Home Authors Posts by Gabrielle Moreno

Hi, my name is Gabrielle, but all my friends call me Gaby. Having a degree in foreign languages, I first intended to develop a career in translations, but then I realized human interaction is more satisfying and got engaged in educational projects. Writing is my second best skill after teaching. I started writing about jobs and education based on my experience of not knowing what career path to choose. Sharing my knowledge and experience is the most rewarding aspect of my work, especially when I see it really touches people. Therefore, I look forward to reading your comments, thoughts and opinions. Feel free to contact me.

The BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) tells us that the average bartender salary for the fiscal year of 2014 was $19,050. This translates to $522 per week and $9.16 per hour.

Of the bartenders that were included in the national survey, 10% earned considerably less than the average. The yearly pay for these, according to PayScale, was $11,762, which also translates to $3.38 per hour. An encouraging fact may come from statistics regarding the top %10 of this profession. These end up earning more than twice over the average, with $45,020 per year and $11.68 per hour.

For the bartender job, wage inequality is less persistent, though still very much present. According to the Labor Statistics Bureau, for the year 2014, there were 103,000 male bartenders and 113,000 female bartenders. For these, the average weekly pay for men was $634, while the average for women stood at a modest $459.

Here are areas that pay the best bartender salary in the US:

Industry Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land $13.95 $28,190
Traveler Accommodation $13.44 $27,950
Beer, Wine, and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant Wholesalers $13.33 $27,720
Grocery Sales $13.06 $27,160
Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services $12.71 $26,450

What Is the Average Bartender Salary?

Bartender Salary by Location

The average bartending salary differs on account of location. States with higher touristic potential have greater wages for their bartenders. However, that does not necessary mean that the same states offer high levels of employment. The highest paying state offered its drink preparing personnel $36.290 as a yearly wage. On the other end of the spectrum, the salary per year plummets to $17,460.

The following table lists the states where the bartender salary is the highest. Note the difference between the first state and the second state while keeping in mind the touristic potential:

State Hourly mean wage Yearly mean wage
Hawaii $17.45 $36,290
Virginia $14.52 $30,190
Washington $14.13 $29,390
Vermont $13.84 $28,780
District of Columbia $13.20 $27,460


The bartender salary isn’t the only employment factor candidates should look for. The employment rate is also a decisive statistic. States that rank highest on bartender salary may have very few positions opened for the job.

State Employment Hourly mean wage Yearly mean wage
California 57,450 $11.89 $24,720
New York 41,760 $11.41 $23,740
Texas 37,580 $10.83 $22,530
Florida 37,540 $12.20 $25,370
Pennsylvania 31,220 $9.68 $20,140


Bartender Salary Change Over Time

Depending on how much time a bartender spends on a job, he or she may end up earning more as time goes by. There are also other factors that influence the bartender salary change over time:

  • Entry level experience. A bartender that’s just starting out should expect to earn less than any national, state, or job average. The usual decline from the bartender salary national average for entry level employees is 7%.
  • Job experience. An employee with experience in serving drinks and preparing beverages may increase the average salary by up to 9%, according to PayScale.
  • Career experience. Likewise, an employee that has spent half his working days in a bartender job may also increase his/her pay by 9% over the average. Longer experience can result in an increase of up to %12.

Image source: workable.com

The average flight attendant salary in 2018 was $42,290, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Flight attendants, who are in charge of the comfort, security and safety of flight passengers earn around $28,820 if they are in the lower 10 percentile and over $72,560 if they are in the top ten percent.

The occupation is generally regarded as a well-paid profession that can easily reach six figure salaries. However, the flight attendant salary will greatly differ according to carrier, experience and industries.

The best paying industries for flight attendants are:


Industry Annual mean wage 
Management of Companies and Enterprises $81,120
Support Activities for Air Transportation $63,330
Oil and Gas Extraction $55,540
Nonscheduled Air Transportation $49,490
Scheduled Air Transportation $46,110

Flight attendant salary

Flight attendant salary by location

Geographic location also weighs heavily on the flight attendant salary. Most flight attendant jobs can be found in California: 11,130. The annual mean wage here is $45,530. First runner up in highest employment level is New York, with 10,380 jobs. The annual mean wage, however, is lower, at $43,690. Lower on the list of top employment states is Georgia. With 8,860 jobs, it boasts an annual mean wage of 52,200.

The top paying states for flight attendants offer monthly wages that exceed $4,000. The best paying states for this occupation are:

State Annual mean wage
Florida $55,870
Georgia $52,200
Texas $50,260
Wisconsin $47,190
South Carolina $47,010

Flight attendant base salary

As is the case with the majority of other professions, a steward or stewardess will be paid according to their experience. A beginner will start off with the base salary and will work their way up to better salaries over the course of a decade. The salaries will more than double in the course of 14 years.

Domestic hourly wages roughly follow this ascending pattern:

Year 2014 2015
First $21.23 $21.76
Second $22.44 $23.00
Third $23.87 $24.47
Fourth $24.54 $25.15
Fifth $27.83 $28.53
Sixth $36.59 $37.51
Seventh $38.57 $39.53
Eighth $39.53 $40.52
Ninth $40.82 $41.84
Tenth $42.12 $43.18
Eleventh $43.03 $44.11
Twelfth $44.06 $45.16
Thirteenth $45.01 $46.13
Fourteenth $45.72 $46.86

Per diems

The flight attendant salary is compensated with meals during layover times. Spending the night in a hotel is covered by the airline who is also meant to guarantee the meal of the flight attendant when the aircraft does not board meals.

Domestic layovers pay lower per diems than international layovers, which are also usually longer. Per diems are influenced by the currency, the duration of the layover and the carrier.

Flight attendant benefits

  • Stable and reliable life insurance;
  • 401k plan with 5%;
  • Vacation and sick days pay;
  • Paid off travel;
  • Employee discounts;
  • Dental, health and vision insurance;
  • Pension plan;
  • Maternity and paternity leave.

The average flight attendant salary will vary significantly according to experience and airline. However, seniors enjoy added bonuses and larger wages than beginners, which is why persisting in this career path is recommended.

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According to the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), the median annual massage therapist salary in 2014 was $37,180, making for an hourly wage of $17.88.

The worst paid 10 percent earned less than $18,460 in 2014, with an hourly wage of $8.88. At the same time, the top 10 percent in the same profession made more than $71,950, with an hourly wage of $34.59.

With an annual job growth rate of 3.3% yearly and more than 5,000 new job openings, the massage therapist salary will vary according to geographic location, employer, certification, and experience.

The industry where the employee chooses to practice their job also heavily influences the hourly mean wage. The best paying industries for this profession offer an annual mean wage that starts at a little over $64,710.

Industry Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Individual and Family Services $31.11 $64,710
Other Schools and Instruction $29.84 $62,060
Other Ambulatory Health Care Services $26.16 $54,420
Offices of Physicians $25.31 $52,650
Specialty $25.19 $52,400

Massage therapist salary

Massage therapist salary by location

Among the most important criteria factored in for determining the massage therapist salary is the geographic location. Wages vary according to state, with the most profitable ones offering as much as $84,000 and the bottom 10 percent ones offering as little as $35,000.

The states that offer the highest levels of employment are:

State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
California 11,940 $20.23 $42,070
Florida 7,010 $19.76 $41,110
Texas 5,290 $17.90 $37,230
Arizona 4,700 $20.34 $42,310
Washington 4,330 $23.87 $49,650


The states with the highest massage therapy salary are:

State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Alaska $40.52 $84,270
New York $26.46 $55,030
Delaware $25.88 $53,840
Hawaii $24.77 $51,510
Massachusetts $24.65 $51,280


Specialized massagers earn according to the industry in which they work. The massage therapist salary is moderately impacted by their experience. However, the field of the profession plays a large part in their annual wages. Posh SPAs that boast a steady clientele who enjoy handsome incomes will rank high in the top paying fields.

Likewise, the massage therapist salary increases significantly for massagers who are available for mobile therapy. The hourly wages for employees who are willing to travel to the customers’ homes are significantly higher.

Profession Average annual salary
Certified Massage Therapist $33,000
Dual Licensed Therapist $20,000
General Massage Therapist $52,000
Licensed Massage Therapist $39,000
Massage Therapist $22,000
Massage Therapist Manager $38,000
Massage Therapist ON Call $16,000
Massage Therapy $47,000
Massage Therapy Coordinator $19,000
Mobile Massage Therapist $98,000
Skin Therapist $30,000


Factors that influence the massage therapist salary

  • Independent massage therapists might be able to earn more by providing at-home services. They might only have to work 36 hours per week, however, their schedule has to be flexible in order to accommodate the clients.
  • Sports therapists can gain a job either with a professional team or with a private clinic. The hourly wages start at $30.
  • Massage therapists can build up a portfolio comprising part time jobs and coaching sessions. The portfolio increases the chances of seizing a job and can directly influence the massage therapist salary on relocating.


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According to the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), the average technical writer salary in 2014 was $69,930, with a mean hourly wage of $33.19.

The lowest 10% salaries averaged $41,450, with an hourly wage of $19.93, while the top 10% best paid technical writers had an annual wage of $108,460, which breaks down to an hourly wage of $52.14.

A technical writer is in charge with producing a wide range of technical materials and maintenance instructions. The job is required to fill positions in various domains that make the technical writer salary differ considerably. With the fewest employees, the Specialized design industry is the best paid, offering an hourly mean wage of $41.20. The most lucrative field is the Computer Systems design industry that has the most employees and offers an hourly mean wage of $36.59.

Industry Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Specialized Design Services $41.20 $85,700
Other Information Services $41.15 $85,600
Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers $40.32 $83,870
Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing $39.81 $82,810
Federal Executive Branch (OES Designation) $38.22 $79,500

What Is the Average Technical Writer Salary?

Technical writer salary by location

There are several criteria that are factored in when determining the technical writer salary. Besides experience and employer, two factors that play an important role, geographic location can also influence the annual mean wage of a technical writer.

State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
California $40.85 $84,960
Connecticut $39.10 $81,330
Maryland $38.47 $80,010
District of Columbia $38.44 $79,950
Washington $38.41 $79,890


Technical writer benefits

According to the employer, technical writers have different benefits. The latest figures on 2015 show an average technical writer salary of 53,842. Based on this average, employers are expected to meet the following requirements:

Core Compensation Median % of Total
Base Salary $53,842 69.10%
Bonuses $743 1.00%
Social Security $4,176 5.40%
401K/403B $1,965 2.50%
Disability $491 0.60%
Healthcare $6,592 8.50%
Pension $3,439 4.40%
Time Off $6,718 8.60%
Total Compensation $77,966 100%


Technical writer salary per company

The significant difference between the salary of the 10th percentile, situated in the $40,000 ballpark and the salary of the 90th percentile who can make more than $100,000 per year can be explained by the size and importance of the employing company.

Job Title Salary
Google Technical Writer $125,402
Infosys Technical Writer $60,874
Qtech Solutions Technical Writer $57,917
NIIT Technical Writer $57,440


The technical writer salary varies according to geographic location, skill, experience and employer. The demand for the job is continuously increasing, with employees choosing this career path for the log run.

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If you’re not familiar with health professions, you might be wondering what does a medical stenographer do? They are in charge with transcribing any type of medical documents provided by healthcare professionals or physicians in audio or other formats.

According to BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics), medical stenographers’ average salary in 2014 was $35,580. However, the numbers differ according to employer, experience and geographic location and can be much higher.

A medical stenographer has to be thorough and has to have a keen eye for details. The health care industry does not allow mistakes that could have bad consequences. Medical stenographers are expected to hand in flawless work and do their job under tight deadlines.

