went straight back to bed.

white house

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Almost a year after Coolidge left the White House, the American stock market crash and the Great Depression began. Coolidge later admitted that his economic decisions as a Presidents may have added to the cause of this economic depression.

what invention did michael jackson receive a patent for

Michael Joseph Jackson is a popular music legendary. He is known for his talent as an artist, a dancer, songwriter, singer and music producer. During his lifetime reign as the 'King of Pop,' he was a bestselling American singer, songwriter, and musician.

Born in 1958, Michael bounced into public fame through his chart-topping career with the Jackson 5.

Later on, as a solo artist, he released the best-selling album recorded in history, 'Thriller' in 1982.

The History of Michael Jackson

close up of michael jackson performing

Image source: Pixabay

Michael Jackson's musical career began to gather momentum even when as a child, during the period when he led his family's famous Motown group – 'Jackson 5' before he went he went on to a solo career, from which he broke into an overwhelming global success.

As a solo artist, he released the number one hits from the albums 'Off the Wall,' 'Thriller' and 'Bad.' In 1971, at the prime age of 13, Jackson launched a solo career with his first solo album, 'Go to Be There' while still with the Jackson 5. But in 1982 Jackson's musical career exploded tremendously across the globe when he released the best-selling album in the history of the world: 'Thriller,' and his popularity, thereafter, knew no boundaries. Michael Jackson’s masterpieces are still loved by fans all around the world.

Michael Jackson was born in 1958 in Gary, Indiana, to Joseph Jackson and Katherine Jackson on August 29, 1958. His career's success could be traced to Joseph Jackson's inspirational efforts and support during his tender years. Michael was one of the nine children born to Joseph Jackson and Katherine Jackson. He gave up as a guitarist to take up a vocation as a crane operator to augment his income so that he could meet with family financial needs. However, he believed in the music talent he discovered in his sons and moved further to mold them into a musical group in the early part of the 1960s. The group later became known as the Jackson 5.

The Jackson Family Music Group

Initially, the Jackson family music group was only made up of Michael Jackson's elder brothers, who are, Tito, Jermain, and Jackie. Later, Michael Jackson became part of them when he was only 5 years.

He quickly rose to the position of the lead vocalist upon joining the group. Michael Jackson, from inception, has always displayed exceptional within the group's performances, and with an aura of impression duly built on his ability to convey complex emotions.

pictures of michael jackson on a brick wall

Image source: Pixabay

His elder brother joined the group making them a group of 5 members, from which they were able to adopt the brand name, Jackson 5. The group's constant rehearsal paid off handsomely, and which consequently built a strong following for them. They continued to advance in their career until they moved to Los Angeles where they lived with Diana Ross. 

Their meeting and merger with Diana Ross' Supremes ushered the group into a big-time music career in the music industry. Along with the group's scaling success, Michael Jackson's personal took off towards an ever upward move until in 1983 when he performed the television special in honor of Motown where he debuted his awe-striking and soon-to- be-famous dance move, the Moonwalk.

What Invention did Michael Jackson Receive a Patent For?

Music followers and the entire world were dumbfounded when the dance move by Michael Jackson was seen on television on the music video, 'Smooth Criminal' as Jackson made a 45 degree lean over and then rose up erect again without falling – seemingly defying the power of gravity.

Many people were unable to fathom the tricks associated with that gravity-defying dance skills.

Later, when he was to perform the gravity-defying dance on a live show without special effects, like using the strings with which it appeared that he defied gravity up to 45 degrees, it became imperative to device a better mechanism to still create the illusion on a live show performance.

colored sketch of Michael Jackson

Image source: Pixabay

Thus, the Anti-Gravity Shoe was invented. Michael Jackson, Michael Bush and Dennis Tumpkins became co-founders of the Anti-Gravity Shoe.

The shoe is a hitching mechanism that needs to be mounted on the floor of the stages where Jackson was to perform. The shoe is designed to allow those who wear it to lean 45 degrees against gravitational pull. The technology of the Anti-Gravity Shoe includes pegs that rise from the stage floor at a regulated timing. And special shoes with ankle supports and cutouts in the heels that slide over the pegs, providing a temporary fix on the stage.

In 1992, Michael Jackson and his co-inventors of the Anti-Gravity Shoe submitted an application, formally requesting patent right for the shoe, to the U.S Patent and Trademark Office. They met the requirements for patenting the Anti-Gravity Shoe and subsequently, their application was approved, and the U.S Patent and Trademark Office granted the patent right to them on October 26, 1993 with the U.S Patent No.5,255,452.

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movie projector

image via: pixabay.com

TV game shows are programs where individuals or groups of people participate in order to compete for prizes. Prizes can involve cash, trips, sponsored items or anything similar. The game show may have general knowledge quizzes, puzzles to solve or any competing activity.

TV game shows are important to businesses and companies as they provide perfect opportunities for advertisement. The services or goods are provided to the game show program by sponsors.

These products, when presented to the participants in the form of a prize, are viewed by thousands of people on TV. This instantly provides a large audience for the company or business to target.

What Is The Longest Running Television Game Show?

Since TV game shows are preferred so much by people of almost all ages, some game shows have lasted for many years. People do not just start adoring the show itself but most of the time, the game show
host is what makes people admire the entire program.

Since the invention of television, many TV game shows were loved so much by the audience that the show continued for several years. Let’s have a look at the 10 longest running TV game shows and a few details about them.

The Price Is Right

woman wearing pink dress on the stage

Image Source: Pixabay

This program is the longest aired TV game show in the history. Produced initially by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, the show was created by Bob Stewart. Participants of the show simply have to guess the cost of a product or a merchandise in order to win prizes. The contestant whose bid would be closest to  that of the product's prize would be the winner. The show was launched in 1956, ended in 1965 but was started again in 1972 and is still broadcasted. The Price is Right now has completed more than a total of
8,000 episodes in 42 seasons.



image source: pixabay.com

This unique game show was created by Merv Griffin. What makes it unique is that unlike normal quizzes, this show provides the answer to a question in form of clues and the contestant have to frame the question. The questions are all related to general knowledge and so, the game show is very interesting.

Jeopardy was first broadcasted from 1964 to 1975, then from 1978 to 1979 and finally, the version of this show that was started in 1984 is still running at present. The show has completed about 7,000 episodes in a total of 31 seasons.

Wheel Of Fortune

woman eating popcorn

Image Source:  flickr.com​

This is one of the most popular game shows in the United States. Similar to hangman, the contestants solve word puzzles and a large spinning wheel determines the winner's prize. The show has completed
more than 6,000 episodes in 32 seasons.


This interesting game show involved tweaking the participant’s memory. Pairs of cards with similar images would be removed to reveal the main puzzle. The show completed around 4,000 episodes in 15

Hollywood Squares​

remote of the television

Image Source: Unsplash

The show’s main idea was a 3x3 tic-tac-toe game. The show also spiced up things with the help of comedy writers. Celebrities and participants would read out lines and jokes from the script given to make the show even more exciting. The show completed about 3,500 episodes in a span of 14 years.

Let’s Make A Deal

family watching movie at home

image via: flickr.com

This show completed more than 3,000 episodes in just 13 seasons. The host would choose a participant from the audience and give them an item. The participant then would have an option to either keep the item or ‘trade’ it with another mystery item. What made this interesting was that the participant had no idea whether the mystery item is more valuable or not.

What’s My Line

man sitting on couch with laptop

Image Source: Unsplash

Produced by the same duo who produced The Price is Right, this game show became popular amongst Americans. A panel of four celebrities was to question a mystery guest in order to determine their ‘line' of work. The show even won an Emmy for the "Best Quiz or Audience Participation Show". The show completed over 2,000 episodes in 25 seasons.

I’ve Got A Secret

movie projector

image via: pixabay.com

Another production of the famous duo Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, this show was written by comedy writers Allan Sherman and Howard Merrill. Celebrity panelists attempt to guess a participant’s secret. This secret could be anything about the participant. The show was launched in 1952 and
completed more than 350 episodes in 15 seasons.

To Tell The Truth

people watching on theater

image via: pixabay.com

This game show was first broadcasted in 1956 and had completed 12 seasons. Due to high demand, a newer version completed over 25 seasons. Four celebrities would be provided with a participant’s description. Based on this, the celebs would question 3 people (the participant and two of his
imposters). The celebs would then have to guess who the real contestant is. The contestant wins if the celebs make a wrong final guess.

Truth Or Consequences

couple watching movie at home

image via: pxhere.com

At first, Truth or consequences was a radio show and was later converted into a television game show.

The show was created by Ralph Edwards and became popular thanks to its remarkable host, Bob Barker.

The show was quite amusing as contests who wouldn’t be able to answer the questions right were to perform hilarious and embarrassing stunts in front of the audience.

Television Game Shows – A Part Of America

Game shows have always been a part of the American culture. Before the invention of television, radio programs hosted game shows and they were fancied by the entire nation. In the year 1938, the first television game show called ‘Spelling Bee’ was broadcasted. Soon, more and more game shows began airing as they were viewed by millions of people across the globe.

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what celebrity has helped to grant the most wishes with the make a wish foundation

Make-A-Wish Foundation is a non-profit organization (NPO) based in the United States. The organization grants a ‘wish’ for children who are suffering from potentially fatal or chronic diseases. The inspiration for this foundation was a 7-year-old boy named Christopher Greicius. This leukemia patient had a dream of becoming a police officer and so, an Officer named Tommy Austin made Chris’ dream come true.

The Officer made arrangements so that Chris could spend a day with officers at the Arizona Department of Public Safety and get a ride in a Police helicopter. Not only this, Chris was also given a custom-made uniform and was officially sworn in as an honorary Public Safety patrolman. Although Chris eventually died due to his sickness, his story was what inspired the founders of the Make-A-Wish Foundation. Now, this NPO is responsible for spreading joy amongst thousands of seriously ill children.

How Does this NPO Work?

A large number of volunteers has enabled this foundation to grant a wish for a child every 17 minutes. Children between the ages of 3 and 17 are eligible to apply for a wish. The child’s medical practitioner, guardian/parent or the child himself can apply for the wish. The child’s medical conditions will be analyzed in order to determine whether they are entitled to be a recipient of the Make-A-Wish Foundation.

The foundation’s operatives stay in contact with the child’s doctor and or family in order to determine the perfect time to grant the child’s wish. A seriously sick child’s desire for meeting someone, going somewhere, doing something or being someone is what the foundation aspires to fulfill. The purpose of all this is simply to bring joy to an unwell child. The positive and uplifting effect the fulfillment of the wish helps the child in many ways. The spiritual boost helps the child in fighting the disease, elevating their chances of getting healthier.

Make-A-Wish Foundation was founded in Phoenix in 1980. Now, the organization operates 62 branches throughout the United States of America. Soon after becoming one of the most admired non-profit organizations in America, Make-A-Wish Foundation decided to spread joy to children in other parts of the world as well. Now, the organization has opened up 38 more offices and operates in 45 more countries through them.

What Celebrity has helped to Grant the Most Wishes With the "Make-A-Wish Foundation"?

John Cena has become an iconic part of the Make-A-Wish Foundation as he has granted over 500 wishes. He is now officially a celebrity that has granted the most wishes through this NPO. John Cena became a part of this foundation in 2004 and has been heavily involved since then.  With the schedule of a man like John Cena, it is impressive how he has managed to grant 500 wishes!

Cena earned his title of granting 500 wishes in 2015. His 500th recipient being Roco Lanzer, an 8-year-old boy suffering from leukemia. Cena surprised the child by paying him a surprise visit and giving him a hat, a championship belt, and several other custom-made presents. Lanzer was also given ringside seat tickets by Cena to the RAW television show.  

Starting with Hulk Hogan in the 1980s, numerous WWE superstars have teamed up with Make-A-Wish Foundation. A total of about 6,000 wishes have been granted only with the help of these wrestlers. Make-A-Wish Foundation is glad to have such supporters helping them in cheering up ailing children.

In order to thank Cena for his devotion, a large event was organized by the NPO in order to honor the wrestler. This event was attended by WWE associated and many wish kids and their families. John Cena’s dedication and passion for helping children also inspired the WWE management itself to donate millions of dollars to the flourishing foundation.

Justin Bieber and the Make-A-Wish Foundation

Justin Bieber is also one of the most honorary supporters of the Make-A-Wish Foundation. This is because, at a total of 260 wishes granted, the popular singer holds the record for granting the second most wishes through this foundation. Justin Bieber has visited Make-A-Wish Foundation recipients in almost every city on ‘Purpose’ tour list. To Bieber, these brave children are a motivation and inspiration.

The young star is known for granting wishes at a short notice and even on his busiest of days. The Foundation has praised the singer’s devotion towards helping them in making the strong children smile during desperate times. Justin Bieber intends to support and volunteer for the Make-A-Wish Foundation for as long as possible and is looking forward to raising his number of wishes granted much more than 260.

Make-A-Wish Foundation is pleased to grant just about any wish. However, the organization has stopped granting wishes involving hunting. This decision was made in order to ensure the safety of the children and due to the concern of animal rights groups.

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primetime Television-show

After a long day at work, it’s common to want to kick back and enjoy the news or catch up on your favorite shows.

Television provides a time for relaxation and distraction, while providing material to talk about during your lunch break at work or share over cocktails with friends.

Just like with radio in the past, television has become an important part of American culture and beyond offering an opportunity to stay up with the news, watch educational programming, or get your heart pumping with the latest drama or episode of reality TV.

With shows such as Friends, How I Met Your Mother, and old time classics like Lassie and Gunsmoke, there is no doubt that television programming has become engrained in our culture. Who hasn’t shared or enjoyed spotting a reference to a favorite show during conversation?

There are some shows that have become so popular they have continued to be played for years spanning several generations.

The question is – what is the longest-running scripted primetime TV show of all-time?

What is Primetime TV?

Primetime refers to the period of time during which audience viewership is at its peak during television programming. The time used to be between the hours of 8pm and 11pm Eastern Standard Time.

This is the time during which people are back home from work and sit to catch up on news and their preferred television programming. While the traditional time block for primetime television was 8pm-11pm, in recent times, this pattern has shifted into later hours.

In modern times, the average American tunes in between 9:15pm-9:30pm, Monday-Friday. The lowest viewership numbers are between 10:45pm-11:00pm. Though viewership patterns are typically the same when it comes to gender, the age of the audience tuning in does seem to determine at what times the audience tunes in.

Audiences over the age of 49 tend to tune in earlier, while audiences between the ages of 18-49 tend to tune in during the latter prime time slot.

Because these are the primetime hours, television stations tend to run their most successful and in-demand programming during these hours. Programming such as reality shows, late-night talks shows, and dramas are usually very successful during these hours.

Shows have very little time to prove their success. Shows are quickly scraped and replaced if they don’t attract and sustain a large audience.

These time slots are also the most attractive to advertisers who need to pay several times more money for a spot during these hours versus hours outside of the primetime peak hours.

Audiences in the past would plan their evenings around the times of their favorite shows. Now with options such as Hulu and Netflix, viewers can tune in at their discretion and don’t have to worry about missing their programming and then having to wait for a rerun.

Still primetime shows are an important part of television.

So, what is the longest-running scripted primetime TV show of all time?

The Simpsons.

Why We Love the Simpsons

The Simpsons was created for the Fox Broadcasting Company by Matt Groening debuting on December 17, 1989. The show is an American animated sitcom what centers around the Simpson family made up of Homer, Marge, Burt, Maggie, and Lisa.

The Simpson family represents and satirical depiction of a working-class family in middle America. The setting is in a fictious town called Springfield. The geography of Springfield is comprised of hills, mountains, coastlines, and/or any other features needed by the storyline or joke currently in play.

The show is a parody of American culture, television, and, ultimately, the human condition. Perhaps this is the reason audiences have connected to the show so strongly contributing to its longevity.

The Simpsons is currently in its 29th season and was renewed for its 30th season on November 4th, 2016, extending the show into the year 2019. The show boosts many awards including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, and even a Peabody Award.

The characters of the show include Homer, a goofy safety inspector, Marge, who is married to Homer and represents the traditional housewife, Bart, their ten-year-old troublemaking son, Maggie, their smart and precocious eight-year-old activist daughter, and Lisa, their baby who communicates through her pacifier.

The show also boasts a large array of quirky secondary and tertiary characters, including extended family, coworkers, teachers, local celebrities, and other townspeople. Many of this vast supporting cast have gained their own storylines and stand-alone episodes.

One of the most unique aspects of the show is that though it has been running for more than 28 years, the characters themselves never age or change physically. The shows run on a floating timeline with the events occurring in the year they are produced, but without the characters aging.

What is the longest-running scripted primetime TV show of all time?

Arguably, the best show across generations – The Simpsons.

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money over time

Student debt continues to skyrocket in the United States with over 37 percent of adults under 30 reporting to have outstanding student debt. Student debt for Americans overall amounts to over $1.3 trillion.

This amount is almost triple the amount of student debt from a decade ago. When we look at only young adults with a bachelor’s degree or higher, this percentage increases to 53 percent. The extreme increase comes from the progressively increasing cost of higher education.

The pressure to obtain a degree continues to increase along with the higher price tag, while financial aid continues to decrease. For those with student loan debt, it is vital to understand what student loans are and how to put a plan in place to pay off the debt.

Young adults with student loan debt are more likely to be struggling financially and to hold second jobs. They also tend to value their degrees less than those without the burden of student loans.

One aspect of student loans that needs to be grasped is the student loan grace period.

Together we’ll tackle two questions.

First, what is a student loan?

Second, when referring to student loans, what is a grace period?

Student Loans Defined

Student loans are specifically designed to help students pay for their higher education. Most students don’t have the money necessary to make an investment in higher education on their own. Student loans provide a way to bridge this financial gap.

The student loans can be used to pay for tuition, books, living expenses, and other expenses associated with obtaining an education. The main differences between student loans and other traditional loans is the possibility to access much lower interest rates and the ability to defer payments of the loans until after education has been completed.

In the United States, there are two different kinds of student loans – federal student loans which are sponsored by the federal government and private student loans. The majority of student loans used by students are federally sponsored.

There are two types of federally sponsored loans – subsidized and unsubsidized. With subsidized loans, interest is not accrued while you are in school because the government pays for the interest. With unsubsidized loans, the interest accrues while you attend school.

Though federal loans are usually less expensive than private loans, the government makes a large profit on student loans partially because these loans cannot be discharged even when a bankruptcy is filed.

The interest payments of the loans far exceed the expense the government takes on from administrative costs or losses.

Repayment for student loans typically begin 6 months to 12 months after a student leaves school, whether the student finishes the program or not. Repayment also begins if the student drops below half time course load.

What is a Grace Period?

The grace period is the 6 to 12 months granted to a student after they leave school before repayment begins.

According to Homeroom, the official blog of the Department of Education –

“Your student loan grace period is a set amount of time after you graduate, leave school, or drop below half-time enrollment before you must begin repayment on your loan. For most student loans, the grace period is six months but in some instances, a grace period could be longer. The grace period gives you time to get financially settled and to select your repayment plan.”

During this period, it is important for students to prepare for the coming period of repayment.

The first thing to do during your grace period is to get organized. Sit down and track all of your student loans and read over the agreements for all of them.

After this contact your loan servicer. This is the company that handles your federal student loans. Discuss your repayment options with the servicer and begin to complete the tasks necessary to tackle your student loans.

Maintain contact with your servicer and communicate any circumstances that will affect your ability to repay your loans.

After careful consideration of your repayment options and making sure you have a thorough understanding of debt consolidation, decide on your repayment plan.

Though you might be given or assigned a repayment plan when you first begin, you can change your repayment plan at any time should your circumstances change.

One of the biggest benefits of federal student loans is the flexibility of the repayment options. There are even loan forgiveness programs for teachers and other who serve in public service positions

When it comes to repayment of your student loans, know your options and take advantage of your grace period.

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delegates meeting

The world of politics in every country seems to be a culture of chaos. There’s lots of confusion on various topics, like who’s really in charge, who actually makes and changes laws, and how does a given part of a certain system work?

For example, what happens to delegates when a candidate drops out?

In order to answer a question like that, some terms need to be defined and understood.

What is a Delegate?

A delegate is a person who attends a meeting or conference on behalf of a group. These meetings or conventions are usually put together by an organization. These gatherings are where members from different parts of the organization can assemble together.

An example of this would be an organization with nationwide membership that may hold an annual convention in which local branches can send members to both vote and represent on behalf of the club.

Groups with delegates may be anything from a church denomination to a political party, social group, parachurch ministry – meaning outside of a denomination but still religious or faith-based in nature – or even a sports club.

What is a Delegate Within the Political Sphere?

In reference to American political parties, “delegate” is the title of a person who is sent to represent a certain state in the presidential primaries. In some way or other, delegates are people that are involved in their state’s politics. To this effect, they could be local party chairs, volunteers, or just citizens interested in participating in the election process.

Depending on the state, there may be superdelegates who also represent the state. Usually, these are elected officials. Superdelegates can choose to vote regardless of primaries or caucuses. A superdelegate is someone who is free to vote for whoever he or she decides to.

What is a Primary?

The goal of a political party primary is to nominate the party’s candidate for the presidential office. There are two main methods in which a candidate can win delegates in a primary.

The Proportion Method

The proportion method is when a given state has fifty delegates and a candidate manages to win half of those delegates. This means the candidate has twenty-five delegates for the primary.

The Winner-Take-All Method

The winner-takes-all method is the method when a candidate manages to win the majority, even if it’s only 51 percent of the vote. When this happens, that candidate gets all the state’s delegates.

Ultimately, whichever the method, when a candidate wins delegates in a state, it is assumed that these delegates are now committed to voting for the candidate at the convention.

In order for a candidate to win their nomination in a presidential race, a candidate has to gather the majority of the delegates. As long as the candidate has at least one more delegate than the other candidates do, that candidate wins the primary.

However, in the case of a tie, this may result in several more rounds of voting and the numbers can change. There is a clause allowing a delegate to change their vote if the first round ends up in being a tie. This allows a delegate to realign his or her alliance with the candidate he or she deems most appropriate for the candidacy.

What Happens to Delegates When a Candidate Drops Out?

As a primary season begins there are typically numerous candidates.

As the season progresses, several candidates typically drop out of the race as they do poorly in the polls.

So, what happens to delegates when a candidate drops out of the race?

Depending on the state which they represent, the delegates are allowed to attend the national convention without a commitment, similar to a superdelegate does. If the candidate they represented chooses to endorse another remaining candidate, the delegate may choose to endorse that candidate.

However, certain states have rules that dictate what a delegate has to do when the candidate they support drops out of the race. The states of Nevada, Puerto Rico, Washington, Iowa, Texas, Virginia, and Montana have their delegates committed to vote for their delegate for one round, regardless of if they are still participating in the race or not.

Incredibly, delegates from Tennessee have their delegates bound for two rounds, even if they no longer have a candidate running for office. South Carolina has their delegates bound to vote for their committed candidate for the first ballot, but, if that candidate is not nominated then they are bound to vote for the candidate who finished second or third in their state.

Delegates and Candidates: What Now?

Ultimately, a delegate in some states has the right to choose to align with another candidate if his original candidate drops out. In other states, however, delegates are required to stick with the original candidate, even after she drops out. To understand what’s happening with a specific delegate in a race, check in with your state’s websites regarding the primaries.

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leather materials

You’ve probably heard of pleather and faux leather, but what are PU leather, bi-cast leather, or any of those other leather replacements? For that matter, what exactly is leather? And what’s the difference between PU leather and leather and faux leather and pleather and all those others?

What is Leather?

Leather is a flexible, hardy material made from the tanned hides of animals. The most frequently used animal hide for this is cattle. Leather is used in a variety of goods which includes footwear, clothing, furniture covers, and in bookbinding.

What is the Process of Making Leather?

The process of making leather is a manufacturing process which is divided up into three distinct steps, with an optional fourth step. These three steps of leather making are called preparatory, tanning, and crusting. The last optional step is called surface coating, however, not all leather is subjected to this final step.

Preparatory Step

In this first step of making leather, the animal hide itself is prepared for tanning. Included in the preparations are:

  • Liming
  • Hair removal
  • Bleaching
  • Degreasing
  • Pickling


This is a process which helps to stabilize the proteins of the raw hide so that it does not begin to rot and putrefy. A properly tanned hide will become flexible and does not become putrid if it becomes wet again. There are a variety of methods by which tanning can be done.


In this process, the leather is thinned, re-tanned, and lubricated. Most often this step will also include a coloring process. The end of this step will also include drying and softening operations.

Surface Coating

A final, and optional, step is called surface coating. This step is also sometimes called the finishing process. This can involve polishing, oiling, glazing and other methods.

What is PU Leather?

PU leather is a leather substitute that was invented in the early 20th Century. It became a widespread commercial product in the 1960s because of a refinement of manufacturing processes.

There are two main types of synthetic leathers. The two types of synthetic leathers are PVC and PU. PVC – also known as polyvinyl chloride – is a type of leather substitute that is made from adding plasticizers and dye to PVC which creates a flexible fabric in a color that is more natural.

PU – also known as polyurethane – is a much more widely used product that involves the use of coating cotton or polyester with a polymer. This coating makes the synthetic leather a much more breathable product for wear.