What Does a Medical Transcriptionist Do

Since there are various kinds of medical stenographers , the job requirements can differ according to the area they are working in and the employer. The great majority of medical stenographers fulfil the same tasks. The result is generally a medical transcription that can serve as the official medical record of a hospital.

The duties of a medical stenographer also have to factor in the working environment of the employee. While a great part of medical stenographers work in a physician’s office or in a hospital, others work directly for medical transcription companies. These, in their turn, work for hospitals that employ them to transform medical recordings into written transcriptions. Independent or freelance medical transcriptionists telecommute and work from a home office.


What tasks does a medical stenographer perform?

Working as a medical stenographer involves more than transforming audio records into written records. Although the job requirements slightly differ according to the work sector, the great majority of medical stenographers are in charge of:

  • Receiving recorded notes from doctors or physicians containing audio procedures.
  • Reviewing the received recordings for content.
  • Transcribing the reviewed audio recordings into written format.
  • Identifying errors or missing information that could jeopardize patient health care.
  • Reviewing the transcriptions for identifying any mistakes, typos or inaccuracies.
  • Submitting the final written documents to be approved by physicians and included in hospital records.
  • Entering the medical reports into the health system electronic records.


What do medical stenographers do in a day?

It might be difficult to fully grasp what does a medical stenographer do. To better illustrate this, the list below sums up the daily responsibilities of a medical stenographer.

  • Transcribe audio recordings dictated by health care professionals or physicians.
  • Use a headset to listen to the recording carefully once or twice.
  • Use a foot pedal to pause the recordings for follow ups or double checks.
  • Fast forward or rewind in order to clarify inaccurate or inconsistent information.
  • Produce and transcribe discharge records, medical summaries and history, physical exams, progress notes, referral letters, and autopsy results.
  • Employ correct medical terminology to accurately transcribe treatment, diagnosis and outcome recordings.
  • Tackle abbreviations and medical jargon and be mindful of errors and inaccuracies.
  • Follow certain standards that regard the medical records and the legal prerequisites that require patient information stay confidential.


What is the working schedule of a medical stenographer?

Medical stenographers have a flexible schedule due to the work they have to produce. Listening to audio records and transforming them into written form can be done both in an office and at home. Medical stenographers can also work part time or full time.

Those who choose to work from home can determine their own schedule. However, they still have to meet urgent deadlines, which could imply working over hours or during nights.

The job of medical transcriptionist might be flexible, but it requires high accuracy and a keen eye for spotting errors. Medical stenographers who are willing to put in extra hours must be careful not to hand in poor written documents as a result of exhaustion.


What skills do medical stenographers need?

Transcribing medical records might not seem hard work at first, but it requires patience, attention to details and an increased power of concentration. Aspiring medical stenographers should also fulfill the following criteria:

  • Computer skills – medical stenographers have to be familiar with using computers, gadgets and special software that will ease their job. Not only do these help stenographers produce written documents faster, they also ensure the highest quality possible for the papers. Medical stenographers might also need to be comfortable using EHR (electronic health records) systems.
  • Listening skills – this is a crucial skill for any medical stenographer . They are required to carefully listen to the physician or doctor’s audio recordings and transcribe them accurately. Therefore, stenographers need to be able to understand foreign accents, specific terminology and different spellings as well as convey the intended meaning in the medical report.
  • Time management – tight deadlines are frequent in the industry. Stenographers must be highly organized and able to prioritize their tasks in order to meet short deadline and deliver the needed written records on time.
  • Critical thinking skills – stenographers must fulfill two tasks at the same time: listen to the audio medical reports in order to transcribe them and also assess the information, keeping an eye out for mistakes. Critical thinking skills help medical stenographers produce reliable and certified documents.


Image source: 1

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean annual medical transcriptionist salary is $35,580. in 2018, the vast majority of medical transcriptionist earned $11 per hour, with the top 10% making as much as $23 hourly. This 90th percentile had a weekly wage of $923, a monthly salary of $4,000 and a total annual salary of $48,000.

The 50th percentile (close to the median), makes a weekly wage of $665, a monthly salary of $2,883 and an annual salary of $34,600.

The top paying industries can make the medical transcriptionist salary reach $73,000 per year. With an hourly wage of $35.19 and a monthly salary of $6,100, the Management of Companies and Enterprises ranks first as the best-paid industry for medical transcriptionists.

Industry Hourly wage Monthyly Salary Annual salary
Management of Companies and Enterprises $35.19 $6,100 $73,200
Insurance Carriers $21.44 $3,717 $44,600
Specialty hospitals, State government owned $20.63 $3,575 $42,900
Insurance Carriers and Related Activities $19.62 $3,400 $40,800
Home Health Care Services $19.38 $3,358 $40,300
Nursing and Residential Care Facilities $19.28 $3,342 $40,100
Other Insurance Related Activities $19.04 $3,300 $39,600
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals (including private, state, and local government hospitals) $18.85 $3,267 $39,200
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals, State government owned $18.75 $3,250 $39,000
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories $18.75 $3,250 $39,000

What Is the Medical Transcriptionist Salary?

Medical transcriptionist salary by location

The medical transcriptionist salary varies according to state. The weekly wages in the top ten highest paying regions for medical transcriptionists range between $738 – $894/week. The District of Columbia, Massachusetts and California are the most profitable areas for medical transcriptionists to work in.

State Hourly wage Monthly salary Annual salary
District of Columbia $22.36 $3,875 $46,500
Massachusetts $22.07 $3,825 $45,900
California $21.30 $3,692 $44,300
Connecticut $19.57 $3,392 $40,700
Alaska $18.75 $3,250 $39,000
Hawaii $18.75 $3,250 $39,000
New Jersey $18.70 $3,242 $38,900
Colorado $18.70 $3,242 $38,900
Delaware $18.46 $3,200 $38,400
New Hampshire $18.46 $3,200 $38,400


The lowest paying states have an hourly wage that ranges between $13.61 – $15.10. The worst medical transcriptionist salaries are from Utah ($28,300), West Virginia ($29,300), Alabama ($29,700), Arkansans ($30,200), Louisiana ($30,600), South Dakota ($30,600), Mississippi ($30,800) and Oklahoma ($30,800).

Freelance medical transcriptionist salary

Medical transcriptionists enjoy flexibility since they can work in an office as well as at home. An independent medical transcriptionist will be able to find work from heath care offices as well as companies that are in charge with providing the health industry with transcriptions.

The medical transcriptionist salary reflects production and working hours. A skilled medical transcriptionist working from home with a CMD certification will be able to provide their services on a contract and charge on an hourly basis. Experienced freelancers that have a constant work influx and set a profitable hourly wage are able to earn between $35,000 – $60,000 per year.

The medical transcriptionist salary is influenced a several important factors: employment type (freelance, part time, full time), employer, geographic location and skill. The level of production is tightly linked to the paycheck since each new contract increases the monthly and annual salary.

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When Forbes claimed several years ago that court reporters are the sixth best-paid people who don’t need a four-year degree, everyone was left wondering what does a court reporter do?

Also known as court stenographers, court reporters are in charge with transcribing spoken communications into written form. To do this, court reporters will employ a machine shorthand to create official transcripts of official proceedings.

A few seasoned court reporters that work in favorable areas are able to earn as much as $90,000 per year. Aspiring court reporters will have to attend either vocational training or technical school that will prepare them for the exact requirements for the job.

Court Reporter Salary can exceed $90,000

What do court reporters do?

As an official of the court, a court reporter is in charge with writing down transcripts. These will record the oral communications that take place within court proceedings. The resulted transcripts play an important role since they serve as official records that cover all the trial’s aspects. Other lawyers are enabled to search the transcripts after the verdict for the trial comes in.

The vast majority of court reporters will employ a stenotype machine comprising a typed shorthand. This allows court reporters to instantly reproduce the spoken communications in court. A few courts give permission for the communication to be recorded. In this case, the court reporter has to produce written transcripts of the recordings.

Most jurisdictions out there opt for stenotype operators. The sophisticated machine requires formal instruction and hundreds of practice hours. This is where the skill and fast pace of the court reporter come in handy. While listening, court reporters need to accurately type everything and are allowed to linger behind the spoken communication only by a few seconds.

What tasks does a court reporter perform?

Working as a court reporter involves more than writing down oral communications instantaneously. Preparing for the job will involve getting acquainted with legal processes in order to be competent to carry out the following tasks:

  • Produce entire shorthand notes for oral testimonies, objections, and arguments.
  • Go over shorthand notes in order to settle disputes concerning testimonies, arguments or other issues at the trial court’s request.
  • Attend every session of the court.
  • File necessary papers or exhibits with the court’s clerk.
  • Keep shorthand notes for any future references.

Pros and Cons for court reporting jobs

There have been debates on whether this profession that has been needed for years will survive in the newly digitized era. The more optimistic outlook strongly believes court reporters have a future, with statistics backing up the claim and pointing out towards a growth in demand in the following five years by 14%.

Court reporting is not for everyone. When choosing to become a  stenographer, you need to know more than just what does a court reporter do? Besides having a keen eye for details and being dedicated to a job that is mandatorily error-free, you should also consider the following pros and cons.


  • Legal role. If your top priority has been to get a job in the legal industry, court reporting might be the ideal choice. The job involves getting acquainted with the legal processes and legal terminology.
  • Job prospects. The court reporter salary is probably the brightest outlook of a court reporter career. While novices can’t expect to start off with impressive earnings from the very first year, the top 10% are being paid handsomely and can earn over $90,000 annually.
  • Quick training. For a job that doesn’t require a four-year degree, court reporting is among the best paid. Training to become a court reporter can take less than one year.



  • Working hours. Court reporters are not bound to enjoy a fixed working schedule. Odd work hours may be a prerequisite, therefore, those who can’t agree to a flexible schedule might have trouble adjusting.
  • Sitting. Court reporting requires sitting in the same position for extended periods of time. Infrequent breaks and uncomfortable sitting might be a deal breaker for some.
  • Accuracy and speed. The appealing court reporter salary can’t be achieved without these two qualities that no employee should lack. Increased attention to detail and the ability to multi-task are a must since the job involves listening to other people talk and using a stenotype to write everything down.

What do court reporters do in a day?

It’s difficult to describe the average day of a court reporter. Their work days vary according to the type of assignments they have to perform. For example, mornings could be taken up by pre-trial depositions and followed up by checking the transcripts, which can take up to four hours. Then, court reporters might have to attend a couple of trials.

Some court reporters will use the free time when they don’t have to attend trials to do freelance work. This might involve transcribing television programs or press conferences in order to send them to viewers almost in real time.

What does a court reporter do in a day will also depend on the experience level, on the geographic location and on the ability of the person to take on extra shifts or extra work

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The Chipotle E Coli outbreak got worldwide coverage after pathogenic strains of the bacterium sickened 52 people in different states only in the first week. The outbreak that started on October 31 didn’t stop there. Several basketball players and students from the Boston College fell ill after eating at a Chipotle location. Tests have confirmed that the 120 students have the norovirus.

As a consequence, Chipotle decided to shut down some of the affected locations temporarily. The restaurant chains representatives stated that they are taking all the needed measures to implement new food safety rules as well as thorough ingredient testing.

It’s not the first time Chipotle gets public attention for food poisoning. In September 2015, two unrelated customers filed lawsuits against the restaurant chain for causing norovirus and salmonella outbreaks. What is more, the total of six food poisoning outbreaks connected to Chipotle since 2008 is making customers doubt their safety when eating out.

Chipotle E Coli Outbreak

Other foodborne outbreaks in 2018

Not only Chipotle was under the close scrutiny of the Food and Drug Administration in 2018. Several cases of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes popped up cross country making people sick.

The E. coli O157: H7 strain was linked to a chicken salad prepared and sold by Costco. As many as nineteen people in seven states reported E. Coli symptoms after consuming the product. Five of the patients required hospitalizations while two developed kidney failure.

Less serious foodborne outbreaks included a Listeriosis outbreak connected to soft cheeses that were sold by Karoun Dairies and another Listeriosis outbreak connected to the Blue Bell Creameries. Several Salmonella outbreaks involving sprouted nut butter spreads by JEM Raw brand, frozen raw tuna distributed by the Osamu Corporation and imported cucumbers were investigated after scores of people ended up in the hospital. All investigations were concluded with the withdrawal of the products from the market.

Is it safe to eat out?

The recent Chipotle E Coli outbreak has sparked a lot of debate in the media, with everyone wondering if it’s safe to eat out anymore. Experts are weighing in and reassuring customers that restaurant food poisoning is, in fact, pretty uncommon. However, the same experts go on to add that there are no guarantees. Even top rated, high-end establishments could, at some point, deal with a foodborne outbreak.

Los Angeles County is currently using a restaurant grading system that has been proven to make a difference. The implemented system has managed to decrease hospitalizations linked to foodborne illnesses by encouraging establishments to pay closer attention to hygiene. However, not even this type of system is unbeatable. While it may be ideal to introduce the grading system in all Counties, food poisoning outbreaks will most likely never be able to be kept under control.

One thing is certain. With Chipotle E Coli outbreak bringing so much attention onto the restaurant chains, they will be the safest place to eat. The managers are already taking the needed steps to increase food production vigilance and to follow the strictest hygiene rules.

The main culprits of foodborne outbreaks

The E. coli bacteria can be carried by any kind of products, from meat to dairy, vegetables, and fruit. Thoroughly cooked meat shouldn’t pose any threats to the consumers, however, fresh, raw vegetables are more likely to be at fault. These can pack a high dose of E. Coli that can’t be removed by a simple water rinse.

Another risky food is hamburger. Most of the times, the meat used to make a hamburger will come from different cows. This increase the chances for a consumer to catch the E Coli bacteria manifold. Since rare and medium-rare hamburgers are a delicatessen, the preparation could fail to kill the harmful germs in the meat.

Besides produce, hygiene plays an essential role in E. Coli and other foodborne outbreaks. If kitchen staff don’t pay attention to using separate utensils like knives and cutting boards when preparing meat and vegetables, the contamination can easily spread from one product to the other.

Is it safe to eat out after the Chipotle E Coli Outbreak?

E Coli facts

What is E Coli? Escherichia coli is a bacterium or a germ that can be found within humans’ and animal’s digestive tract. Most of the E. coli bacterium types are harmless. However, a few dangerous strains can cause anything from bloody diarrhea and anemia to kidney failure that can be fatal.

Some E Coli strains can lead to urinary tract infections or other types of infections.

How do you get E Coli?

Humans will get E Coli when they come in contact with the stool of an infected animal or human. Contaminated food or water will also lead to infection.

Meat can get contaminated with E Coli while it is being processed. However, the bacteria can’t survive cooking temperatures that exceed 160°F (71°C). The vast majority of Americans infected with E. Coli get the bacteria by eating contaminated meat. This could also be the case of the Chipotle E Coli outbreak.

However, vegetarians are not safe from the harmful E Coli strains such as O157: H7. Any products that come in contact with raw meat can become infected. Dairy products can be contaminated with E Coli if they haven’t been pasteurized. The bacteria will spread from the udder into the milk.

Fruits and vegetables are no exceptions either. Spinach, lettuce, and unpasteurized apple cider can come in contact with contaminated sources and carry the bacteria into your body.

E Coli symptoms

Generally, E. Coli symptoms will appear three to five days after exposure to the bacteria. However, it’s not uncommon for patients to feel ill the second day or a week later after consuming contaminated products. The first symptoms of E Coli will include:

  • Diarrhea that can be mild or severe.
  • Pain.
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Nausea and vomiting.


If the E Coli bacteria affect the blood or the kidney, patients will also notice:

  • Pale skin.
  • Fever.
  • Fatigue
  • Discomfort on urinating.


The Chipotle E Coli outbreak has increased awareness about food safety. Media and public pressure are bound to compel most establishments to bring their regulations up to par and comply with all hygiene norms.

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The average court reporter salary in the USA in 2014 was $49,860 per year according to BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics). In the same year, Forbes Magazine estimated that court reporters were the sixth best-paid employees that didn’t need a four-year degree.

Court reporters working within the Local Government had an annual mean wage of $58,270 in 2014, followed closely by employees of the State Government with $58,250. The Federal Executive Branch average court reporter salary was $57,030. A significant drop was noticed in the Business Support Services where the annual mean wage was $46,290.


Aspiring court reporters have to attend either vocational training or technical school that will prepare them for the exact requirements for the job. The salaries for certificated court reporters, including bonuses, overtimes, and tips increase with experience:

Experience Level Salary range
Entry Level (0-5 years) $38,000 – $42,000
Mid-Level (5-10 years) $43,000 – $50,000
Experienced level (10-20 years) $52,000 – $60,000
Late career level (more than 20 years) >$65,000

Average Court Reporter Salary

Average court reporter salary and overtime in 2018

According to PayScale surveys, in 2018, the average salary for court reporters was $47,000. The same site states that national hourly rates can range between $12 and $51 while overtime is usually set in the $40 ballpark.

Taking into account any potential annual bonuses that seldom exceed $10,000 as well as commissions that are roughly $5,000 per year, the biggest salary for a court reporter in 2018 totaled to $90,500. 

Court reporter salary by location

While it is true that salary averages don’t differ extensively within the industry, court reporting salary is the exception to the rule. The geographic location can heavily impact the annual salary of court reporters.

The data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2012 revealed that New York City court reporters salaries were in the lead, with Los Angeles the first runner-up, followed by Denver on the third place.

State Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
New York $42.51 $88,420
California $40.59 $84,430
Colorado $36.03 $74,950
Iowa $30.97 $64,430
Texas $29.78 $61,950
Texas $29.78 $61,950
Michigan $21.32 $44,340
Florida $20.04 $41,690
Louisiana $19.93 $41,460
Maryland $19.56 $40,680
Alabama $17.80 $37,020
Indiana $16.99 $35,350

Freelance court reporter salary

Not only can it take less than a year to prepare working as a court reporter, but it’s also uncomplicated to find a job. Relocating is not an issue since all courts in the US require court reporters on every single trial.

Instead of working for a single employer, some court reporters choose to freelance. This way, they manage to increase their salaries by taking on various jobs and charging transcripts per page. Freelance court reporter salaries vary extensively according to the geographic location and practiced hourly rates.

According to Indeed.com, a freelance court reporter salary in New York can reach as much as $66,000 per year. The figure drops significantly when we look at Nebraska, with court reporters earning $40,000 per year.

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Joanne Rowling was born on July 31, 1965, in Yate, Gloucestershire. She is famous for writing the world-renowned Harry Potter series that have sold over 400 million copies all over the globe, earning her the title of the best-selling author in history. The books became the basis for eight movies, which now hold the title of the highest grossing movie series ever made. All these made JK Rowling net worth reach the staggering amount of $1 billion. The richest author in the world, Rowling owes her fortune to the brand that enjoyed and still enjoys an incredible popularity among children and adults.

J.K. Rowling’s writing beginnings

JK Rowling Net Worth changed during the year

Also known for her pen names Robert Galbraith and J.K. Rowling, Joanne “Jo” Rowling’s father was an aircraft engineer and her mother, a science technician. The couple had two daughters: Joanne and her younger sister, Diane. Jo went to St Michael’s Primary School, where it is thought she got inspiration for Albus Dumbledore from her own headmaster. She used to write fantasy stories from a young age. The author of Harry Potter stated Hermione Granger’s character is based on herself aged eleven. The Rowling family struggled with the mother’s illness, multiple sclerosis for many years. Joanne and her father had a strained relationship and to this day they are not on speaking terms.

In 1982, J. K. Rowling was rejected by Oxford University. She enrolled in the University of Exeter for a BA in French. She studied in Paris and graduated in 1986. She then came back to London in the same year and started working for Amnesty International as a bilingual secretary.

She first had the idea for the Harry Potter series when she was stuck on a delayed train from Manchester to London. Her mother died shortly after she began writing the first book, which heavily influenced her writing and her depiction of loss.

J.K Rowling moved to Portugal, where she taught English for a year and a half before meeting her first husband, a Portuguese journalist. They had a daughter, Jessica Isabel, but the couple wasn’t happy together. Following their separation, J.K. Rowling took her daughter and moved to Edinburgh, Scotland.

With a failed marriage, without a job and a toddler who depended on her, Rowling was diagnosed with major depressive disorder. This inspired her to create the Dementors, the creatures that deplete you of happiness whenever they float above you.

The first book in the Harry Potter series was finished while she survived on state benefits. “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” was mainly written in cafes in Edinburgh, mostly in Nicolson’s Café and the Elephant House. J.K Rowling used to take her daughter Jessica for a stroll and wait for her to fall asleep in order to start writing. The manuscript was finished in 1995 only to be rejected by twelve publishing houses before finally being accepted by Bloomsbury.

J.K. Rowling and Harry Potter

The initial print of “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” comprised one thousand copies, with five hundred of them delivered to libraries. The book started attracting interest and received several small awards. Scholastic won the American auction for publishing the “Philosopher’s Stone” in the USA, bidding $105,000. J.K. Rowling was flabbergasted. The publishing house took the decision to chance the title of the book, transforming it into “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone”. The money from the US publishing house enabled Rowling and her daughter to move from her tiny flat into a house in Edinburgh.

The following books were met with increasingly more success and gathered more readers and sympathy from the public. By this time, JK Rowling was earning as much as a TV show star like Julia Dreyfus, who played Elaine Benes in “Seinfeld”. The “Chamber of Secrets” the “Prisoner of Azkaban” and the “Goblet of Fire” had fans standing in a row to get their own copy. The latter broke sales records both in the US and the UK. “Prisoner of Azkaban” managed to sell three million copies in the first two days after being released. The 2000 British Book Awards named J.K. Rowling the Author of the Year.

The fifth book was published three years after the “Goblet of Fire”, giving rise to speculation that Rowling had writer’s block. The author denied the mean commentaries of the press and exceeded all expectations with the release. “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince” was the sixth book. It managed to break the records with nine million copies sold in the first 24 hours. JK Rowling net worth skyrocketed. “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince” later received the Book of the Year title from the British Book Awards.

The final book entitled “Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows” is the fastest-selling book in history, with 11 million copies sold in 24 hours in the US and the UK.

JK Rowling Net Worth estimated at $1 billion

J.K. Rowling Post-Harry Potter

Harry Potter has become a brand estimated at $15 billion, comprising books that have smashed all best-selling records and were translated into 65 languages, movies that broke all records in the film series category, an amusement park in Florida and merchandise. It’s safe to say J.K. Rowling’s fortune is covered by the brand that continues to bring her a steady income.

In 2004, Rowling was named the first US billionaire to achieve their fortune by writing books. Forbes also stated J.K. Rowling is the 1,062nd wealthiest person worldwide. The famous writer disagreed with the calculations. Rowling was named the 144th wealthiest person in Britain in 2008 by the Sunday Times Rich List.

In 2011, J.K. Rowling’s new agency announced that the author was writing an adult book, “The Casual Vacancy”. A press release from Rowling herself stated that the book would be very different from Harry Potter. The release of Casual Vacancy took place in September 2012 and sold more than a million copies over the world. By the end of 2012, BBC announced “The Casual Vacancy” was to be made into a TV drama series. The adaptation was supervised by J.K Rowling and aired in February 2015, comprising three parts.