After the coating has been applied, the PU leather is taken and treated to make it look like real animal leather by adding pore patterns and dye to make it look like the required color.

Another name for PU leather is bi-cast leather. This kind of material is made of a combination of polyurethane and low-grade leather, or polyurethane and with cotton backing.

PU leather was originally created for the fashion industry. The material was used to create glossy patent leather shoes.

Later on, PU leather was adopted by the furniture industry, and has been used to make things like leather sofas, chairs, and ottomans.

What is Vegan Leather?

Vegan leather is a buzz word that has been taken up by the fashion industry in recent years. Vegan is a term to describe a product that does not contain any animal product or byproduct in it.

In most cases, there are few, if any difference between most artificial and vegan labeled leathers outside of the terminology that is used to describe them. There are two types of leather that use plant fiber in their product, these are vegan and lorica. These are made from a microfiber.

Comparing Leather to PU Leather

There are many qualities that set regular leather apart from PU leather. For instance, normal leather is made from animal hide that is treated with chemicals and is very durable – approximately lasting from ten to fifteen years if it is properly maintained and kept up.

PU leather is not as durable as genuine leather and is made from plastic. Due to the lengthy process that goes into creating it, real leather is considered a luxury item and is priced much more expensively than PU leather.

Another thing which sets PU leather apart from normal leather is that PU leather is non-biodegradable. This means that PU leather will not rot like normal leather and PU leather will spend several centuries slowly decomposing.

The Basic Difference Between PU Leather and Leather

What is PU leather? It’s an artificial leather-like product made to substitute for genuine leather, which is made from animal hide. It can be used for fashion, book-binding, and furniture. Not all PU leather is vegan leather, however, so if that matters to you, check out the label for the list of materials used to create the product you’re interested in.

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We all know who Tony Robbins is. He is one of the wealthiest and most popular motivational speakers in the world. Tony has plenty of knowledge and experience as a bestselling author, motivational speaker, and entrepreneur. Considering his diversified career that consists of a wide range of activities, including life coaching and TV appearances, there’s no wonder that Tony Robbins net worth is so incredibly huge. In this post, we will talk more about his net worth but also about other important aspects of his life.

tony robbins speaking at an event

What Is Tony Robbins Net Worth?

Tony Robbins net worth is 508 million dollars, according to our latest researched statistics. Still, this sum doesn’t come as a surprise because Tony is very successful in everything he does. All his self-help books have gained a lot of popularity ever since their launch. Moreover, thousands of people all over the globe are willing to pay a lot of money to see him talk on a stage during events and conferences. He even managed to become one of the people featured on the Forbes’ Celebrity 100 list, after gaining no less than 30 million dollars in 2007 alone.

About Tony Robbins

Tony’s real name is Anthony J. Mahavorick, and he was born on the 29th of February, 1960, in North Hollywood, California. He has two younger brothers. Tony’s life wasn’t always easy. When he was only seven years old, his father left the entire family, because he failed to provide for those he was supposed to take care of. Because of this unfortunate context, Tony was required to become the provider and caregiver of his siblings. During her lifetime, Tony’s mother remarried a couple of times. At the age of 12, he was adopted by Jim Robbins, her mother’s husband, who was a semi-professional baseball player.

Tony got married in 1982, to Becky Jenkins, and he adopted all her three children from previous marriages. After nine years, they got divorced, and he got married to Sage Robbins for the second time.

Tony Robbins Education & Career

Part of Tony Robbins net worth is also a result of his self-studies and hard work. Although he attended Glendora High School, Tony never went to college. During high school, he was elected student body president in his senior year. Once he turned 17, things got a lot worse at home, where he was constantly fighting with his mother. Therefore, before turning 18, he ran away from home, in the attempt to escape from his mother’s rage who was chasing him with a knife.

At first, he worked as a janitor. But Tony was bright, and he knew how to raise himself from poverty. His career really took off when he started promoting Jim Rohn’s motivational seminars. Then was when Tony learned a valuable lesson from Jim. He was taught that success and happiness don’t come from how much money or material things one has but from ways in which one uses these available resources.

Jim Rohn was a major inspiration for Tony who decided to become a life coach. He started teaching NLP (neuro-linguistic programming). He was even trained to walk on fire by Tolly Burkan, which is a global figure when it comes to motivational activities. Soon after that, Tony began to sell his products and programs through books as well as TV infomercials. Because of the way he positioned himself on the coaching market, he earned a lot of appreciation and recognition.

Tony Robbins Achievements

tony robbins standing up

Tony Robbins net worth is also explained by his success with one of his major projects, Unleash the Power Within. This is the name of a four-day seminar which is considered to be the most important work of Tony’s career. The entire seminar revolves around the idea that successful people are willing to overcome their fears. During this event, you will be taught effective methods to overcome those fears. Another successful and well-known project is Mastery University.

Tony had the opportunity to meet a lot of influential personalities such as Bill Clinton, Nelson Mandela, Francois Mitterrand, and even Princess Diana. All his experiences were written down in his book, called Awaken the Giant Within. Life was not always easy for Tony, but he always knew how to react to all his challenges. For example, he successfully fought a brain tumor after he received this diagnosis back in 1994. Fortunately, he had surgery to remove it, and no complications appeared.

Tony Robbins Net Worth Over the Years

Tony’s career as a life coach began in the ‘80s. In all his seminars and events he used to talk about neuro-linguistic programming and Ericksonian Hypnosis. After a while, he created a four-days program, that I also mentioned above, called Unleash the Power Within, which was successful right from the start. Due to this program’s popularity, Tony Robbins net worth received a great boost.

In 1997, Tony established the Leadership Academy program, which is a seminar circuit. He is the main speaker at this event, which led him to an even higher success. He was featured in TED conferences. His 2007 speech was entitled as one of the most popular TED talks.

In 2014, Tony acquired the right to launch a Californian Major League Soccer franchise, along with a group of investors such as Mia Hamm, Magic Johnson, and Peter Guber. The football team will become active in 2018.

Let’s not forget about all Tony’s bestselling books. Among all of them, there are three books that were sold in millions of copies all over the planet: Awaken the Giant Within, Unlimited Power, and Money: Master the Game. Each of these works presents a different approach on how we can improve our life.

Tony Robbins Charity

A significant part of Tony’s income is put to good use. He established the Anthony Robbins Foundation back in 1991. This is a charity focused on empowering both individuals and organizations. The foundation’s activity can be seen in over 2,000 schools, 100,000 health organizations, and 700 prisons.

The most challenging charity event for Tony Robbins took place in 2014. Then, he embarked on the 100 Million Meals Challenge. Moreover, he donated part of his book profits as well as additional donations to provide food for no less than 50 million people in need.

Final Words

Tony Robbins net worth is huge indeed, but it is all made on hard work, drive, perseverance, and determination. He is indeed a self-made man, and nobody can deny that. Tony is and will forever remain one of the most successful and wealthiest life coaches in the world. Hid dedication to helping others achieve their dreams is undeniable. If he could do it, you can definitely do it too! So, stop procrastinating and start leaving your dream!

Image sources: 1, 2

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    What is Taylor Swift net worth? I’ll tell you one thing: most of us don’t make it that high by the age of 26. Taylor Swift is a music superstar. She’s achieved worldwide fame and has managed to climb up to number 64 on Forbes’ ranking of the 100 most powerful women ever. While she’s the youngest ever entry on this list, that doesn’t necessarily mean that everyone was surprised when she made it there.

    Taylor Swift has taken the world of music by storm. With $80 million to her name every year as the Taylor Swift Net Worth (according to Forbes), she’s probably the most expensive act out there that’s not only incredibly likable, but also a good role model for impressionable teens looking to music for a retreat.

    "taylor swift net worth taylor swift net worth forbes what is taylor swifts net worth"

    How Did Taylor Swift Net Worth Get So High?

    It may be that the quick rise of Taylor Alison Swift and of the Taylor Swift net worth came from very inspired decisions early on in her life. Born and raised in Reading, Pennsylvania she exhibited advanced artistic capabilities from very early on in her life. At age 9, Swift enrolled in a musical theater and began performing in various places. At age 11 she went to Nashville to submit a country demo to several record labels.

    She was rejected.

    However, it was what happened after that that would end up defining her career and transforming her from a small-time singer to a worldwide phenomenon with the net worth of Taylor Swift in the order of tens of millions of dollars. With her rejection by major country labels in Tennessee, she realized the necessity of being different. So she started taking lessons in guitar and she explored poetry. Her first songs got her deals with Dan Dymtrow, a music manager from New York and one of them eventually got featured on a compilation CD.

    But this was far from her breakthrough. Her parents realized how important singing was for her, so they all relocated to Tennessee so that she could pursue her dream.

    At 14, she signed a deal with RCA Records in Nashville. That was the beginning of something beautiful. This was in 2004. By 2006, she would have her first album, mentioned by the New York Times, The New Yorker, and Rolling Stone. As I’m sure you know, the rest of the history of the Taylor Swift Net Worth is pretty much known by all.


    With 3 albums crossing the threshold of 1 million sales in their first week, Taylor Swift is now a worldwide phenomenon. It’s no wonder that the Taylor Swift net worth got so high in so little time. A visionary from the earliest stages of her life, Swift now tops charts in all corners of the world. If there’s one thing that’s clear, that’s the fact that the Taylor Swift net worth is only set to grow.

    Image source: youtube.com.

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    You may think that this is a very commonsensical question. That the answer to how many megabytes in a gigabyte can be given on a whim. A short answer. Pertaining to the International System of Units (that sets the standard for units of measurement everywhere). What if I told you that you’ve been tricked by hardware companies for as long as you can remember!?

    One gigabyte is a byte multiplied to the giga prefix, i.e. 109. Therefore, in most theoretical cases, one gigabyte equals 1,000,000,000 bytes, equaling 1,000 megabytes. However, almost none of the electronic devices that you have actually boast 1 GB as 1000 MB. Why is this? I guess we’ll have to find out.


    How Many Megabytes in a Gigabyte Are Actually There?

    You may have been baffled to see that that 500 GB hard drive you bought is actually shown as 465 GB on your PC. If it’s an external hard drive, you may also have been awestruck to find it shown as 500 GB stat on any type of Mac. Why is that? Are 500 GB actually 500 GB or 465 GB? And probably the most important question: why has the science and computing world not figured this one out as of yet? How many megabytes in a gigabyte are truly available for storage?

    The simple answer: they can’t. Surely, you want to call your 4 GB of RAM 4GB, and not 3 and a little something. The problem stems from the fact that 1 GB is not really a full 1,000 MB. It’s actually more than that. That’s because 1,000 Kb are not 1 Mb. I know it’s all getting complicated, but bear with me.

    "how many megabytes in a gigabyte how many megabytes in a gigabyte picture of a motherboard"

    Picture of a motherboard, having almost nothing to do with how many megabytes are in a gigabyte.

    In some areas of computer science, we always have 1 GB equaling 1,073,741,824 Bytes, i.e. 10243 bytes, or roughly 1024 megabytes. So, the bigger questions should be: why is my Windows PC only seeing 465 GB on my 500 GB hard drive?

    • The short answer: it works by the standard gigabyte definition;
    • The long answer: It employs the decimal system in order to figure out how many megabytes are in a gigabyte. At the same time, the system can see that the total amount of bytes on your computer is one value (which it wrongly equates to 500 GB instead of 500+ GB). So when it multiplies the number of Gigabytes on your PC decimally, the resulting value is less than the total value. To compensate for the error, the computer assumes that the final value is 500 GB while only 465 GB of your drive are


    I know it’s super complicated to understand. The simple answer to how many megabytes in a gigabyte is 1,000. However, that answer is false, as there always are 1,024 when you calculate it in binary code. The true solution, in the end, is whatever you wish it to be. If you’ve got any more questions about mb, GB, kb, Mb to kb, kb to gb, or gb to mb, don’t hesitate to leave them in the comments.

    Image source: bloget.com.

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    How much do veterinarians make? According to official statistics given by BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) veterinarians earn a total of $87,590 which is equal to about $42.11 per day and to $1,455 per week. These mean veterinarian wages are averages for the fiscal year 2014.

    This is far greater than the national mean wage. Still, it’s probably normal since we do want to have the people taking care of our pets motivated to do their job with love. Even the lowest paid 10% of this profession make a decent amount of money – $52,530. On the other end of the spectrum, the highest paid 10% make almost twice the average veterinarian salary, coming in at $157,390 per year. What are the biggest factors that influence how much do veterinarians make? According to PayScale, skills such as the ability to use ultrasound technology, to perform chiropractic techniques and emergency procedures greatly influence pay.

    The level of experience for the profession also plays an equally important part. To get an estimate of this, one must know exactly how long it takes to become a veterinarian, as well as a vet tech (some vets choose to have double degrees).