With fans around the world waiting either for a new children’s book or for a novel targeting adults, public attention never seems to let J.K Rowling out of sight. In 2012, Forbes withdrew Rowling’s name from their richest people list. They stated that her charity donations amounting to $160 million as well as the UK tax rate has affected JK Rowling net worth and didn’t qualify her as a billionaire anymore.

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Julia Louis-Dreyfus, the actress who grew to fame on “Seinfeld,” playing the role of Elaine Benes, has a net worth of approximately $3 billion. However, the majority of that estimated net worth did not come from her television or movie roles. In fact, when asking the question “How much is Julia Louis-Dreyfus worth?” it is important to know some of her background.

Early Life
Julia Louis-Dreyfus was born on January 13, 1961, the daughter of Gerard Louis-Dreyfus, the CEO of Louis Dreyfus Energy Services. Her mother, Judith LeFever, is a writer and special needs tutor. Julia is the great-great-granddaughter of Leopold Louis-Dreyfus, who founded the Louis Dreyfus Group in 1851, building it into a multi-billion dollar commodities trading and merchandising firm. The company owns and manages ships, telecommunications infrastructures and real estate holdings throughout the world. Julia has two half-sisters, Emma and Phoebe, who will share in the inheritance of the family fortune.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Spending
Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth includes a significant inheritance she will share with her sisters after the death of her parents, and it is difficult to determine the amounts she has earned on her own. There is no question that Julia earned millions in her many television and movie roles, but most experts say that the majority of Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth is family money. Julia is married to comedian Brad Hall, and they have two children, Henry and Charles. Her spending is related to helping the environment and raising her children. Julia’s home is outfitted with environmentally friendly additions, such as solar panels, natural ventilation systems and sustainably harvested building materials. Julia was instrumental in helping reduce pollution in the Pacific Ocean, which is literally in her backyard, through an organization she created known as “Heal the Bay and Heal the Ocean.” However, Julia freely admits that she enjoys the “creature comforts,” including regular cappuccinos.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Earnings
Despite her inheritance, Julia Louis-Dreyfus net worth makes her a wealthy woman in her own rights. Her earnings from her acting career include:

  • Seinfeld – $600,000 per episode during the last season for a total of $14.4 million; the year before, her earnings were $350,000 per episode, totaling $3.5 million.
  • Adventures of New Christine – $225,000 per episode

There is little information available on the earnings she received from her movie roles, but she more than likely earned more for her movies than she did for her television appearances.

Julia Louis-Dreyfus Net Worth
Julia Louis-Dreyfus’s net worth is significant, although much of what is included in her worth is an inheritance she has not received as of yet. However, her acting career has made Julia a wealthy woman without depending on her parents’ success.

Also known as Queen B, Beyonce Giselle Knowles was born on September 4th, 1981 in Houston, Texas.  According to Forbes magazine, in 2018 Beyonce’s net worth is $350 million. Nicknamed the entertainment industry’s queen, Beyonce Knowles lives up to her reputation every time she performs at the Super Bowl or stars in Hollywood movies. Unstoppable in her fame and success, the Texan diva that won as many as six Grammy awards in a single night, seems to have the superpower of reinventing herself with each newly released album.

Beyonce Net Worth: $350 million

Not a stranger to hard work, Beyonce first got public attention as the lead singer of Destiny’s Child, under the close management of Mathew Knowles, her father. The pop diva, producer, fashion designer, actress and singer, Beyonce has won, to this day, twenty Grammy awards, including her singing period as a Destiny Child’s member. With fifty-two nominations, she holds the title of the most nominated woman for Grammy Awards of all times.

 Beyonce Net Worth

Beyonce Bio and Career Development

Following numerous dancing and singing competitions in her childhood, Beyonce joined an R&B group in 1990 that underwent various break-ups and new additions throughout the years. The best-known combination of Destiny’s Child comprised Kelly Rowland, Michelle Williams, and Beyonce Knowles. The Texan trio performed on stages all around the United States and was met with staggering success. The three members broke up in 2002 only to reunite two years later to release one last album. The Billboard magazine awarded Destiny’s Child with the title of the best musical trio in history.

The first disbandment of the group was followed by Beyonce’s first album release. “Dangerously in love” instantly gained her worldwide popularity, selling more than twelve million copies. Her debut album won her five Grammy Awards owed to number one singles “Baby Boy” and “Crazy in Love”.

Acting Career

She didn’t only want to pursue singing but also acting. In 2006, she acted in her first role, playing alongside Steve Martin in “The Pink Panther”. In the same year, she was deeply involved with shooting her second movie, “Dreamgirls”, which resembled the Broadway musical from 1981. Her second acting role was closely followed in 2007 by a worldwide tour entitled the Beyonce Experience, which comprised 97 venues and ended up grossing $24 million.

2008 held two major events in the life of the singer. In April, she married Jay Z and in November she released her third solo album, “I am… Sasha Fierce”. This contained famously acclaimed “If I were a boy”, “Single Ladies” and “Halo”.

All this time, Queen B’s acting career wasn’t neglected. She starred in “Cadillac Records”, playing Etta James and received good critical acclaim. The 52nd edition of the Grammy Awards in 2010 saw Knowles receive ten nominations for album of the year, song of the year and record of the year. In the same year, Beyonce collaborated with Lady Gaga and created “Telephone” and “Videophone”. Beyonce announced a break from her singing career at the beginning of 2010. During her nine months off she visited Europe, the Egyptian pyramids, the Great Wall of China and Australia.

Her fourth album was released in 2011 and was entitled “4”, comprising hits like “Love on Top”, “Run the World (Girls)”, “Party” and “Countdown”. In the same year, she wrote a cover story for Essence in which she gave details about her career break. One year later, at the beginning of 2012, she gave birth to her daughter.

Producing and Directing Career

2013 saw the release of the first movies she produced and directed. “Life is but a dream” comprised shots from her childhood, interlaced with footage of Knowles as a businesswoman and as a mother. The film first aired on February 16th, 2013, on HBO, followed by its DVD release in November the same year. At the end of 2013, Queen B released her fifth album, “Beyonce”, without any promotion or prior announcement. Touching on dark themes, this album explored topics like depression, fear, and bulimia.

The 57th edition of the Grammy Awards in February 2015 nominated Knowles for six awards and offered her three for best surround sound album, best R&B song, and best R&B performance. Later the same year, Beyonce became the third black woman on the cover of Vogue’s September issue.

Beyonce Net Worth Over the Years

Beyonce Net Worth

The final album of Destiny’s Child was released in November 2004. “Destiny Fulfilled” prompted a worldwide tour where the famous trio performed singles like “Soldier” and “Lose my breath”. The definitive disbandment of the group was at the end of 2005. Beyonce’s second album, “B’Day” hit the shelves in 2006, on her twenty-fifth birthday. “Déjà Vu” was the lead single of the album, featuring Jay Z. “Irreplaceable” enjoyed a resounding success, reaching number one all over the world in Ireland, New Zealand, Australia and the United States.

2007 – 2008

Beyonce’s earnings began being reported by Forbes magazine in 2008. The first estimations showed that the singer had earned $80 million from June 2007 – June 2008. The earnings were not limited to her music, but also included movies, tours, and her own clothing line. All of these gained her the title of the best-paid music artist in history, surpassing music personality mammoths like Celine Dion and Madonna. A year later, Forbes magazine was placing Beyonce on the fourth place in their Celebrity 100 list.

2009 – 2011

In 2011, the Texan artist was the eight best-paid celebrity under thirty years old. This was owed to her endorsement deals and clothing line that brought her $35 million. Between 2009 and 2011, the R&B singer gained roughly $70 million annually, followed by a significant drop in 2012, when she earned $40 million.

2011 – 2015

However, the odds were in her favor once again one year later. Due to her H&M and Pepsi endorsements from 2013, Beyonce and her husband Jay-Z became the first music industry couple to gain a billion dollars. In the same year, Forbes magazine listed Beyonce on the fourth place of most influential celebrities. It didn’t take long for the diva to reach the first place in Forbes’ Celebrity 100 list. In 2014, it was estimated she had earned $115 million from June 2013 to June 2014. One year later, her net worth estimated by Forbes has more than doubled. May 2015 estimations placed Beyonce net worth at $250 million.

2016 – 2017

Compared to 2015, in 2016 the Forbes top of America’s Self Made Women shows Beyonce richer by $15 million. This means that her net worth reaches $265 million. Finally, in 2017 she reached an astounding number of $350 million.

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One of the most ardent questions of anyone who writes checks is how long does it take for a check to clear? There isn’t a universal answer to this question since the process factors in various circumstances and conditions. On average, the funds will leave your account in two working days. However, the process might be slowed down by sundry factors. For example, checks that exceed $10,000 could take as long as ten working days to clear. At the same time, cashier’s checks funds are usually cleared on the following business day.

The deposit receipt

As a rule, the funds from the paying institution have to reach the bank in five business days. But that’s not always the case. Let’s see how a simple look at the deposit receipt tells you how long it’s bound to take. Whenever you make a deposit, you receive a deposit receipt. This includes the time and the date when the check is estimated to be cleared. Besides this information, the receipt will also indicate the hold time for your check. The hold time stands for the period of time the check is placed on hold and is calculated by taking into consideration your account balances and account background. The date on the receipt indicating when funds will be available is generally pretty accurate, with the slight delay of one or two business days.

Bigger deposits

The clearing time for large deposits differs from bank to bank. And this is not the only factor to influence how fast a $15,000 check will be cleared. The relationship between the customer and the bank also weighs in heavily on this one. For example, a client who maintains a steady balance in his account at all times and wants to deposit a large sum could see his or her check cleared on the next business day. However, things are slightly different when we’re talking about a customer who has the average balance of $2. As a rule, this client’s check will be put on hold for eight to ten business days. Another thing that could delay any client’s check being cleared are several returned deposits and abnormal overdraft activity.

How Long Does It Take for a Check to Clear

Checks on hold

When a check can’t be cleared, the bank will put it on hold and it will be resent for approval. This further delays the process. Delays are generally caused by closed, blocked or frozen accounts, as well as insufficient funds. If everything goes smoothly, the funds should reach the bank in five working days. However, in some cases, the funds could be made available for you, despite the fact that the bank hasn’t yet received the funds.

Fund availability

Fund availability refers to the funds being released to you when they haven’t reached the bank yet. It’s worth making the distinction between the time it takes to clear a check and fund availability. Despite the fact that the funds are entirely or partially available, that doesn’t actually mean they are yours until the check is cleared at the bank. Due to the fund availability policy of each bank, you can access the deposited amounts before the checks get fully cleared. The policy varies with each bank. Let’s take a look at the most popular banks and their policies of fund availability.

  • Citibank allows you to access $200 of the total deposit on the same business day the deposit is made. Checks that don’t exceed $5,000 are cleared in three business days, while checks that go over $5,000 can take up to four days.
  • Bank of America makes available the first $200 within one business day after making the deposit.
  • Wells Fargo’s fund availability allows you to access the first $200 of the deposit a day or two after the deposit has been made.
  • Chase bank customers will have access to at least $200 of the deposit following the first business days after the deposit has been made.
  • PNC Bank customers can withdraw $100 from the deposit on the day when this is made. Another $100 become available the following business day.
  • TD Bank follows the exact same policy, with $100 available on the day of the deposit with an additional $100 on the first business day after the deposit.
  • Sun trust generally makes $200 available on the spot or on the following business day after the deposit, at the latest.

The great majority of banks are bound to offer the depositor around $200 that are immediately available whenever a deposit is made. A simple online banking check will show you the current available balance and the current account balance. The former indicates the sum that you can withdraw or use, while the latter also includes the money that hasn’t been cleared yet.