    Wage statistics for men versus for women are not available due to the low number of veterinarians employed as of 2018. The total number of vets for that year was 55,000. Of these, just 16,000 were men, whereas over 39,000 were women.

    Here is a run-down of the best-paying sectors of the industry for this profession:

    Industry Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    Management of Companies and Enterprises $66.94 $139,230
    Scientific Research and Development Services $60.05 $124,890
    Employment Services $58.45 $121,570
    Spectator Sports $49.00 $101,920
    Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services $47.48 $98,750


    "how much do veterinarians make how much does a veterinarian make how much does a veterinarian make a year how much money do veterinarians make how much do vets earn a year how much do vets get paid how much does a vet earn how much do veterinarians get paid an hour"

    Young male veterinarian doctor carrying a rabbit at medical clinic.

    How Much Do Veterinarians Make by Location?

    The question of how much do veterinarians make can yield wildly different results, mainly on account of the training provided by local veterinary schools. While many schools produce vets that will earn a significant pay, some provide skills that are more valuable to the profession (Tip: here’s a list of the best veterinary schools in the US).

    For the readers’ sake, we’ve found a list of the best paying States for this profession:

    State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    Delaware $61.89 $128,740
    New Jersey $57.81 $120,240
    Connecticut $57.54 $119,670
    New York $57.19 $118,950
    California $56.83 $118,210


    Even though Delaware seems to be the best place for Vets in the US, the actual case is that the employment levels for the respective state are far too low to be taken into account. Here’s a list of the best States in terms of employment:

    State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
    California 5,980 $56.83 $118,210
    Texas 4,080 $50.78 $105,620
    Florida 3,320 $45.90 $95,470
    New York 2,980 $57.19 $118,950
    Pennsylvania 2,720 $55.79 $116,040


    How Much Do Veterinarians Make over Time?

    Veterinarian salary is subject to change on account of the following factors:

    • Ability to perform surgery, ultrasound, and chiropractic techniques. All these skills could up how much do veterinarians get paid an hour by up to 50%.
    • An entry-level veterinarian should expect his salary to be about 7% lower than the national average. Mid-career vets will have 7% higher pay while experienced vets will be making up to 15% more.
    • Having an emergency room and being trained in ER medicine. Unsurprisingly, how much do veterinarians make is greatly influenced by this, raising pay by up to 20%.

    Image source: depositphotos.com.

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    Wonder how to download music from Youtube quickly and easily? You came to the right place! In this post, we will show you:

    • how to download music from Youtube to iTunes
    • how to download music from Youtube to mp3
    • how to download music from Youtube to your phone.

    how to download music from youtube

    1. WinAVI Youtube Download

    If you want to know how to download music from Youtube to iPod, then this solution is for you. It can also help you to know how to download music from Youtube to Android, making it a very versatile solution. Here is how it works:

    • Download and install the WinAVI Youtube Download. After you have finished installing it, play a video you wish to download. On it a download button will apear.
    • Click on the button to begin downloading the song. Then click Browse and select a folder where you want to store the song.
    • Then simply wait while the song is downloaded and processed.

    2. FLVTO

    If you want to know how to download music from Youtube to computer or iTunes, then this method is most suitable. It is done by using FLVTO. To use it you have to:

    • Copy the Youtube video link and paste it in the field to convert it into an mp3.
    • Wait for the conversion to finish. A question might appear asking if you wish to maintain the commercial the video might have, keep in mind to deactivate Ad Block while converting the files.
    • Open iTunes, drag and drop the converted mp3 file and just enjoy.


    How Do I Download Music from Youtube?

    Another simple method to accomplish this task is by using the website listentoyoutube.com. It allows users to copy the URL of the video they wish to convert as an mp3 and only wait a few minutes until the conversion process is finished. Afterwards, users can download the newly made mp3 and easily copy it to their phones or other devices.

    How to Download Free Music From Youtube

    All music is free music if you know how to juggle them. Downloading the music can be easily done with a mp3 converter. If you want to know how do you download music from Youtube while maintaining the whole video, then this next solution can be the answer. To do it, users must:

    • First enter computerhope.com.
    • Access the Youtube page and press Ctrl+L. This will copy the address of the video. Paste the address in the blank field where it says to enter the Youtube video URL.
    • Press the Download Video option and wait for a new window to pop up.
    • Select the video formatting. The standard video format is MP4 360p.
    • After you select the desired video format press download, and the file will appear shortly in your downloads folder.

    These are just a few ways to download music from Youtube. The internet is filled with computer programs and websites dedicated to this task, and people can simply do a Google search to find them out. Nevertheless, there is one obvious significant drawback when it comes to download music from Youtube. The overall sound quality is severely much poorer as opposed to downloading the music from dedicated websites. We understand that buying music is no longer a priority, yet people must know that even if they download music from torrent sites, the quality is poor.

    However, torrent websites who have vast libraries of music do offer better quality than directly downloading the song or video from Youtube. MP3’s are known to have an overall bad quality as opposed to CD’s. Yet, this compromise can actually make the difference. But why do mp3’s have a lower sound quality?

    To answer this question, we must look into data. Data is what allows sound files to have better quality. The more data an audio file has, the better its quality will be. For example, Apple iTunes uses an encoding of 256 Kbps MP3 and AAC files. This provides for a relatively good sound quality, for most listeners.

    how to download music from youtube

    Other programs such as the Windows Media Player or Winamp, which no longer exists, unfortunately, also use similar encodings. For what it’s worth a 256 Kbps encoding is far superior to 128 Kbps, yet it is still not enough for a truly high-quality audio sound. Furthermore, a 256 Kbps sound file occupies twice as much space than a 128 Kbps audio file. AAC files are not necessarily any better. For the most part, they were considered better than MP3’s, yet they have started to lose ground against their counterparts.

    But returning to the matter at hand, True CD-quality files take even ten times much more space than an MP3 or AAC file. So to put it delicately, if people desire right sound quality, similarly to what producers and sound engineers are used to, and then 23-bit audio files are what they should be looking for. They come in several formats such as WAV, AIFF, Apple Lossless and FLAC.

    Yet the MP3 has some distinct qualities. Two of its most well received benefits refer to size and download or transfer speeds. The first one is pretty obvious, the MP3 occupies less space than an uncompressed song or album. And given the limitations of mobile devices when it comes to storing capacities, the MP3 is widely used. The other important aspect is the download or transfer speeds. It takes less time to copy and MP3 onto a mobile device, or to download an MP3 than a FLAC for example. And this in turn enhanced the MP3 popularity.

    So next time when you wish to know how to download a song from Youtube, take into consideration the audio quality aspect. How do you download music from Youtube? Share your thoughts and ideas with us.

    Image Sources: 1, 2.

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    Working as the founder, chairman and CEO of Fisher Investments, Kenneth Lawrence Fisher gained the spot 663 in the Forbes World’s Billionaires List. His work as an investment analyst, columnist writer for Forbes as well as his investment books, earned him the title of one of the most proficient investors in modern times. So let us see how Ken Fisher net worth reached these staggering hights.

    Ken Fisher Net Worth: $3.1 Billion

    Ken Fisher, much like his father Philip A. Fisher, is an expert investment analyst. in 2018, Fisher Investments has been reported to manage $68 billion, grating the title of largest wealth manager to Kenneth Fisher.

    Ken Fisher Net Worth

    Kenneth Fisher’s Bio and Career Development

    Born in November 29, 1950, in San Francisco, California, Kenneth Lawrence Fisher is the youngest of three children. His mother and father are Dorothy and Philip A. Fisher. His father, Philip A. Fisher, was also an investor and author of three books. His most well received book is “Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits”, published in 1958, which is an investment guide that remains in print even in this day.

    Ken Fisher, alongside his brothers, grew up in San Mateo, California. Upon finishing highschool he enrolled to Humboldt State University. He went there to study forestry, yet he graduated in 1972 with an economics degree. Fisher was awarded the Distinguished Alumni Award in 2007, for his contributions to the ongoing study of ecology and world of economics. As further appreciation for his work in the world of finance, Kenneth Fisher was placed onto the Board of Advisors of The Forbes School of Business at Ashford University, in 2018.

    Ken Fisher Net Worth Over the Years

    Kenneth Lawrence Fisher began his work in the world of finance in 1979. In that year he founded Fisher Investments with the sum of $250. He made Fisher Investments one of the leading independent money managers company in the world by applying time tested investment policies. Ken Fisher also declared that his wealth, and that of the company, was made possible due to the pursuit of passion and not money.

    Fisher Investments Forbes press released statements showed that the firm attained assets worth $68 billion by managing high net worth individuals and institutions. The company was founded in 1979 and was incorporated in 1986. The firm continued its expansion policy and in 2000 crossed the Atlantic into the United Kingdom. Fisher also opened an office for its U.S. operations in Vancouver, Washington.

    To expand its Pacific Northwest activities, Ken Fisher founded the Fisher Creek campus in 2011. The campus is located on a 120 acre property in Camas, Washington. The firm continued the expansion by construction additional buildings in the campus. During the inaugural FT 300 list, in June 2014, the company was recognized as one of the leading 300 US based Registered Investment Advisors.

    The brilliant self made man also looked to expand. That is why he and Thomas Gruner created Gruner Fisher Investments in 2007, in Germany. Ken Fisher was also awared the Tiburon CEO Summit award in 2009. In 2011 “Investment Advisor Magazine” ranked Ken Fisher in the top 25 greatest financial industry figures.

    Ken Fisher net worth also grew due to his many published books and articles. He worked for Forbes as a columnist and published additional books. His first published book came in 1984 and is entitled “Super Stocks”. The book aimed at comparing and testing the price to sales ratio. His 2006 book, “The Only Three Questions That Count” stated that PSR (price to sales ratio) can no longer be used as an indicator for undervalued stocks, regardless of its popularity. Fisher Investments were also pioneers in offering small cap value investments to clients since the late 1980s.

    The self made investor has written eleven books throughout his life. His books are:

    • Super Stocks in 1984.
    • The Wall Street Waltz in 1987.
    • 100 Minds that Made the Market in 1993.
    • The Only Three Questions That Count in 2006.
    • The Ten Roads To Riches in 2008.
    • How To Smell a Rat in 2009.
    • Debunkery in 2010.
    • Market Never Forget in 2011.
    • Plan Your Prosperity in 2012.
    • The Little Book of Market Myths in 2013.
    • Beat the Crowd in 2018.

    His New York Times bestsellers are The Only Three Questions That Count, The Ten Roads to Riches, How to Smell a Rat  and Debunkery.

    Ken Fisher has had a long time passion for the study of redwood ecology. Fisher is also known to be world leading expert on 19th century logging. He has documented over 35 abandoned mill sites, located throughout northern Santa Cruz Mountains. He has over 3000 volumes on regional logging history. In Frank M. Stanger second edition of “Sawmills in the Redwoods”, in 1992, the introduction was written by none other than Ken Fisher. His passion for redwood ecology can also be seen thorugh his donations towards the publication costs for new editions of Stanger’s books, now available at the San Mateo County Museum, in Redwood City, California.

    The famous investor is also known to be a 19th century logging artifacts. He collects artifacts ranging from circular saw blades, photographs and even oxen shoes, to name a few. Ken Fisher also made various donations throughout the years. He gave $3.5 million to the Humboldt State University at the Redwood Forest Ecology Department, in 2006. The donation was made to further support redwood ecology research. As such, granting support for graduate students, field equipments and laboratories.

    In 2010, he toghether with his wife donated $500.000 to the San Mateo Public Library Foundation. This donation was made to further help the construction of the Kenneth and Sherrilyn Fisher Journalism Center. Another donations, this time of $7.5 million, was made to the Johns Hopkins University in 2012. The donation led to the creation of the Sherrilyn and ken Fisher Center for Environmental Infectious Diseases. They also help establish the Fisher Center Discovery Program (FCDP). The center focuses on research projects that have to do with clinical or translational research towards environmental infectious diseases. Another donation consisting of $500.000 was made to support the Redwoods and Climate Change Initiative.

    After a successful career in the world of finance, as well as publishing almost a dozen books, Ken Fisher has established himself as one of the world’s leading financial investors. Ken Fisher’s net worth of $3.1 billion is a testimony to his financial genius.

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    Serving as the 67th United States Secretary of State, between 2009-2013, ensured Hillary Clinton as one of the greatest female politicians in the history of the United States of America. Before that she also served as United States Senator for the state of New York, from 2001-2009, helping Hillary Clinton net worth to grow up to $21,5 million.

    Hillary Clinton Net Worth: $21.5 million

    So how did the politician managed to attain such wealth? Let’s take a look at her career throughout the years to find out.