Cashier’s checks

How Long Does It Take for a Check to Clear

Cashier’s checks are issued by banks and, since they are sent by financial institutions, they are guaranteed by the bank. Most of the times, cashier’s checks will be used when acquiring something with larger sums, like a car or a house. In this case, the recipient will require a guarantee to ensure payment. Here is where cashier’s checks come into play. They offer reassurance that the check clears. These types of checks are more secure than personal checks. Since the bank holds the funds, the verification process runs smoother and the great majority of banks can make the funds available as soon as the following business day. In the less fortunate scenario, when the bank believes the cashier’s check is fraudulent, the process will take several weeks for verification and clearance.

When to contact your bank

It’s important to make a difference between days off (national holidays, Saturdays and Sundays) and business days (Monday through Friday, excluding national holidays). For example, if the deposit check was made on a Friday, you’ll have to wait until Monday to start counting the business days. The answer to the question how long does it take for a check to clear varies between one to two business days. When the check doesn’t clear in one or two days, there could be several issues at hand: a problem with the paying institution, your account balance, your account history or the amount, just to name a few. On this note, expect a $10,000 check to take several more days to clear if you’re notorious for bounced checks or overdrawing .

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We all cringe at the mere thought of kidney stones. They are a nuisance, and, unfortunately, they are only spotted when it’s too late and they are already in the urinary tract. There is a straightforward answer to the question how long does it take to pass a kidney stone? But in order to answer that, we first have to fully grasp what kidney stones are, who is at risk of developing kidney stones, how we can prevent them and, finally, what does passing a kidney stone imply.

How long does it take to pass a kidney stone

What are kidney stones?

A tiny mass of minerals and salt, a kidney stone will form within the kidney and can travel through the urinary tract. Kidney stones will form when urine decreases in volume, allowing the stone forming substances to thrive in the urine. The great majority of kidney stones, roughly 80%, are formed from calcium combined with phosphate or oxalate. The stones can also be made up of magnesium ammonium phosphate, uric acid or cysteine.

What causes kidney stones?

It’s common for kidney stones to appear as a cause of reduced fluid intake, especially when this is paired with strenuous exercises. Another leading cause of kidney stones are urinary tract infections. The result goes by the name struvite stones. Metabolic abnormalities can also be at play, with inherent metabolic disorders playing a major role in altering the urine’s composition, leading to higher risks of developing kidney stones. Since kidneys are in charge with regulating the level of fluids, they process salts, minerals, and other substances within our body. An imbalance in these compounds will automatically trigger an imbalance in the kidneys, which will allow stones to form. Family history and genetics are two of the enablers that can’t be overcome by any type of preventive treatment. Likewise, certain medical conditions will increase the risk of developing kidney stones. If you have a couple of family members who have dealt with kidney stones, you run higher risks of developing the condition yourself.

How long does it take to pass a kidney stone

What are the symptoms of kidney stones?

Most people don’t know they have kidney stones until one of them starts moving within the kidney or even passes into the ureter. This is the point where the following symptoms come into play.

  • Intense pain under the ribs, in the back or in the side.
  • Abnormal color of urine: red, brown or pink.
  • Severe pain during urination.
  • Pain that takes over the lower parts of the abdomen.
  • Sharp pain that fluctuates and might come in waves.
  • Nausea and vertigo accompanied by vomiting.
  • Constant sensation of urination followed only by passing small amounts of urine.
  • Urinary tract infections will be accompanied by chills and fever.


Most kidney stones will pass on their own. However, patients experiencing severe symptoms shouldn’t neglect to schedule a doctor appointment. Keep in mind that you should seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • Blood in the urine.
  • Difficulty in urinating.
  • Fever or chills paired with intense pain.
  • Nausea or vomiting and pain.
  • Severe pain that doesn’t allow you to sit in a comfortable position.

Can we prevent kidney stones?

The common take on this one is that as long as you drink enough fluids, you’re safe from developing kidney stones. But dehydration is not the only cause of kidney stones. These buildups in our kidneys don’t have a single underlying cause, but can be promoted by a wide array of factors. The build-up that forms the kidney stones can be anything from ammonia and calcium to uric acid and cysteine. In addition to these, some medical conditions will promote the uncommon high levels of the harmful substances. Here are the most effective tips on keeping kidney stones at bay:

  • Plenty fluids. Water and green tea are your best friends here. A person who is not dealing with kidney stones is recommended to drink at least 2 liters of water per day. However, if you have kidney stones, your doctor may advise you to drink from 2.5 to 3 liters of water per day.
  • Less animal protein and salt. Try to avoid foods that have too much salt and choose legumes for a non-animal source of protein.
  • Calcium supplements. While the calcium you get from foods won’t have any consequences on kidney stones, this is not the case with calcium supplements. In fact, the supplements might promote kidney stones, helping them thrive. Always consult your doctor before starting taking any type of supplements.
  • Fewer oxalate foods. Spinach, sweets potatoes, nuts, soy products and chocolate might do you more harm than good, recent kidney stones studies show. Since these are very rich in oxalate, patients who have the tendency to produce calcium oxalate stones might want to cut down or even completely eliminate them from their diet.

How long does it take to pass a kidney stone

How long does it take to pass a kidney stone?

Provided there are no other complications, a kidney stone will pass through the urinary tract in 48 hours on its own. An increased fluid intake will help the process while anti-inflammatory drugs will keep the pain under control. Home remedies are still mere conjecture. However, despite the fact that they are not scientifically backed up, simple home remedies can help alleviate the pain and smoothen the process of passing a kidney stone. A warm pouch or an electric pillow will help relax the muscles.

Passing a kidney stones factors in various conditions, with the size of the stone being the paramount one. Other factors include the patient’s build, previous stone passages, pregnancy and enlargement of the prostate. Kidney stones that are smaller than 4 millimeters will most likely need no help on passing through the urinary tract on their own. Chances of passage decrease as the size of the stone increases. Therefore, a 4 millimeter stone presents 80% chances of passing through the urinary tract, while 5-millimeter stones’ chances drop significantly to only 20%. Most kidney stones above this size will usually need specific treatment in order to be eliminated.

We’ve answered the question how long does it take to pass a kidney stone. However, you should also know that kidney stones that can’t pass on their own are commonly helped with a procedure called lithotripsy. This implies shock waves being used for breaking up the stone into tiny calculi that can be eliminated on their own. Surgical procedures are usually the last alternative and they involve a small incision for removing the kidney stones.

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They might be small and they might look like poppy seeds, but chia seeds are not dubbed the healthiest food on Earth for nothing. Also known as Salvia hispanica, this plant is a member of the mint family and it produces tiny black seeds. Chia seeds are loaded with vitamins and nutrients that promote the good health of our body and brain, without packing too many calories. A favorite among weight watchers, chia seeds are versatile when it comes to cooking and don’t require any special attention. They can be eaten raw or soaked in coconut water, almond milk or regular milk. They’re a nice addition to any pudding, and they add extra nutrients to salads. Besides being easy to incorporate in meal plans, they’re also beneficial for an impressively large number of things.

What are the top health benefits of chia seeds?

1. Rich in omega-3s, they can reduce cholesterol

One of the most important benefits of chia seeds is that they comprise the much sought after polyunsaturated fats. Their high concentration of lipids makes them hold the title of the richest source of fatty acids among plants. A great ally for vegetarians, vegans and raw enthusiasts out there, this superfood will fight off inflammation, boost brain performance and decrease high levels of cholesterol.

2. Impressive amounts of nutrients for just a few calories

Chia seeds used to be highly prized by Mayans and Aztecs. They didn’t need science to back up their belief that these tiny seeds are full of goodies. But nowadays, we know exactly what is in an ounce (or 28 grams) of chia seeds: 4 grams of protein, 11 grams of fiber, 9 grams of fat and 30% of the recommended daily intake of magnesium. The list of nutrients doesn’t stop there. Chia seeds also contain Vitamin B1, B2 and B3, Potassium and Zinc. The best part is yet to come: an ounce of these tiny black seeds has only 135 calories. And since they are whole grains, they are organic, non-GMO and they don’t contain any gluten.

3. Plenty of antioxidants to fight off cancer

Said to rival blueberries in their amounts of antioxidants, chia seeds are better than any other food supplement on the market. The antioxidants in the seeds prevent the sensitive fats from turning rancid. The top benefit of antioxidants is that they combat free radicals that are the main cause of premature ageing and developing cancer. Antioxidants help molecules in cells and contribute to our overall body strength.

4. Excellent source of fiber and low-carb

Out of the 12 grams of carbohydrates loaded in an ounce of chia seeds, 11 grams are fiber. The best thing about fiber is that it doesn’t make your blood sugar levels spike, it doesn’t need insulin, and some argue that it shouldn’t actually be called a carb. If you ever wondered why chia seeds are able to absorb so much water (tenfold their weight) the answer is the fiber. What else does fiber do? It can help make you feel full for longer and it supports the good bacteria in your intestine.

What are the top health benefits of chia seeds?

5. The fiber and high quality protein helps with weight loss

The theory behind the statement that chia seeds are a powerful adjuvant in weight loss is that they comprise a lot of fiber, which absorbs water and expands in your stomach. As a result, you’re left feeling full for longer and your cravings in between meals are diminished. At the same time, the high quality protein helps with curbing your appetite. Chia seeds might work wonders on your waist line, but their benefits go beyond shedding a few pounds. They help our bodies become stronger and sharpen cognitive functions.

6. Chia seeds lower the chances of developing a heart disease

Chia seeds are excellent for prevention. Their singular structure comprises more omega-3s than salmon, great amounts of fiber and only high quality proteins. These three components are the key active ingredients that promote metabolic health. Chia seeds have been showed to lower triglycerides, help with inflammation and reduce belly fat. Chia seeds could have a significant impact on lowering the chances of developing type 2 diabetes and heart diseases.

7. The right nutrients for strong, healthy bones

High in protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, chia seeds do a great job at maintaining healthy bones. Packing as much as 18% of the recommended daily intake of calcium in one ounce, chia seeds could prevent osteoporosis in women. For those who are not keen on dairy or have adopted a vegan diet, chia seeds are an excellent replacement for calcium, being more resourceful than most dairy products.

8. Type 2 diabetes adjuvant

A study involving type 2 diabetes patients showed that chia seeds can significantly improve their health markers. The study comprised 20 patients who received wheat bran or chia seeds over the course of three months. At the end of the study, the blood tests spoke volumes about the benefits of chia seeds. Patients who consumed 37 grams of the little black seeds for twelve weeks had their blood pressure decreased, followed by a reduction in inflammatory markers and risk factors.

9. Energy boosting properties can rival energy drinks

Chia seeds are great for their satiating effects, making you feel satisfied and full in between breakfast and lunch. But the winning combination of fiber, protein, antioxidants and omega-3s has other benefits. Chia seeds can work as energy boosters for athletes. At the same time, they reduce the carb load while they increase the nutrients intake.

What are the top health benefits of chia seeds?

10. Chia seeds can replace eggs

The latest trend proclaiming chia seeds to be one the biggest superfoods of all times seems to be true, especially when we think that these black seeds can replace eggs. To the thrill of raw vegans all over the world, chia seeds can be used in some recipes that ask for eggs. The unique properties of chia seeds makes them swell up and transform into a gel when they are mixed with liquids. Combining one tablespoon of chia seeds with 3 tablespoons of water and allowing them to soak for 15 to 20 minutes will yield a thick, gel-like paste. Excellent for people who are trying to lower their cholesterol levels, chia seeds can be eaten in their raw form, sprinkled on yogurts, cereals and vegetables, or soaked in juices and water.

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With Thanksgiving just around the corner, cooking novices are all asking themselves the same question: how long does it take to cook a turkey? We couldn’t answer this question without mentioning that the cooking time for a turkey needs to factor in various things. For examples, it’s a no-brainer that an unstuffed 8-pound bird will cook much faster than a stuffed 24-pound turkey. Depending on what you’re planning to serve your guests and how many people are coming over to check your cooking skills, you’ll have to keep your turkey in the oven anywhere from 2 hours to 6 hours and a half. But don’t feel daunted just yet. We’ll walk you through the steps of achieving the perfect, juicy turkey to impress your family and friends.

How long does it take to cook a turkey

How long does it take to cook a turkey breast?

Cooking turkey breast is a whole different affair than cooking a whole turkey. If you don’t want to maneuver a heavy, 20lb turkey, you’ll feel relieved to hear you don’t have to, even if you’re expecting 6 hungry people over for Thanksgiving dinner. Whether you feel you don’t have enough experience or sufficient spare time on your heads to deal with a whole turkey, or if you simply want to avoid having too many leftovers that would end up in the trash, turkey breast is the way to go. The best part about cooking turkey breast is that it’s fuss-free. This translates to no basting or flipping. There are a few other reasons that back up the idea of cooking turkey breast. If you’re a bit overwhelmed by too many guests and you see no point in wasting time on a second turkey, cooking just the breast will prove to be a time saver. Turkey breast makes for excellent trial runs. Want to bust out that new set of spices you received on your birthday but you’re too scared to ruin a whole bird? Experiment with turkey breast in order to minimize damages.


To get a savory final result, buy a turkey breast with skin and bones. If you’re cooking for two to four guests, you can choose a small half breast that doesn’t exceed three pounds. If you’ve also invited your significant other’s family and you’re looking at a guest list of eight people, choose a heavier turkey breast. 7 pounds of meat will be enough, and you’ll still have plenty drippings and leftovers. You can only cook thawed turkey breast, so make sure to allow it at least a day in the fridge to completely thaw. If you want to stuff the turkey, you’ll want to keep the fresh wet ingredients separated from the dry ones in the refrigerator up until the last second.

How long does a 20-pound turkey take to cook?

USDA recommendations suggest stuffing be cooked outside of the turkey, for safety reasons. Cooking a stuffed turkey does not only take longer, it also exposes you to eating an undercooked stuffing, which could be contaminated with bacteria. If you choose to cook a stuffed turkey that is over 20 pounds, you’re looking at 5 hours of roasting in the oven. However, this is just a general indication of how much you’ll have to wait for your bird to be cooked to perfection. The real test to check if the turkey is done implies using a meat thermometer, which will help you measure doneness. It’s safe to take the bird out of the oven when the thermometer shows 165°F inside the bird. If you’re cooking an unstuffed turkey, you’ll want to measure the temperature in the thigh. If the numbers look good, you can go ahead and take the masterpiece out on the serving plate. But you might want to wait a little before carving the meat. 30 minutes will be enough to give the juices the needed time to be re-absorbed in the meat.

How long does it take to cook a turkey? The answer depends on the size of the bird

Expert advice on cooking a 15lb turkey

Rolling up your sleeves to cook a 15lb turkey (or roughly 7kg of meat) is not rocket science, however, you should be wondering about other things besides how long does it take to cook a turkey? It’s worth keeping in mind a few tips and tricks. Feel free to take notes on our following recommendations if you want to achieve a crispy, juicy turkey without too much hassle.

  • The oven should be preheated to 325°F. Avoid putting the turkey in the oven too soon or too late. Keep in mind that the bird doesn’t need to be washed, since you risk spreading bacteria on other surfaces in the kitchen. Instead, pat it dry with paper towels. You should thoroughly wash your hands before starting cooking and after you finish, to avoid cross contamination.
  • All zealous cooking newbies out there should take note: it’s better to under-stuff than to over-stuff. You might be tempted to fill in your turkey with as much stuffing as it’s humanly possible, but you should take into account that it will expand during cooking. If you find you’ve made too much stuffing, you can simply cook it in a casserole for an hour at the same time you’re cooking your turkey.
  • To achieve the much sought after golden brown colored, crispy skin on your Thanksgiving turkey, you can use aluminum foil to loosely cover the turkey and remove it an hour and a half before the cooking time ends. The foil will help you strike the perfect balance between a tender, juicy meat on the inside and crispy, delicious skin on the outside.
  • Pan drippings are your best friends if you’re looking to impress your guest. So you might want to think again before throwing them down the drain. They’re rich in flavor and they make an excellent base for gravy. Instead of resorting to a powdered mix that will taste average, take 5 minutes to make your own gravy using the pan drippings after you’ve cooked your turkey. There’s no sugarcoating it: you can’t speed up the process of cooking a turkey. So you might as well give up the idea of turning the oven temperature higher to finish cooking faster. It simply doesn’t work that way and you’ll only end up with burned skin and a dangerously undercooked stuffing. Fight the temptation of turning up the heat and follow the recipe’s recommendations. It might take 5 hours of cooking and flipping, but it’ll be worth it in the end.

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Barry Lamar Bonds is an American baseball player who starred in 22 consecutive seasons in the Major League Baseball. Barry Bonds won seven National League Most Valuable Player awards and fourteen All-Star selections. Throughout his career, he played for the San Francisco Giants and the Pittsburgh Pirates. As a result, Barry Bonds net worth is one of the highest among professional athletes.

Barry Bonds Net Worth: $85 million

Barry Bonds accumulated such wealth mainly from his earnings as a professional baseball player. So let’s take a look at how Barry Bonds net worth came to number $85 million.

barry bonds net worth

Barry Bonds Bio and Career Development

Barry Bonds was born on July 24, 1964, in Riverside, California, to Bobby Bonds and Patricia Howard. His father was also a Major League professional baseball player. He grew up in San Carlos, California. He went to school in San Mateo, California, at Junipero Sierra High School. There he performed in some sports including football, basketball and of course baseball.

Later on, the soon to become professional athlete attended Arizona State University. He graduated college with a degree in criminology. During his college years, he also played during one summer for the team Alaska Goldpanners, in the amateur Alaska Baseball League. He was part of the Sporting News All-American team in 1984 and the College World Series he set the NCAA record for seven consecutive hits.

Barry Bonds Net Worth Over the Years

The first steps Barry Bonds took as a professional athlete came in his high school years. He was selected in the second round of the Major League Baseball Draft of 1982. However, he instead decided to go to college as The Giants baseball executive Tom Haller would not pay the young athlete more than $70,000.

Three years later, in 1985, he was picked by the Pittsburg Pirates. After a year in the Carolina League, as a training period, he made his Major League debut in 1986. He remained with the Pittsburgh Pirates up until 1992. While the attendance to Pittsburgh Pirates was around 10,000 people in 1985, it’s skyrocketed in 1987 with more than 52,000 persons. An important factor was Barry Bonds, who was the leadoff hitter.


In terms of performances in his early professional career, Barry Bonds managed to hit 16 home runs and had 36 stolen bases. His second season saw an increase in his performances in the field. He managed to hit 25 home runs with 59 run batted ins. Alongside legendary baseball players such as Bobby Bonilla. Van Slyke and Jay Bell, Barry Bonds wrote history for the Pittsburgh Pirates. As a result, the attendance levels for Pittsburgh Pirates grew even more reaching over 54,000 fans in the stadium.

In 1990, Barry Bonds won the Most Valuable Player distinction, after hitting 301 yards, 33 home runs, 52 bases stolen and 114 RBIs. Alongside the MVP award, the also became a member of the “30-30 Club”, for collecting 30 home run and 30 stolen bases. The first time this happened in a single season was in 1922, by Ken Williams. He remained the sole person to have done it for 34 years. Willie Mays achieved this feat in two consecutive seasons, in 1956 and 1957. Barry Bonds father, Bobby Bonds accomplished this feat in 1969 and remained the last professional baseball player to do so until his son achieved this performance in the 1990 season.

More Success

Barry Bonds also obtained the Gold Glove and Silver Slugger Awards in that same year. Furthermore, together with the Pittsburgh Pirates, the athlete won the National League East in 1990. The following year, Barry Bonds won the Gold Glove and Silver Slugger Awards once more, further increasing his reputation and net worth. Bonds won the Most Valuable Player award again in 1992 after hitting 34 home runs, 103 RBIs, and 311 yards.

The year 1993 saw Barry Bonds at the San Francisco Giants, where he remained until 2007. He went on to play for the Giants after the Pittsburgh Pirates were unable to pay the new salary Barry requested. As a result, Barry Bonds net worth skyrocketed after signing a free agent contract of $43,75 million, setting a new record at the time. The decision to spend the following six years with the Giants also involved a sentimental aspect. His father, Bobby Bonds, played for the Giants during his first seven years as a professional baseball player. Furthermore, his godfather Willie Mays also played in twenty-two Major League seasons, out of the twenty-four, for the Giants.

An Impressive Career

During his years as a professional baseball player for the San Francisco Giants, the young athlete worn the number twenty-five jerseys, as did his father. During the 1993 season, Barry Bonds achieved 46 home runs, 123 RBIs, and 336 yards. This allowed him to win his third and last Most Valuable Player award. During the 1996 season, he managed to reach 40 home runs and steal 40 bases. This allowed him to be one of the few athletes to get in the “40-40 Club”. The 2001 season saw Barry Bonds break Major League records once more, by reaching 73 home runs in a single season. He was awarded the Babe Ruth Home Run Award for having the most home runs in the 2001 Major League Baseball season.

The 2005 season saw Barry Bonds net worth grow even more, after earning a $22 million salary. Unfortunately, the athlete also had to undergo multiple surgeries due to a knee injury. Also, he had an extensive rehabilitation period. In the 2006 season his salary dropped to $20 million, bonuses not included. Nevertheless, the professional baseball player took home $172 million home, from commercials and sponsorship as well. This made him the best-paid baseball player of all time.

Without a doubt, Barry Bonds net worth reached this fantastic value due to the athletes long and fruitful career.

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There’s no denying that electronic dance music has slowly made its way into the spotlight. Famous DJs such as Calvin Harris, David Guetta and Skrillex are pioneers of a movement that has taken the world by storm. EDM is now commonplace in bars, clubs, radio stations, sporting events and even commercials.

Surely it comes as no surprise that people now hope to become a DJ rather than a famous guitarist or pop singer. After all, the most famous DJs earn millions of dollars yearly, so who wouldn’t hope to pursue this career?

mixing equipment

So if you’re set on becoming a DJ, the first thing to deal with is proper mixing equipment. A proper DJ setup includes a variety of speakers, mixers, turntables and synthesizers and they come in all shapes and at different price ranges.

Essential DJ Gear

Before setting out to purchase the equipment you plan on using, think about the kind of DJ setup you’ll use. Depending on the venues you hope to play in as well as your target audience, you setup should differ slightly. The four basic DJ setup options for you to consider are:

  • Computer-only setup
  • DJ Controller Setup (an ideal choice for beginners)
  • Vinyl turntable setup
  • CD Turntable Setup

Though certain components are designed to accomplish specific tasks, DJ Controllers usually get everything done, acting as a mixer, player and software control surface. Additionally, it features the audio, USB and iOS gear connections you will need.

All these four basic setups will have a number of fixed components, including the actual gear that plays the audio tracks (your DJ controller, the Media Player, the turntables if you’re using vinyl or CDs or the computer if you go for this sort of setup). Aside from that, they will include the audio interface that directs the audio from your computer or turntable to the external hardware. Headphones are a must, and depending on the venue, you may need to solve the issue of a speaker system if there’s no suitable PA.