    Hillary Clinton Net Worth

    Hillary Clinton’s Bio and Career Development

    Born on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois, Hillary Diane Rodham grew up in a United Methodist family. Togheter with her family, she moved in the suburban Park Ridge, Illinois, at age three. Hillary Clinton’s family was composed of her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, mother Dorothy Emma Howell and two younger brothers Hugh and Tony Rodham.  Hillary Clinton was raised in a politically conservative family.

    Her first steps towards a political career began at the staggering age of thirteen. During the 1960 U.S. presidential election, Hillary Clinton found evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon. As a result, she volunteered to help Barry Goldwater’s 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign.

    Beginning with 1965, Hillary Clinton studied at Wellesley College, graduating with a major in political science. She became more involved in politically active student groups such as ‘Young Republicans’, but which she later on departed from. Citing differences in views on then contemporary events such as the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War, Hillary Clinton steped down from the position of President of the group Young Republicans.

    Throughout her college years, Hillary Clinton participated in many conferences and was even assigned as an intern at the House Republican Conference, by her teacher Professor Alan Schechter. Nevertheless, after the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami, Hillary left the Republican Party. The reason behind this action, Hillary Clinton explained, was the way Richard Nixon conducted his campaign, attacking the image of fellow party member Nelson Rockefeller. Alongside this, Hillary Clinton also cited that during the convention she perceived “veiled” racist messages.

    In her college years, she described herself as a person with a conservative mind and a liberal heart. She graduated Wellesley College in 1969, with a Bachelor of Arts and department honors in political science. Her commencement address was not only the first on behalf of a student in Wellesley College, it also promoted Hillary’s public image. Her seven minute speech, in which she critized Senator Brooke, was picked up by Life magazine, Irv Kupcinet’s nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New Englad newspapers.

    Hillary continued her studies at Yale Law School, where she would later on meet her future husband, Bill Clinton. She did a number of volunteering work and got involved in many extracurricular projects. She was part of the editorial board of the Yale Review of Law and Social Action, worked at Yale Child Study Center, volunteered at Yale New Haven Hospital, in chid abuse cases, and also at the New Haven Legal Servces, providing free legal advice to those in need.

    In 1970 she was given a grant to work at the Marian Wright Edelman’s Washington Research Project. She worked in the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor, after being assigned to Senator Walter Mondale. During her activity there, she researched the problems that migrant workers face, such as housing, sanitation, health and education.

    Hillary Clinton acredited political advisor Anne Wexler to have provided her first job in politics, after being recruted to work for the 1970 campaign of Connecticut U.S. Senate candidate Joseph Duffey. The following year, she began dating Bil Clinton, with whom she lived during her summer internship at the law firm ‘Treuhaft, Walker and Burnstein’ in Oakland, California. The couple continued living togheter after they returned to law school in New Haven.

    The couple also began working togheter. Their first endeavor came in 1972, when they campaigned for the Democratic Presidential candidate George McGovern. The following year saw Hillary receive a Juris Doctor degree from Yale. After deciding to stay one moe year at Yale to be with Bill, she began a postgraduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center. Her article, “Children Under the Law”, was published in the ‘Harvard Educational Review’ and was often cited in this respective field.

    Hillary Clinton Net Worth Over the Years

    One of Hillary Clinton’s earliest successes came in 1977. She cofounded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. The following year she was appointed by President Jimmy Carter, as part of the board of directors of the Legal Servces Corporation, where she remained until 1981. During her time as the head of the board of directors, she managed to grow the funding for the organization from $90 million to $300 million.

    Hillary Clinton net worth saw an amazing increase when she became partner of the Rose Law Firm, in 1979. Up until moving to the White House, the net worth Hillary Clinton attained was in no less due to her incredible salary, known to be bigger than her husband’s.

    The net worth of Hillary Clinton saw further increase when she engaged herself in the cattle trade from 1978 to 1979. Her initial investment of $1,000 generated $100,000 overall profits after ten months. During her employment at Rose Law Firm, that she maintained while being the First Lady of Arkansas, her paycheck was of $200,000 per year.

    After being Governor of Arkansas, Bill Clinton began his 1992 Presidential Campaign on behalf of the Democratic Party. After being elected, Hillary Clinton stepped down from her position as partner in the Rose Law Firm. However, after her husband’s impeachment, Bill and Hillary Clinton net worth did not show signs of decay. Instead it grew even further. They became involved in public speaking, at usually received a $150,000 speaking fee. The highest paycheck received as guest speakers was in Canada, where they received $475,000 for two speeches. As such their accumulated wealth is estimated somewhere around $35 million.

    Without a doubt Hillary Clinton net worth will not show signs of stopping anytime soon. Her involvement in a political career has brought her to the spotlights and her candidacy for U.S. President will surely be an interesting one.

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    As the oldest of the Baldwin brothers, Alec Baldwin rise to fame started in the 80s with its part in the cult classic Beetlejuice. From there the accomplished actor, producer and comedian stared in dozens of movies, tv shows and even lend his voice is a few well received animations. So let’s see how Alec Baldwin net worth reached the staggering sum of $60 million.

    alec baldwin net worth 2018

    Alec Baldwin Net Worth in 2018: $65 million

    Let’s take a look at how the actor attained such health.

    Baldwin’s Bio and Career Development

    Alexander Rae “Alec” Baldwin III was born on April 3, 1958, in Amityville, New York. Son of Carol Newcomb and Alexander Rae Baldwin Jr, he is the oldest of the Baldwin brothers. Daniel, William and Stephen followed on their older brother’s footsteps and became actors.

    After graduating from Alfred G. Berner High School in Massapequa he worked as a busboy at Studio 54. Within the years of 1976 to 1979, Alec Baldwin attended the George Washington University. Later on he transferred to the Tisch School of the Arts. Alongside greats such as Geoffrey Horne and Mira Rostova he studied at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute. In 1994 he graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts. Alec Baldwin also has been accepted as a member of the Actors Studio.

    Alec Baldwin Net Worth Over the Years

    The actor made his first steps at attaining fame with his Broadway debut in 1986. His first production was Joe Orton’s Loot. Other plays that he stared in are Caryl Churchill’s Serious Money and Tennessee William’s A Streetcar Named Desire. For his performance in the later he was nominated for Best Actor at the Tony Awards.

    Even after he achieved fame, Alec Baldwin often reprised roles on Broadway. He stared in plays such as McBeth in 1998, Twentieth Century in 2004. His latest aparition on Broadway came in 2013 in the play Orphans.

    Alec Baldwin’s net worth began to increase with his first displays on the little screen in the soap opera The Doctors, from 1980 to 1982. The actor co-starred Joan Van Ark and Julie Harris in Knots Landing from 1984 to 1985. In 1998 he even replaced George Carlin as the narrator of the fifth and sixth  seasons of Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends.

    Probably his most well known television role came in the popular series 30 Rock. First aired in October 2006, his role as Jack Donaghy assured Alec Baldwin’s net worth by being paid $300.000 per episode. Beginning with the third season, the actor also became one of the show’s producers. For his role in 30 Rock he won two Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe awards and seven Screen Actors Guild Awards.

    He also hosted the Saturday Night Live and even te 82nd Academy Awards, alongside Steve Martin.

    The actor made his big screen debut in 1987 in the movie Forever, Lulu. His first breakthrough came in Tim Burton’s 1988 Beetlejuice co-starring Geena Davis. His role as Jack Ryan in Hunt for Red October further increased Alec Baldwin’s net worth.

    The actor met his future wife Kim Basingere on the set of the 1991 romantic comedy The Marrying Man. The following year saw the actor star in two well received movies. The first was Glengarry Glen Ross based in part on Daid Mamet’s Pulitzer Prize winning play. The other movie was a romantic comedy with Meg Ryan entitled Prelude to a Kiss, based on a Broadway play. The co-starred again with his now wife Kim Basinger, in the remake of the 1972 Steve McQueen movie The Getaway.

    Other famous roles came in the movie Pearl Harbor in 2001. There he played he role of Lt. Col. James Doolittle. The movie grossed $449,220,945 worldwide. This increased Alec Baldwin’s net worth and till this day remains the highest grossing movie that the actor starred in. His 2003 appearance in The Cooler brought the actor an Academy Award Nomination, a Golden Globe and the Screen Actors Guild Award.

    Some of his most well received roles came in Martin Scorsese’s The Aviator (2004) and The Departed (2006), where he co-starred Leonardo Di Caprio and Jack Nicholson in the latter. One of his last romantic comedies It’s Complicated was most well received by audiences worldwide. There he starred alongside Meryl Streep and Steve Martin. His last big screen appearance came in 2018 in the latest installment of the Mission Impossible series, Rogue Nation.

    Alec Baldwin net worth also saw an increase from the actor’s animation exploits. He lended his voice for The Simpsons, Final Fantasy, Clerks – The Animated Series and Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends.

    The actor also commited himself to endeavours outside the big or small screen. He is a collumnist for the Huffington Post and even considered a career in politics. After an initial statement that he will retire from acting to pursue a political career, he changed his mind. On December 21, 2011, Baldwin made a statement where he explained that he abandoned the ideea of running for the office of Governor of New York. He surely are happy that did actor did so. It would have been a shame to not be able to see him in future movies.

    Otherwise, the actor is a dedicated Democrt and a strong supporter of Barrack Obama in both his presidential campaigns. Also an animal activist, Alec Baldwin is a well known supporter of PETA.

    Quick Facts about the ‘Older Baldwin’

    Full Name Alexander Rae “Alec” Baldwin III
    Date and Place of Birth April 3, 1958, Amytiville, New York
    Known For Acting
    Diana Ross Net Worth 60 million
    Source of Wealth Acting
    Genres Romantic Comedy, Action, Thriller
    Acting Fields Broadway, television, feature films
    Best-loved Movies Beetlejuice, Pearl Harbour, It’s Complicated, The Departed, The Aviator
    Important Awards Golden Globe Screen Actors Guild AwardAcademy Award – NominationPrimetime Emmy
    Family and Spouses Kim Basinger 1993 – 2002Hilaria Thomas 2002 – presentCarol Newcomb and Alexander Rae Baldwin, Jr. (parents)Stephen, Daniel, William Baldwin (brothers)
    Religion Catholic

    This brings to an end our article on Alec Baldwin Net Worth. We hope to see the actor in many more future endeavours both on the small and big screen.

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    As a platinum and multi-platinum artist, Nas has become one of the most influential artists in the new century. Coming from a family where his father and brother are both artists, there is no wonder that the young artist pursued a musical career. With eight consecutive platinum and multi-platinum album sales, there is no wonder that Nas net worth has reached the staggering sum of $50 million.

    Nas Net Worth: $50 Million

    Coming from humble beginnings, Nas became one of the most influential and succesful artists in the 21st century. Let’s see how the artist attained a net worth of $50 million.

    Nas Net Worth

    Nas Bio and Career Development

    To answer how much is Nas net worth, we must first look at his beginnings. Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones, on his birth name, was born on September 14, 17973. Although initially living in the Crown Heights neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York, he and his family later relocated to Queensbridge Houses, Queens.

    Child of Olu Dara, a jazz and blues musician and Fannie Ann Jones, he lived with both his parents until their divorce in 1985. His brother Jabari Fret is also a musician, known as “Jungle” with the group “Bravehearts”. After moving to the Long Island City neighborhood of Queens, Nas became friends with his neighbor Willy Graham to introduced the artist to hip-hop.

    After his parents’ divorce, the artist dropped from school after the eighth grade. Instead, Nas learn about African culture with the aid of the Five Percent Nation and the Nuwaubian Nation. As such, inspired by Willy Graham’s hip-hop records and African culture, Nas began playing the trumpet and writing his first rhymes.

    Nas Net Worth Over the Years

    Nas net worth growth began in his adolescence. His early underground roots came alongside his neighbor Willy Graham, whom he enlisted as his DJ. The artist’s first nickname was Kid Wave, later on adopting his current alias Nasty Nas, in the late 80s. Producer Large Professor helped the artist by bringing him to the studio where Rakim and Kool G Rap. As such, the artist began recording his own material after-hours.

    His first breakthrough came in 1991. After performing on Main Source’s “Live at the Barbeque” and thus attaining more gigs, the artist was approached by MC Serch of 3rd Bass. MC Serch became his manager and secured him a record label contract with Columbia Records. Thus, Nas net worth began to grow.


    Later on, in 1994, Nas released his debut album entitled “Illmatic”. The album won the award “Five Mics” from “The Source”. It featured a production team consisting of Large Professor, Pete Rock, Q-Tip, DJ Premier, AZ, L.E.S. and his father Olu Dara. As a result, the artist was dubbed “the second coming of Rakim” due to his lyrical prowess.

    Between the years 1995 and 1997, Nas made numerous guest appearances on albums for artists such as AZ, Mobb Deep, Raekwon and Kool G Rap. Alongside his many guest appearances, Nas rapper net worth was on the rise again through his second release “It Was Written”. Nas had to face many pressures from the record label Columbia Records, to release more commercial oriented songs.