Deciding on the Setup

If you’re more traditional and prefer vinyl, you’ll most certainly go for a vinyl setup. Of course, they involve a lot of effort, especially because of transportation limitations. Some DJs prefer the portability of digital music or CDs to the clear, unmistakably clear sound of a vinyl record. It’s not always possible to carry a massive vinyl collection from gig to gig, so you may end up deciding to go for a CD setup.

There’s also the option of buying all of your equipment as a neatly offered package. I wouldn’t recommend going for such packages, though, as most DJs want to customize their setup in order to get the exact sound they want.

There are a multitude of variables to also consider, from turntable types to pitch control, speed selectors, start and stop buttons, mixer inputs, channels, and many more.

Mixer Price Ranges

The mixer is an essential part of your setup, performing a multitude of tasks and controlling settings and effects. Of course, you pay for quality and brand, so that a mixer can range from $60 and go upward of $2,000. A simple, good-quality, two-channel mixer, will cost you approximately $200-$300. If you’re hell-bent on having an exceptional, four-channel mixer that, be ready to spend over $2,500.

Turntable Prices

If you’re looking for the best turntables on the market, be prepared to pay anywhere between $120 and $900 for a piece of quality equipment. Of course, various companies offer turntable packages that cost approximately $1,300 – $1,800, so if you think you’d be better off getting everything out of the way, go for such a solution.

Speakers and Subwoofers

There’s one place where you really don’t want to go cheap: your speakers. Great differences in price almost always reflect a massive difference in quality and subpar speakers will lead to unhappy customers. Shop around and aim for the $250 – $500 price range for some good-quality to price ratio.

Don’t Forget Transportation

Having bought all this equipment is fine and dandy. Of course you want to take it for a test drive, but remember, before starting to play, you will actually need to get this equipment from point A to point B. And most equipment gets damaged if improperly transported. So make sure that you put some money aside for high-quality mixer flight cases.

A complete, high-quality DJ setup should end up costing you between $1,500 and $2,000, though that range may vary if you’re set on purchasing specific turntables or mixers. Remember, though, that even if such a sum may seem much, it will end up paying for itself. Going overboard with your budget can also be a good thing, especially if you plan on getting particularly lucrative gigs.

You don’t even need to be the biggest DJ in town. Think about this for a moment: the average DJ earns as much as $500 to $1,200 for a single wedding. But landing those gigs requires you to also bring certain qualities to the table.

Accessories and Added Costs

We’ve discussed the four essential equipment pieces, however, you’ll constantly need to restock on accessories and small equipment pieces, including cables, connectors and, most importantly, headphones. Don’t be cheap on headphones, because they allow you to set up for every song you choose to play.

Remember that an iPod or a laptop also counts as an extra cost, so if you also need to have them by your side, factor them into your purchasing decisions.

Don’t be squeamish about an initial investment. If you start everything off with high-quality gear, you’ll have a great head start. Not only will you have the opportunity of practicing on exceptional equipment, but you’ll also have reasons to charge equipment fees. With time, you will be able to upgrade each equipment piece and, as you feel more comfortable with your equipment, you’ll become more skillful and secure the fan base that you hope for.

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For many people yoga may seem an unnecessary physical activity. However, yoga has proven to be one of the best remedies for a number of physical afflictions. So join us in learning what are the benefits of yoga exercises for back pain.

Alongside healing back muscles that suffered from injuries, yoga can also fasten the recovery time after an injury as well as maintaining daily activities is normal parameters. Scoliosis, neck pains, sciatica, arthritis, abdominal pains, shoulder afflictions, hip issues are other physical conditions that yoga exercises help cure. Prenatal yoga is also recommended for women that desire to stay in shape during their pregnancy.  But how does it work? Yoga exercises strengthen muscles, especially those of the lower back, as well promoting better blood circulation throughout the body.

What are the Benefits of Yoga Exercises for Back Pain?

By increasing blood circulation, vital nutrients help damaged tissue to recover, while speeding the elimination of toxins. This is achieved due to its three main elements. Yoga exercises focus on posture, breathing and meditation. If a person confronts back conditions, it is advised to to consult a specialist beforehand. Therefore, the best exercise program can be selected.

The recovery time for people who suffer from back pain may range from weeks to months. It is indicated for people who practice yoga, or consider practicing yoga, to wear comfortable clothes. In addition, the person should not force himself or herself into difficult positions. All exercises should be pain free. The streches must be made on flat surfaces such as a mat.

As such, streching helps the muscles in the back of the thigh to help the motion of the pelvis. This allows to relax stressed lower back muscles. The overall quality of the workout is also given by yoga breathing exercises. The purpose is to have a deep, rhythmic breath through the nose. This is true in both situations, when your inhaling and exhaling.

Another interesting aspect of yoga is that it aids in developing a good state of mind. Many specialists state that to recover fast from back pains, a person’s mental state is a crucial aspect. Simply put a person’s psychological and emotional state may influence the problem. Here there are two groups that argue on the impact of the mind over the body.

The first group states that the psyche may not influence the healing process. Instead it may aggravate the pain felt from back problems. The other groups argues that negative emotions and high stress not only influences a person’s psychological state of being, but also gives birth to afflictions such as back pains. As such they recommend meditation to alleviate the perception of pain and altogheter speed the healing process.

What are the Benefits of Yoga Exercises for Back Pain?

It is generally accepted that yoga helps increase the oxygen flow to the brain. This in turn creates a balance between the body and the mind. Adequate breathing techniques alongside proper poses and meditation is known to dissipate stress and anxiety. As such, yoga exercises alleviate back pains caused by psychological and emotional factors.

Most often, patients suffering from back pains encounter this issue especially in the mornings. That is why yoga exercises seem most fit to be done in the morning. It will provide an increase in suppleness and mobility.

Proper Yoga Back Streches

What would an article on yoga benefits for back pains be, without any tips of proper yoga exercises. Here we will present a few of the basic forms, commonly used in treating back pains.

1. Back Flexion Exercise

This streching exercise must be practiced while lying on your back. Then pull both of your knees to the chest while flexing the head. This should be done until a comfortable stretch is felt in the balled-up pose. These yoga exercises for lower back pain can make wonders.

2. Knee to Chest Stretch

Same as before, the person must lay on its back. Then simply keep the knees bent and both heels laid on the floor. Afterwards place both hands behind one knee and pull it backwards to the chest.

3. Bharadvaja’s Twist Bharadvajasana I

This gentle strech involves an easy twisting movement. The stretch is only good for the spine but for abdominal organs as well. As a result it is also part of yoga exercises for weight loss.

4. Dhanurasana

Also known as the bow pose, this stretch involves bending your back into the shape of a, you guessed it, bow.

5. Setu Bandha Sarvangasana

To accomplish this pose simply lay on your back and raise the pelvis upwards. The ‘bridge pose’ can be an energizing exercise, especially if done in the mornings. This pose is also done in yoga ball exercises.

6. Sphinx Pose

In this case the person may lay on his stomach, with his gaze ahead. A rudimentary backbend, it has the ability of being achieved either actively or passively. Yoga exercises for back pain should include this pose. It is also part of yoga facial exercises.

7. Halasana

The ‘plow pose’ is an excellent way to reduce backache and is said to even help the person sleep better. Yet due to the level of difficulty it is best accomplished by more experienced users. Make sure to have an expert aid you in achieving this pose. It is also one of the best yoga exercises for abs.

8. Supta Padangusthasana

Another pose for back aches and tight hamstrings, the ‘reclining hand to big toe’ pose can influences one’s overall flexibility in great detail.

9. Salabhasana

Another popular yoga exercise for back pains, the ‘locust’ pose is a great way of preparing beginners for more evolved backbends. As such it strengthens the back of the torso, as well as the arms and legs. The locust pose is also helpful if you are trying to lose weight.

10. Viparita Karani

The ‘legs up the wall’ pose is considered to be a great yoga exercises among many yogis. This is due to the general belief that this pose possesses the power to heal any physical condition, not only back pains.

What are the Benefits of Yoga Exercises for Back Pain?

To answer the question what is yoga exercise, we must look into the past. Yoga has been for almost 4.000 years a scientific methodology with its sole purpose of uniting the mind, body and spirit. After thousands of year of practice, yoga exercises are said to restore physical well-being as well as a healthy mental state.

Yoga is one of the six schools of hinduism. Based largely on meditation, yoga is seen not only as a means of achieving physical enhancement but also of reaching spiritual enlightenment. In the end yoga exercises grow more and more in popularity not only for their immediate physical results, but also due to its exceptional phylosophy of uniting the mind, body and spirit.

This brings to an end our article on what are the benefits of yoga exercises for back pain. We hope it was most useful in providing the answers and tips on how physical afflictions such as back pains can be treated with the aid of yoga.

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One of the most popular professions out there, a dental hygienist, examines patients teeth and gums and record the presence of disease or abnormalities. In this article, we will present all the conditions and requirements needed on how to become a dental hygienist.

Before we continue on how to become a dental hygienist there a few more job attributions we must mention. Such a professional must clean teeth, examine patients for signs of oral diseases and provide other preventive dental care. Also, they also must educate patients on how to improve and maintain good oral health.

how to become a dental hygienist

In addition to obtaining an associate’s degree in dental hygiene, there are a few skills that the US Bureau of Labor Statistics recommends for people who wish to follow such a career:

  • Compassion

Most patients are in extreme pain or fear when having to undergo dental work. The dental hygienist must, therefore, be sensitive to their feelings.

  • Attention to Details

There are specific rules and protocols to help dentists diagnose and treat patients. In rare cases, dental hygienists work without the supervision of a dentist.

  • Dexterity

As any practitioner of the medical arts, a dental hygienist must be good at working with their hands. The work is done in tight quarters with very precise tools and instruments.

  • Interpersonal & Communication Skills

Dental hygienists must work closely with fellow dentists to take care of patients’ needs.

  • Physical Stamina

Some procedures may take long hours and might present physical strains especially when one must bend over patients for a prolonged time.

(Want to know more about how long it takes to become a dental hygienist? Check out Jackie’s piece here.)

How to Become a Dental Hygienist in 3 Steps

There are many questions in regards to dental hygienist requirements or how long does it take to become a dental hygienist. It is important to know that there are many dental hygienist programs and that serious dental hygienist education must be undergone before even considering to become an active professional.

1. Dental Hygienist Education Requirements

First things first on how to become a dental hygienist, one such professional must receive their education through academic programs. They can be taken at community colleges, technical colleges, dental schools or universities. Community colleges programs usually take two years to complete. Graduates receive an associate degree. Through it they can take license examinations, either national and state or regional. This will allow them to become licensed and work in a dental office.

If a person follows university-based dental hygiene programs, then they usually require at least two years of further schooling. Universities offer baccalaureate and master’s degrees. These levels are need to be completed for a career in teaching or research, as well as for clinical practice in school or public health programs.

Dental hygiene program admission requirements vary depending on the school. High school level courses such as health, biology, psychology, chemistry, mathematics and speech are beneficial to obtain a dental hygienist degree.

Dental hygienist education programs offer clinical education in the form of supervised patient care experiences. These programs also include courses in:

  • Liberal Arts: Speech, Psychology.
  • Basic Sciences: Anatomy, Pharmacology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Physiology.
  • Clinical Sciences: Dental Hygiene, Radiology, Dental Materials.

If you are wondering if that is all the education needed on how to become a dental hygienist keep in mind that such a professional can choose to pursue additional training in such areas as education or public health.

performing as a dental hygienist

2. Becoming a Dental Hygienist: Accreditation

In term of how to become a dental hygienist, receiving the proper education is just the first step. The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) of the American Dental Association is responsible for the accreditation of dental hygiene education programs. In the United States of America, there is around 330 CODA accredited dental hygiene programs.

3. Examination and License

Licenses are given by each state to dental hygienists in order to provide dental hygiene care and patient education. Almost every state requires that dental hygienists to be graduates of commission accredited dental hygiene education programs. Thus, they will become eligible for state license.