    Another project done with AZ, Foxy Brown, and Cormega began with Nas. Due to internal strife, Cormega was fired by Steve Stoute, which in turn gave birth to a “rap war” between the artists. After being signed to Dr. Dre’s label house “Aftermath Entertainment” the album “Present The Firm: The Album” was finally released in 1997. Unfortunately, it received mixed reviews even though the album received a Platinum award.

    Another Album

    In 1999, Nas released his third album “I Am … The Autobiography”. The album was produced by DJ Premier. Rapper Nas net worth grew significantly after also co-writting and starring in Hype Williams’s 1998 movie “Belly”. In 2000, the artist released the album “Nas & Ill Will Records Presents QB’s Finest”. The record label’s parent company is Sony Music Entertainment. The record began its history after an unseccesful attempt to switch record labels in 2005, by signing with Def Jam Records, after leaving Columbia Records. The artist’s personal label changed its name to The Jones Experience later on. Nas net worth, Forbes stated, to undertake a serious hit after a feud with rapper Jay Z. The feud was also displayed in the musical releases of both sides.

    Nas released a double album, and subsequently his seventh studio album “Street’s Disciple” on November 30, 2004. The album tackled political and personal matters of the artist, making it one of its most well-received albums up to date. In addition to having released such a prominent album, the following year saw something quite unique.

    Making Peace

    Fans all over the world rejoiced when the feud between Nas and Jay Z came to an official stop. This joyful event came when the artists performed together at Jay Z’s critically acclaimed concert “I Declare War”. The artists performed together Jay Z’s song “Dead Presidents” that included one of Nas’s samples. Later on, Def Jam Recordings signed Nas again in January 2006. Jay Z, who was the president at that time of Def Jam Recordings, signed an agreement with Nas for $3 million and an additional recording budget for the first two albums that Nas made under the tutelage of Def Jam. As such, Nas’ net worth was on the rise again.

    The first album under Def Jam came in December 16, 2006. The album also marked an impressive collaboration with Jay Z. As such, the album peaked number one on the Billboard 200 charts, making it his third album to achieve this feat. Nas songs also were featured on the soundtrack for the movie The Departed released in the same year.

    Untitled Album

    His following album was released in July 15, 2008. Due to serious controversies involving the original title, the album was released untitled. The production team saw Polow da Don, Stic.Man, Sons of Light, and J. Myers collaborate with the artist. The lead single “Hero” marked the 97 spot on the Billboard Hot 100 charts.

    One of the most interesting and successful collaborations in recent years came in the form of the album Distant Relatives. In it, Nas collaborated with Damian Marley and released some of the most in-depth songs ever made. With lyrics concerning ancestry, poverty and the plight of Africa, the album was released on May 18, 2010, and debuted on the fifth position in the Billboard 200 chart.

    Most surely Nas net worth grew over the years due to the artist’s proficiency. Always reinventing himself, the artist managed to become one of the most highly influential artists of the 21st century. So for anyone who is curious what is Nas net worth, we hope to have provided the answer.

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    If you’re like us, you’ve probably more than once stopped to think what would be the ideal dog for your family. Should you choose protective dog breeds, children-friendly dog breeds, or a little bit of both? It’s a relatively complicated question, that usually goes beyond the usual reasoning of “I like this dog, I will pick this dog.” If you do so, you may end up with just a big blob of fat that sleeps all day.

    These could be French Bulldogs, Pugs, or even English Bulldogs. No offense to any of the three, but they are simply not good at any practical tasks, and often they have difficulty just moving their body. While some may like the adorableness they exhibit, others may want something with a little more courage and a little less laziness than Mr. I’m-don’t-even here on the right.

    Protective Dog Breeds Your Family Needs

    protective dog breeds: lazy pug

    That being said, you also don’t want something with more brawn than brains. So we’ve made a small list of most protective dogs out there. Depending on which you prefer, here are some of the family watchdog options to choose from.

    The Welsh Springer Spaniel

    Protective Dog Breeds: Welsh springer spaniel

    Protective Dog Breeds: Welsh Springer Spaniel

    The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a friendly and exquisite dog. Its coloratura usually exhibits red and white hair, arranged in diverse patterns. If the dog shows any other color, then it is probably part something else. It’s usually interbred with English Springer Spaniels, which have a little less red hair, generally replaced with black.

    This member of the spaniel family is one of the best protection dogs, as it usually is very wary of any stranger who enters his territory. Besides, this cute pooch is a great option as a family watchdog, because it is loyal, affectionate, and extremely active. It’s so active that it’s often recommended it be taken for extensive walks on a daily basis. If it’s not maintained active, it may become a bit too playful around the house. The dog is also an all-time child-favorite, and will quickly make friends with any new house member, be it human or animal.

    The Bearded Collie

    Protective Dog Breeds: Bearded Collie

    Protective Dog Breeds: Bearded Collie

    The Bearded Collie is one of our canine friends that make good guard dogs. It’s perfect as a family watch dog as it is extremely alert to everything that happens around him, and can be easily disturbed by even the tiniest of flies. And above all this, it’s just adorable, look at the photo above.

    Once bred specifically for herding sheep and cattle in the Scottish highlands, the Beardie can become quite protective of its herd (or its family, on that matter). Therefore, it can make an excellent companion for most kids, as it is active, loving, very intelligent dog, capable of solving simple problems all the while being funny to watch.

    The Doberman Pinscher

    Protective Dog Breeds: Doberman Pinscher

    Protection Dogs: Doberman Pinscher

    The Doberman may seem like one of the most frightening dogs to own. Often when it is seen on the street, people are at least a little bit scared. This is because Dobermans are usually improperly trained. With adequate training, the dogs can be just as loving and sensible as the two above. One might think that this familywatchdog is a bit too aggressive, but remember that it is also among the most intelligent breeds of dogs.

    So, if you can teach it a thing or two about discipline, it will can understand when to behave normally, and when to become aggressive. In athletic challenges, this dog performs exceptionally well in trials testing its agility and its obedience. It doesn’t feel the need to please its owner as much as other dogs, but it can become incredibly loyal if it is treated well by the owner.

    The St. Bernard

    Protective Dog Breeds: St Bernard

    Family Watchdog: St Bernard

    The St. Bernards are some of the ideal protection dogs out there. Due to its giant size, some people don’t really like having them around. Adversely, some actually prefer the protective dog breed due to its giant nature. Do not be misled by the size of the animal, its mane is just meant to scare all the baddies away. In fact, St. Bernards are kind, loving, and sweet dogs, the real gentle giants of all the human pets.

    St. Bernards must be trained from when they are puppies, as once they get bigger and bigger in size, even the strongest of humans can have problems dealing with them. The dogs are extremely docile, and just love to hang around humans and their kids. But be careful, it may knock your kid over due to its large size, and this could lead to severe injuries. Still, don’t blame the dog for its size, imagine how clumsy they can be when confronted with things much, much smaller than they are.

    The German Shepherd Dog

    Protective Dog Breeds: German Shepherd Dog

    Protection Dogs: German Shepherd Dog

    Just to be clear, we’re not saying that the German Shepherd is the best of the protective dogs, but it sure comes pretty close to being at the top of that list. After all, everything depends on which of these dogs you think is best. There are many other dogs that offer good protection for you and your family.

    That being said, the German Shepherd is indeed an amazing family watchdog. Its qualities are not only in the muscle zone, but it is also a very intelligent dog, ranking third after the Border Collie and the Standard Poodle. It’s been used successfully as a search and rescue dog and is at the top of the most-popular dogs list.

    Besides, the dog is even good around children, and if they are taught to be nice to humans from a young age, most times they have no problem getting along. Plus, if you choose to get a German Shepherd with adequate training, you may even win a few competitions.

    If you liked this list of medium to giant protective dog breeds, be sure to check our small dog watchdog list. After all, some of you may not be so keen on the idea of a giant St. Bernard strolling through your house.

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    The English language is one of the most poetic and globally understood languages. Being a standard in many organizations as well, the English language is also one of the most wide-spread and used linguistic tool in today’s world. But for many of us with weird curiosities there is one question in mind: what is the longest word in the English language?

    In this article we will take a look at some of the hardest to pronounce and understand words in the English vocabulary. In order to do so we’ve selected words which were coined in literature, have an impressive age to go along with them and that simply make us giggle while we struggle to pronounce them.

    We’ve also looked at newly made words we tend to avoid, coming from various industries, for the sole purpose that these words usually refer to substances and chemicals. Therefore they have a more technical applicability. Nevertheless, for the sake of argument we will take a look at them, especially because they seem to appear everywhere.

    what is the longest word in the English language

    Where Is This Whole ‘Longest Word’ Debate Coming From?

    A couple of years ago I was listening to a podcast, where the show hosts were arguing about the usage of the English language. At one point one of them made a stellar observation: ‘the English language does not have enough letters’.

    After my initial chuckle, I listened more carefully and some of his points were actually not that bad. In essence, the English language has a serious struggle nowadays with its word count. Many businesses from all market fields dealt with some issues in the creativity department in regards to naming new products coming out.

    This can be best seen in the chemical and automobile industry. Usually when we take a look at the back-label on a shampoo product for example we can immediatly notice a vast array of substances whose names we can barely pronounce.

    In the auto industry the things are somewhat in the opposite direction. We can easily pronounce words, mainly because so many of them are stripped down to the bare minimum such as GTI 1.6 so on and so forth.

    So why is that? Well, to put it simple, is all about creativity. We all know that a good product marketing begins with a name. But some substances, such as in the chemical industry, are not sold directly to the market; but through different products like shampoos, conditioners, you name it.

    In addition to having creativity issues there is one more important factor not to be overlooked. It is said that musical languages are those that contain a large number of vowels. Alongside it, the number of letters within the alphabet is also important.

    It comes as no surprise that one of the hardest languages to speak such as Welsh, is commonly know to be hard to understand for their over extensive use of consonants in their 28-letters alphabet.

    So What Is the Longest Word in the English Language?

    As we’ve mentioned above, technical names such as those found in the industrial chemistry sector, were generally avoided in our topic. However, we will include a few such terms mainly because they make some of the longest words ever. Nevertheless, the main focus will fall upon words included in literature or that have appeared in other publications.

    4. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious

    Let’s begin with one word that I think most of the readers heard about: ‘Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious’. Made famous in the Mary Poppins movie, the word was created especially for the movie and musical. Hard to pronounce, especially when said fast, this word brings out the young one from within, making it a lovely part of our childhood.

    3. Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

    The following word on our list is a technical one, coming from the field of medicine. The word ‘Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis’ is attributed to be the longest word in many medical dictionary. A technical term, referring to a lung disease unfortunately, the name does strike an impressive pose with its 45 characters.

    Now we getting into serious business. The next word on our list will surely provoke a small headache.


    The term ‘Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon’ is, believe it or not, a name for a dish. Made famous by Aristophane’s comedy ‘Assemblywomen‘, the word is attributed to be the longest word coined by an author, which appeared in literature. Although not in the dictionary, the word draws its roots from a Greek transliteration of a word which bared the same meaning, a seemingly popular dish. I will not go into details about what the dish consists of but what I can say is that Guinness World Records included the name on its list in 1990 as one of the longest words to appear in literature.

    1. Methionylthreonylthreonylglutaminylarginyl…isoleucine

    And now for the king of the longest word in the English language: ‘Methionylthreonylthreonylglutaminylarginyl…isoleucine’. The word’s (if I can name it a word) 189,819 letters take about 3 and a half hours to pronounce. It was made to be the chemical name for a protein called ‘titin’. It’s not in the dictionary and there are ample disputes about whether it is a word or not. One thing is for sure however, it makes up to be longest and pain-staking word to pronounce. Wouldn’t you hate to be given this word in a spelling bee competition?

    Hope our short list of most painfully to pronounce words answered to ‘what is the longest word in the English language?’. Whether you enjoy a nice chuckle with your friends in trying to pronounce it, or have a hard time including them in your chemistry school paper these words are here to stick.

    For more fun facts remember to visit our World category and be sure to share with us in the comment section below your favorite or most hated long word from English the English language. Have fun spelling!

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    Over the last twenty years we’ve witnessed a global swift in terms of music production. By entering the digital age, music production subsequently changed as well, from the classical analogue style of recording to digital production. Therefore, we decided to make an article on how to make electronic music at home. We hope to provide a few tips to electronic music aficionados out there.

    home electronic music studio

    Before we begin there are a few clarifications we need to make. First of all, the music industry is at war. Why is that? Well, simply because everyone can make music nowadays. In the past you were required a studio, a sound engineer, being pressured by both time and money to complete projects. Nowadays, one can simply make electronic music straight out of his or hers own bedroom.

    Monster Rally, Sweet Valley, Joey Badass are artists who rose to fame by simply doing music and recording at home, from their rooms. Of course, sooner or later some of them get picked up and signed by a record label, but the sheer fact that they began their music careers by recording from home was a big slap on the face of the music industry.

    By surpassing traditional ways of recording it’s no wonder that electronic music became such a hit to both music-makers and fans alike. But how did this style of music began? To put it simple, it was through the invention of synthesizers and other instruments such as electronic organs or electro-violins which gave this style of music the push. However, both in those days as in our times, these sort of instruments are quite pricey.

    But coming back to these days, electronic music requires nothing more than a laptop or PC to get you started and well-going. So with no further a due let’s begin our tips on how to make electronic music.

    1. PC or OS

    The beauty and wide popularity of this music genre comes with its easy set-up. Although not necessarily cheaper than buying instruments out of a store and start jamming, these can help you save a lot of space.

    It is generally recommended to begin with a set-up which you are already familiar with. In other words, if you have a PC continue with it and, vice-versa, if you have a Mac it works fine as well. This helps you save time if you are already familiar with one of the operating systems, not having to learn all over again the computer systems. Instead, you can focus on learning music software programs.

    This leads us to the music programs, most of them being available to both operating systems, except for FL Studio. I would like to mention that they main-key here is to upgrade you CPU and RAM power. Now comes personal preference and capital of course, because hey let’s face it who has $2000 to spare immediately, right?

    2. Soundcard

    While most PCs come packed with an audio card, it’s probably a good idea to upgrade it. At the same time, ASIO4All driver provides a quick solution for those who are at the beginning and aren’t yet capable of investing into a high-quality audio card.

    But as stated above, later on, when your music production skills start improving and you are looking to upgrade your workstation, you could choose from a wide range of products. Some of the brands to consider are Alesis, Avid, Focussrite, Motu, PreSonus, RME, Roland. However, be prepared to pay somewhere between $200 and $400.

    3. Speakers and Headphones

    I guess this is a no-brainer as well. Near field monitors are highly recommended for studio production, for the purpose of providing high-quality tones, not amplifying them with bass tones and so on, letting you know how the tracks blend.

    The same applies to headphones. In terms of speakers, however, make sure you position them accordingly in your studio.

    4. VST Synthesizers

    You can easily find them on the internet, although be careful when it comes to quality. They let you include a vast-array of sounds into your songs, making them one of the most popular tools for both home and recording studios.

    Some of the best VST synthesizers you can find online are:

    • Datsounds’ OBXD (PC/Mac)

    It provides brilliant thick and beefy analogue tones.

    • Green Oak Software Crystal (PC/Mac)

    A classic since its debut a decade ago, the software underwent different upgrades, having included a sample support and wave sequencing.

    • Tone2 Firebird 2 (PC)

    Unfortunately, this software is only a PC release, combining subtractive synthesis and built-in effects, which makes a most fun tool.

    • Digital Suburban Dexed (PC/Mac)

    Upon the release of Yamaha DX7 in 1983, FM synthesis made a really big hit. It has been emulated many years ago and still remains loyal to the features of the original.

    5. Samples

    What can I say about samples? Pretty much a standard in today’s home or studio music making, samples are used for drums and cymbals effects.

    Sample packs vary in price and can be easily bought online. Some famous online shops for samples are: Big Fish Audio, Loopmasters, Drum Broker. However, here’s a little tip: you could go on Youtube and skim through classic records and convert them to mp3 and chop out the parts you’ll like to sample.

    6. How to Make Best Electronic Music? Learn from Others!

    Ask any musician you want, everyone had an idol who inspired them, and from whom they took something. Whether it’s 60’s rock bands being inspired by classical blues records ( ex: The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin), or later groups, everyone got inspired in some way or another by somebody else.

    That is why it is good to stay open, listen to what others are doing and to what people are interested in (if you really want to hear yourself on the radio). I’m not saying copy everything you listen, but keep an open-mind, because who knows where you can draw inspiration from.

    There you have it, our short list of tips on how to make electronic music. For more useful tips on this vast array of topics make sure to check our website. Also feel free to leave us a comment with your feedback.

    Image Source: 1.

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    What is a Rotary Club and how come there one in almost every country on the globe? In this article, I hope I will shed some light on one of the most recognized international non-profit organization.

    The Rotary Club was founded on the 23rd of February, 1905 in Chicago by attorney Paul P. Harris. Upon its creation, its mission statement was to draw together professionals from all sorts of backgrounds, in order to engage in meaningful exchange of ideas. Its name derives from the fact that in the beginning members were rotating the meetings held among the offices of each member.


    What Is a Rotary Club and How Does It Function?

    So how does a Rotary Club function? Well, first of all, it is divided into 3 segments. Everything starts with the Rotary clubs which bring together members from all over the world. Afterwards, Rotary International coordinates global programs and initiatives. And lastly, Rotary Foundation funds the projects with help from the donations collected. There are 34.282 clubs worldwide, with over 1.2 million members, making it one of the most well-known non-profit organization.

    what is a rotary club logo

    Who is Funding the Rotary Clubs?

    The funding for the organization comes from three sources, its members, outside donors and market investments. From its funds, 92% are diverted into programs, while 6% are used for organizing fundraisers and nearly 2% used for administrative expenses.

    As such, the funds raised by the Rotary Club are invested into long-term programs for fighting diseases, providing clean water supplies, promoting peace, supporting education and even helping to grow local economies.


    Rotary Motto: “Service Above Self” – What do Rotary Clubs Do?

    16 years after its foundation, the club was already present on six continents. The key aspects of the Rotary Club as made clear from the beginning were:

    1. To be truly an international organization, managing to become present on six continents in less than 2 decades. Nowadays, managing to work together around the globe both in a digital fashion as well as in-person meetings held to help promote problem-solving ideas.
    2. To persevere. This came especially true in the days of WW II. In countries such as Germany, Italy, Spain, Austria and Japan Rotary Clubs were forced to be closed, however underground meetings kept occurring, and the surviving members engaged in the reconstruction of the clubs and their respective countries.
    3. Commitment to human services. Rotary Club is a well known fighter against endemics such as polio. In 1979, when Rotary Club decided to engage in the fight against polio, there were 125 “polio endemic” countries around the world. In the mid-nineties alone, more than 165 million children were immunized with the help of the Rotary Club. Its ongoing fight against social matters attracting famous entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates. As such, in 2012 the number of countries suffering from this endemic reached its lowest number as of yet, with 3 countries out of 125 in 1988.


    Rotary Club Projects

    The Rotary Club’s achievement against the polio endemic is just one victory in a long series of battles fought in many social aspects.

    In Jamaica, the Montego Bay Rotary club partnered with the Carrolton-Farmers Branch Rotary Club in their quest to supply medical equipment to the Cornwall Regional Hospital, Blessed Assurance and West Haven homes for disabled children. So far, medical equipment worth of 300.000 $ has been provided, and it would not have been possible either if not for the help of the Jamaican Ministry of Health, who worked closely with the Montego Bay club to provide duty-free and shipping arrangements which helped prevent the loss of the equipment on the black market.

    In other areas such as the Vancouver branch, the group worked to increase literacy by providing books and even digital equipment in the fight against illiteracy. Linda Wong, a volunteer as the public relations director for the branch expressed the fact literacy is an important aspect in the development of children, helping them integrate within society.

    The group also tackled literacy and health issues for the less fortunate in countries such as Ghana, Morocco, Philippines, Cambodia and India. Schools and neurological injury rehabilitation centers were opened, alongside purchasing second-hand medical equipment, including surgical supplies. As such, in India alone, more than 600 surgeries were performed as a result and in Morocco the neurological health center is the only one in the country.

    In Haiti, a serious concern arose around the staggering health issues which became especially visible after destructive earthquake and subsequent tsunami. The Rotary Club provided pre and post-natal care to mothers, which became a great issue especially after many hospitals and clinics suffered greatly in the aftermath of the devastating events.

    Other examples of projects initiated by the Rotary Club in communities worldwide are seen in Kenya and Honduras. In Kenya 98.500$ were spent in order to provide clean drinking water and help irrigate severe droughts affecting farmers as well as the economy. On the other side of the globe, in Honduras, massive social programs worth of 25.550 $ were made to help more than 600 young women with business training.

    However, these are just a few of the many programs Rotary Clubs all over the world initiated. As an international organization, the Rotary works closely with national governments to promote literacy, health prevention and social programs to create long-term benefits for communities worldwide.

    Other valuable Rotary partners are UNICEF, UN or the World Health Organization. Alongside international organizations, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, proved to be valuable allies in programs combating illnesses such as polio.

    In its 110 year existence, the Rotary club managed to initiate a vast array of programs with deep humanitarian implications. Working with worldwide partners to create a better tomorrow for the millions in need of human services, the organization truly reached an international status.

    So there you have it, a short history of the Rotary Club and some of its achievements along the years. I hope my article managed to answer to ‘what is a rotary club’, how it is organized and in what fields Rotary Club members engage.

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    Lately many developers witnessed a boom in the gaming industry, with many new coming titles managing to sweep away in awe and admiration both the gaming community and rival competitors. Nevertheless, older games still manage to impress, even in today’s standards through their difficulty and in-depth gaming. But what games have been battling for the title of the hardest game ever? Be cautious, this post may contain spoilers!

    What Are the Hardest Games Ever?


    Sim City 4

    Being regarded as a cult classic in the city-building genre, Sim City 4 has had a large fan-base over the years. Granted that the game has an impressive in-depth level, with many aspects being able to change and improve. From changing maintenance costs all the way to planning an entire economic region, the game is set to offer countless hours of fun and despair as you plan and construct entire regions.

    Having to tackle serious economic and logistic problems, as you change tax rates for different social categories, finding new sources of revenue and plan entire regions enabled this game to gain the title of one of the hardest games ever.

    The game also benefited from the modding community, continuously adding new constructions, changing various aspects of the game. At the same time, this pretender for the hardest game ever also has some real fun cheats that could be used, such as having an alien U.F.O. invading your city.

    Developed by Maxis, an Electronic Arts subsidiary, published in early 2003, it still stands as an all-time favorite in the city-building genre as one of the hardest games ever, perfect for would-be architects and city planners.

    sim city 4 hardest game ever

    Arkham Asylum

    Another name in the industry which ever since its debut managed to create a name for itself in both the PC and console gaming systems is Arkham Asylum. In it, one of the most iconic comic-book characters, Batman, stared in one of the most well received games in later years.

    One of its most appealing aspects, except for being able to play the role of the Dark Knight, is its well devised combat system. Alongside being able to engage in both stealth and all-out brawl tactics, the game series benefited from a superb cast of voice actors, including Mark Hamill. He reprised its rendition of the Joker, which he made famous during the Animated Series.

    Alongside the main story action, side quests offer many more hardships, usually overlooked at first glance. The step by step difficulty growing, forces players to engage in different combat styles, having to use some of the Bat’s most ‘lovable’ moves, such as hanging bad guys from lighting posts.

    Moreover, some of the most known villains in the universe of the world’s greatest detective come to make your life harder, from the above mentioned Joker, to Poison Ivy and Mr. Freeze (whose level is just a pain at times).

    arkham asylum - hardest game ever

    Castle Wolfenstein

    Returning to another cult-classic, Castle Wolfenstein and its sequel Return to Castle Wolfenstein, amazed the world upon its releases for its past paced and highly gore action. The countless slay of Third Reich minions offers many hours of gameplay.

    Regardless of its clunky graphics, this gaming gem shocked due to its mature content, being one of the pioneers of the action gore genre. Having to face countless waves of enemies, the game tested serious survival skills, with sometimes little ammo or health to spare.

    castle wolfenstein - hardest game ever

    Resident Evil

    A highly popular action series, again from the survival genre, coming from the developing team of Capcom is Resident Evil. Developed and published by Capcom, the game’s debut came in 1996, being released for both console and PC platforms.

    The game presented itself as a challenge not only due to having to survive hordes of zombies, but also due to the many puzzles needed to be solved, while facing off entire hordes of zombies. The balance between fast paced action scenes and highly tensed sequences, trying to remain stealthy enough not to wake up the cranky neighbors made this series one of the hardest in gaming history.

    The immense popularity and well reception of the general audience, transformed the series into a media franchise, spanning from live-action movies, animations all the way to comic books, making it one of the best selling franchises owned by Capcom.

    resident evil 4 - hardest game ever

    Prince of Persia

    Another well-known media franchise comes this time from the game developer Ubisoft, with its title Prince of Persia. The developers received high praises for the smooth transition from 2D in its early days, with its first release of the franchise in 1989, to its 1999 3D release.

    Although initially, published The Broderbund/The Learning Company worked on game development, the franchise was subsequently sold to Ubisoft, after achieving high-critical acclaim.

    The series impressed many generations of gamers for its cunning fast paced action balanced with puzzle solving quests, granting hours upon hours of gameplay. The feature of reversing time in critical moments also granted an interesting gameplay, enabling players to forget every once in a while to relentlessly pause and save.

    In addition to spawning a best-selling trilogy, the game was also turned into a movie, however generating mix-reviews from its fan-base.

    prince of persia - hardest game ever

    Lastly, the final pick for the title of the hardest game ever comes as a surprise from an online platform. Its title you ask? Interestingly enough, it’s dubbed “World’s Hardest Game”.

    The object is to avoid blue circles, while moving the red square and collecting yellow circles. The game requires quick reflexes from players as the blue orbs move quite fast, giving little time to think. Upon collecting all the yellow circles, the players have to again avoid the blue orbs while trying to reach the finish line.

    Containing 30 levels, increasing in difficulty as players progress, the game is sure to offer some rage moments (please be wary of breaking mousses and keyboards).  A nice way to take a break and test your reflexes, the game offers countless hours of fun puzzles. Being found online makes it usable for everyone regardless of PC performance.

    Well, there you have it. A short list of some of the worlds hardest games ever, which till this day still to impress and fascinate gamers of all ages.

     Image sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 

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    We can’t judge a person by his/her size, but we surely can judge a car by its dimensions. ‘What is the biggest car in the world?’ is, though, a difficult question to answer to when there are so many factors involved. While at first glance it is easy to judge a vehicle by its size, it is quite hard to establish which one is the largest in the world as cars vary greatly on length, width, height, power, engine and so on.

    In order to provide best-informed answers to this dilemma, we have limited our research to street legal automobiles. The list is thus limited to current production cars, pickup trucks, SUVs and vans, and excludes industrial vehicles or other types of larger vehicles as we want to stick to road cars every person in the world would want to drive.

    So What Is the Biggest Car in the World?

    If you are a car enthusiast and dream to own the biggest car in the world, check your pockets as our list features a few of the most luxurious automobiles available on the market.

    The Biggest Car in the World by Length

    Production Car

    255.9 inches (6,499 mm) – 2016 Mercedes-Maybach Pullman

    2016 mercedes maybach pullman in the biggest car in the world top

    Mercedes Maybach Pullman 2016

    The luxurious Mercedes Maybach S600 Pullman is currently the longest street legal production car in the world. Does it fit the biggest car in the world title? While this is a complex question to answer to, we can say that it sure is luxury on a very large scale.

    Americans love driving pickup trucks, SUVs, and vans. The biggest such vehicles currently produced are:

    Pickup Truck

    263.0 inches (6,680 mm) – Ford F-250/F-350

    Ford F-250/ F-350 in the biggest car in the world top

    Ford F-250/ F-350


    224.4 inches (5,700 mm) – 2015 Chevrolet Suburban

    2015 Chevrolet Suburban biggest car in the world category

    Chevrolet Suburban 2015


    300.3 inches (7,628 mm) – Iveco Daily

    The New Iveco Daily in the biggest car in the world top

    The New Iveco Daily

    The Biggest Car in the World by Width

    Production Car

    79.9 inches (2,030 mm) – Lamborghini Aventador (2011)

    Lamborghini Aventador in the biggest car in the world top

    Lamborghini Aventador

    Mercedes Maybach Pullman may be the longest car in the world right now, but the widest automobile title is taken by another super car, built in Italy this time. However, Lamborghini Aventador is beaten at this category by a 3 inches wider Chrysler Crown Imperial from 1954.

    Pickup Truck

    96.0 inches (2,438 mm) – Dodge Ram 3500 DRW


    81.6 in (2,073 mm) – Range Rover (L405)


    83.7 in (2,126 mm) – Ford Transit

    The Biggest Car in the World by Height

    Production Car

    64.6 inches (1,641 mm) – Rolls-Royce Phantom (EWB – extended wheelbase)

    Rolls-Royce Phantom EWB (Extended wheelbase) in the biggest car in the world top

    Rolls-Royce Phantom EWB (Extended wheelbase)

    Roll-Royce Phantom (EWB) is not only the tallest, but also the heaviest production car in the world today. But the tallest production car ever manufactured is a Ford 60 HP from 1904, characterized by a height of 100.4 inches.

    Pickup Truck

    116.4 inches (2,956) – Brabus Unimog U500 Black Edition


    78.3 inches (1,989 mm) – Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator


    120.3 inches (3,055 mm) – Mercedes-Benz Sprinter

    The Biggest Car in the World by Curb Weight

    Production Car

    6,052 lb (2,745 kg) – Rolls-Royce Phantom EWB

    If Rolls-Royce Phantom is the heaviest production car in the world right now, the heaviest production car ever manufactured was a large luxury 1930-43 Mercedes-Benz 770 known as the Großer Mercedes weighting 10,582 lb.

    mercedes benz 770

    Mercedes Benz 770

    Pickup Truck

    14,551 lb (6,600 kg) – International XT


    6,274 lb (2,846 kg) – Lincoln Navigator L 4X4


    6,779 lb (3,075 kg) – Iveco Daily

    Why Do Cars Get Bigger and Bigger?

    Have you ever questioned yourself why cars got bigger and bigger over the years? Our nation is well-known for drivers in love with huge SUVs and pickup trucks. But what is the reason behind everything? Safety? Popularity? Larger roads than in other places around the globe?

    Some say Americans drive monstrous cars because they afford to pay for the gas wagons these vehicles consume, which is true. The gasoline is a lot cheaper in the US as compared to Europe. Big cars are fun as well, others say.

    Let’s just have a look at how manufacturers like Honda or Volkswagen have produced larger and larger cars over time.

    Honda, for instance, has built and sold more than 9 million Accords in the US over the last 30 years. Not only sales have increased, but also the space efficiency and length of vehicles.

    Biggest car in the world

    Volkswagen has produced larger and larger cars as well. If you compare a Volkswagen Gold from 1985, for example, to a Volkswagen Golf from 2015, you easily notice a growth of size.

    Volkswagen Golf 1985 vs Volkswagen Golf 2015

    Biggest Car in the World Final Thoughts

    When buying a car, be it large or middle size, we all want comfort and the space we have inside our vehicle is part of that. The alarming aspect of the growth of car space, however, is that more spacious cars are preferred by larger drivers. Statistically, in the last 25 years not only cars have increased in size, but people got bigger as well. Is there a correlation between obesity and massive car production? If you have any thoughts or comments on cars getting bigger over the years, don’t hesitate to drop us a line in the comment box below.

    Image Sources: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

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    What is the fastest car in the world today is a unique question with multiple answers. This title is quite relative as there is no authority to verify and qualify a production car as ‘the fastest’ except Guinness World Records. No matter what Google says, rules appear to be made by Guinness. Internet resources may confuse you because while the highest speed of a road legal car was achieved by a Hennessey Venom GT in 2014, the laurels went to Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport. What a funny thing records are! Why? Find out the answer just a few lines below.

    Hennessey Venom GT

    Hennessey Venom GT

    What is the Fastest Car in the World? – Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport?

    The fastest road legal production car in the world today is said to be a Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport, a vehicle worth $2.5 million. The car reached a top speed of 268 mph (431 km/h) in 2010 and ever since leads the way in boldest automotive creations worldwide.

    However, in February 2014 a record exceeding 270.49 mph (435.31 km/h) was established by a Hennessey Venom GT but it could not qualify as the fastest street-legal car in the world as the test did not conform to the Guinness Book of Record method of measuring top speeds. The run test was performed at the John F. Kennedy Space Center – the NASA facility in Florida, in one direction only, while the record qualifies only as a mean of highest speeds in both directions.

    Venom GT’s highest recorded speed was verified and documented by a representative from Racelogic, an automotive technology company which is renowned for VBOX GPS data acquisition systems. Even so, it makes no difference. Hennessey Venom GT remains the official first runner up. If you are curious about how this record was achieved, you can watch the whole thing on YouTube.

    What is a Production Car?

    As opposed to modified cars (altered from the original status for high performance purposes) or concept cars (prototypes showcasing new features at motor shows), production cars are built for commercial sale and can be used by consumers for personal purposes or even for public transport. The original vehicle manufacturer is required to construct and have on stock at least 20 instances of the same model for retail sale. These cars are street-legal, which means they can pass any tests or official inspections.

    A production car, as fast as it may get, also distinguishes itself from what is called a muscle car. The ‘muscle car’ is an American invention and is literary a small car with a very powerful, large-displacement engine in it created for high performance driving.

    How is Top Speed Measured?

    Currently there is no standard method to measure the top speed of a production car. However, independent road tests are being made, which are verified and qualified by Guinness Book of Records. Top speeds are qualified for the Guinness World Record title only as a mean of the top speed for both runs of the road.  

    Top 5 Fastest Street-legal Production Cars

    According to a Top 10 2014 – 2015 Fastest Car in the World created by TheSuperCars.org, Hennessey Venom GT takes first place, followed by Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport and Koenigsegg Agera R.

    But as for the Guinness Book of Records method of measuring speed records, these are the boldest cars ever made until now:

    1. Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport

    Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport

    Production Year: 2010

    Top speed: 268 mph (431 km/h) reached in 2.4 seconds.

    Base Price: $2.5 million

    Unofficially the second fastest car in the world as for February 2014, Bugatti Veyron reclaimed the title of the fastest supercar starting with July 2010, when challenged the speed record established by SSC Ultimate Aero in 2007.

    1. Hennessey Venom GT

    Hennessey Venom GT

    Production Year: 2011

    Top Speed: 270.49 mph (435.31 km/h) reached in 2.5 seconds.

    Base Price: $1 million and higher

    Ever since Hennessey Venom GT beat the Koenigsedd Agera R’s acceleration time in January 2013, it has been known as the unofficial fastest supercar in the world.

    1. Koenigsegg Agera R

    Keonigsegg Agera

    Production Year: 2011

    Top Speed: 260 mph (418 km/h) reached in 2.9 seconds.

    Base Price: $1.6 million

    Koenigsegg Agera R is a unique and powerful car which has all the chances to overtake the first two top rated supercars.


    1. SSC Ultimate Aero

    SSC Ultimate Aero supercar

    Production Year: 2006

    Top Speed257 mph (413 km/h) reached in 2.7 seconds.

    Base Price: $654,400

    Tested in March 2007 by Guinness World Records, the SSC Ultimate Aero was the fastest car in the world until July 2010, when was beaten by today’s official no. 1 or unofficial first runner up – Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport.

    1. Saleen S7 Twin-Turbo

    Saleen S7 Twin Turbo fast car

    Production Year: 2002

    Top Speed: 248 mph (399 km/h) reached in 2.8 seconds.

    Base Price: $555,000


    Saleen S 7 Twin-Turbo is one of America’s most powerful supercars ever made and one of the world’s fastest street-legal vehicles. It also features a Top 50 Best Supercars of All Time.


    Image Sources: venomgt.com & wikipedia.org


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    alcoholToday, close to 15% of people consume a glass of alcohol to help them get good sleep. It’s become a ritual for millions of individuals to consume a glass of wine before bedtime. It’s a ritual of sorts that’s been passed down for generations and doesn’t seem to be dying any time soon.

    Effects Of Alcohol Before Bedtime
    What happens when you consume a glass of alcohol before you sleep is that it acts as a muscle relaxant, giving you deep sleep during the first half of your sleep. During the second half of your sleep though, the alcohol you consumed would have been completely digested and its effects also would have run out which results in disturbed sleep during the second half. You will wake up multiple times due to this disturbed sleep and also need to rush to the bathroom because of the alcohol multiple times.

    Besides the disturbed sleep, alcohol is known to give people breathing difficulties, problems with snoring, headaches and even insomnia at times. Alcohol also tends to over-relax your throat muscles, more than usual, which can lead to problems and even cause death potentially in very rare cases. The next morning you’re faced with even more problems as you’ll have a severe headache, dehydration and you’ll feel sleep deprived.

    Another problem with alcohol consumption on a frequent basis is that your body builds up a tolerance to it when you consume it on a regular basis. When consumed daily, your body builds resistance and tolerance towards alcohol and you’ll see minimal effects from one glass of alcohol which rules out the effect of the theory then.

    So, it’s a big no-no to consume alcohol just before bedtime, especially if you tend to eat dinner late leaving little or leave no gap between dinner and bedtime. If you wish to partake in alcohol consumption you can do so by consuming your favorite drink up to three hours before bedtime. This will ensure that the alcohol gets metabolized by the time you hit the sack and you won’t feel any of the side effects of alcohol during your sleep. That puts to bed your grandmother’s theory of consuming a drink before bedtime for a good night’s sleep.