Furthermore, almost all states require candidates for a licensee to obtain a passing score on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination in addition to passing the state authorized license examination. The state and regional examination tests are meant to assess clinical dental hygiene skills, as well as their knowledge of dental hygiene related subjects. People who wish to know how to become a dental hygienist might want to treat this step with seriosity as it may be the most important. Even though a person underwent all the necessary education without a state license, you can not perform in this field.

How to become a Dental Hygienist in Texas or California

Regardless of the state you want to practice, anyone who wishes to follow a career as a dental hygienist must complete an educational program accredited by CODA (the Commission on Dental Accreditation) of the American Dental Association.

Furthermore passing the license examination is a must in order to perform in this field of practice. Regardless of the fact that some schools might have prerequisite courses from chemistry to anatomy and pharmacology, all aspiring dental hygienist practitioners require the license from CODA.

Any person who wishes to know how to become a dental hygienist must, therefore, remember these fewrequirements:

  • That a dental hygienist education program approved by CODA must be undergone.
  • A dental hygienist degree must be obtained from an accredited school.
  • The final written examination must be passed to obtain the license from CODA. 

In order to know how to become dental hygienist these are the steps you need to take to successfully perform in this medical field. Although it requires quite a lot of education programs and preparation for license examination, this is not necessary the end. As medical technology and treatments progress, often dental hygienists must keep up with the latest discoveries in this field.

If you liked our article and are interest in learning more about this profession and its benefits read our article on ‘What is the Average Dentist Salary?

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Many people mistake physician assistants with nurse assistants. Such professionals, however, are more advanced as regards education and clinical experience than other medical assistants. In the US their duties and responsibilities vary depending on the state of practice. How to become a physician assistant? We will provide you with all the information you need to apply for a PA degree.

Commonly, a physician assistant performs the same routine tasks as a doctor. They are thus trained to examine and review patients, interpret diagnoses, and provide treatment along with counselling.  For a more in-depth job description, please access our article about a physician assistant’s daily duties.

How to Become a Physician Assistant in 5 steps

Prior to applying for a PA degree there are also a few essential skills you need to consider as recommended by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics:

  • Interpersonal & Communication Skills

PAs deal with a wide range of patients and they need excellent people skills. These are particularly necessary to make themselves understood when explaining complex medical terms and conditions.

  • Problem-solving Skills

As physician assistants investigate complicated issues and they need to determine the proper course of treatment for specific problems.

  • Attention to Details

PAs evaluate tests and provide medical prescription to patients as well. That is why they must be focused and detail-oriented.

  • Good Stamina

Working in a medical environment such as a hospital or private clinic can be very stressful as it implies dealing with emergency situations.

How to Become a Physician Assistant in 5 Steps

Becoming a physician assistant requires more than completing formal medical education. So, before applying for a PA degree, keep in mind that gaining healthcare experience increases your changes in this highly competitive field.

1. Acquire Healthcare Knowledge & Experience

Qualifying for a PA program is not easy as many PA schools recommend or even require up to three years of experience. Applicants who have worked as lab assistants, nurses or paramedics, thus, have more advantages.

Most applicants to physician assistant programs have a Bachelor Degree in biology or related sciences. Apart from gaining experience, knowledge in the following areas is required:

  • Physiology
  • Anatomy
  • Biology
  • Pharmacology
  • Healthcare Ethics

As an advice, do a bit of research and learn from other people’s experience. Look, for instance, at tips provided by physician assistants:

“Medical mission trips are a way for healthcare providers to give back to some of the most underserved communities around the world. During these trips, providers offer volunteer medical services to patients who typically do not have access to healthcare. Besides interacting with patients, you are able to see how medicine is practiced around the world.” [Source: 5 Tips of Getting into PA School on www.aapa.org]

2. Obtain PA Degree

Physician Assistant Education Requirements

We refer to a PA degree as to the master’s degree a physician assistant needs to complete in order to practice as a certified professional. This is a postgraduate educational program accredited by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant, Inc.  – ARC-PA.

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, there are 170 accredited PA programs in the United States offering classroom, laboratory and clinic-based medical instruction.

physician assistant education requirements

How long is PA school?

How long does it take to become a physician assistant? Normally, a PA degree can be completed in 2 years of full-time preparation.

3. Pass the National Certifying Exam

The third major step you need to take in order to become a PA is passing the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam – PANCE. Once you pass the examination from the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, you will gain the PA-C credential.

4. Get a License in the State of Practice

Before getting to practice, there’s just one more step to take – getting a license in your state. Every state has its own laws and regulations. That is why the state licensing requirements may vary.

Note that there are two types of requirements: general and specific. Specific requirements stand for certain circumstances such as for PAs who need to be authorized to prescribe medicines. In order to do this, most states require completing a course in prescriptive practice after graduation. These are typically 3-hour courses that must be renewed every six years.

5. Be Ready for Continuing Medical Training & Recertification

In order to maintain your accreditation as a physician assistant, you are required to complete 100 hours of continuing medical training every two years. Also, you will need to take a recertification exam every 10 years.

Physician Assistants Specialties – Postgraduate PA Educational Programs

After becoming a physician assistant you can choose to further advance your skills in the field and specialize in a particular area of practice. The most popular and well-paid areas of practice for advanced PAs are:

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Psychiatry

If you wish to learn more about how much physician assistants make, you can check out our articles on PA salaries. For updated info, you can also read the PayScale salary survey for this profession.

As there are differences between getting a both a PA degree and a license depending on state, we have chosen to exemplify how to become a physician assistant in two states: Texas and Florida.

physician assistant logo

How to Become a Physician Assistant in Texas

If you are looking for clinical opportunities in Texas, please consider the following educational and licensing requirements.

Becoming a physician assistant in Texas implies graduating from a two-year PA program. Accredited programs can be found at one of the following institutions (not exhaustive):

  • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center – Physician Assistant Program
  • Baylor College of Medicine – Physician Assistant Program
  • University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth – Physician Assistant Studies Program
  • University of Texas Health Science Center – San Antonio – School of Health Professionals

The PA programs normally begin in June or July. The application deadline is set between September and December.

As concerns the tuition fees for such PA degree, these range from $6,000 to $8,500.

Upon graduation, you need to apply for a license from The Licensure Department of the Texas Physician Assistant Board.  Here is the Eligibility Checklist to consider prior your application:

  • Complete a PA or surgeon assistant program accredited by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant.
  • Pass the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam within 6 attempts.
  • Get a NCCPA Certification.
  • Good moral & character.
  • Mental and physical abilities to perform safely as a PA.
  • Pass of the jurisprudence exam (JP).
  • Two years of practice prior to application (at least 20 hours/ week for 40 weeks).

How to become a Physician Assistant in Florida

As stated by the Florida Board of Medicine, becoming a physician assistant in this state requires the following:

  • Graduate from a PA training program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Programs.
  • Pass the national examination administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA).
  • Hold a certificate issued by the above mentioned commission.
  • Having practiced as a PA within the preceding 4 years.

We hope our post proves useful for all future PA applicants and job seekers in the healthcare area.  For more useful information and guidance, you can follow the American Academy of Physician Assistants official website. If you have any questions, please leave us a message in the comment section below. We will gladly get back to you. Good luck!

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Becoming a firefighter is no easy tasks, not to mention actually being one. If anyone wishes to know how to become a firefighter in the USA today, then they should first understand the duties of such a profession. A firefighter has the objective to secure the fire scene and provide a safe environment for colleagues. Not to mention that at least a basic knowledge on medical aid is required.

How to Become a Firefighter

As many already realize, becoming a firefighter is no easy job. There are quite a number of requirements a person needs to fulfill before applying for a firefighter position. Yes, being physically fit is important, but is not the only precondition. First things first however there are a few things each person considering to become a firefighter needs to know:

  • In the majority of states being a U.S. citizen is a must. In Texas however a person doesn’t have to be necessarily a U.S. citizen but must have a permit to work full time and the immigration status must be current.
  • In most states the minimum age required is 18.
  • Have no criminal record.
  • Have a high school diploma or GED certificate.
  • Good vision in both eyes is required.
  • Some states require a valid driver’s license with a clean driving record.

firefighters at work - how to become a firefighter

Firefighter Training & Certification

In most states, people who consider becoming a firefighter must first obtain two types of certification. These apply to people who never experienced fire fighting and as a result must first undergo training courses. The minimum standards established by Commissions on Fire Protection in most states include 468 hours training. The courses are as follows:

  • Fire Fighter I.
  • Fire Fighter II.
  • Awareness of Hazardous Materials.
  • Operations of Hazardous Materials.

Alongside them, some states such as Florida also require an Emergency Medical Technician certificate. Also referred to as EMT-Basic this is an important requirement because more than eighty percent of calls are medical care related.

If you wonder how to become a volunteer firefighter a Fire Fighter I certificate is required. Moreover, to be a career firefighter a certification as a Fire Fighter II is in order. These need to be obtained in that order. Alongside them many states also require an EMT-Basic certificate to be able to provide at least minimum medical aid. An EMT-Basic training program usually lasts for 250 hours. It is divided in several sections both written and practical.

Fire Fighting Training and Tests: How Long Does It Take to Become a Firefighter?

Large fire departments run their own fire academies. So it is best to check the specific department you’re looking to apply for. After completing basic fire suppression training the next step would be to take the fire suppression exam. It consists of both written and physical tests. In many states to be able to pass the written exam a score of at least 70 is required. For the physical test however all skill requirements have to be passed. These physical skill requirements consist of: lifting, hauling equipment and climbing.

For the EMT certificate however the procedure is a little different. The certificate is given by the National Registry of EMT. Some fire departments require Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) or paramedic certificate. Usually applicants are required to:

  • Complete a training program that in most cases lasts for 250 hours.
  • Pass all sections of EMT-B written and practical tests.
  • Submit all required documents.
  • Be at least 18 years old.

A number of agencies are offering medical certification and training programs. These agencies are:

  • American Red Cross Emergency Response Course.
  • American Safety and Health Training.
  • National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians.
  • Department of State Health Services Emergency Medical Service Personnel.

Each of these agencies should be contacted in order to get detailed information regarding their programs. However most fire academies provide emergency medical training as part of their curriculum. This means that no additional training in required. Nevertheless, if the fire department in question includes medical training, they will coordinate the medical training and testing with the certifying entity. Keep in mind that even if a certified firefighter has not been employed for three years since its last employment, that person will undergo re-examination. Practical Retention Examination alongside Medical Examination are the two requirements needed to be fulfilled.

Becoming a Firefighter: Background Checks

Another important step in becoming a firefighter is the background check. Upon completing the fire and medical training and testing a person must undergo a background check. In order to do fingerprints are usually taken and criminal record is studied.

If you wonder how to become a firefighter In Texas, learn that fingerprint based checks are done through a vendor. IdentoGo is a vendor that checks for criminal history. A fee of $41.45 is required to undergo the background check. The results of the criminal history background check are made available within three to five days after you submit your fingerprints. Please keep in mind however that the Application for Certification should be submitted the same time your fingerprint information is submitted to IdentoGO.

In the end all applications received by the Bureau of Fire Standards and Training will require a small application processing fee. Depending on the state in question the fees can range from $25-30 to $85-100. Keep in mind however that if a person does not meet the certification firefighter requirements or passes the criminal history background check, that person will not receive the application fee back.

So how do you become a firefighter? When all procedure steps are fulfilled a person may apply for basic fire suppression certificate.

We hope this article has proven to be most useful in providing the information needed on how to become a firefighter, especially about firefighter training and other requirements. As always, a lot of time and effort is required to become a career firefighter. However, having the chance to help the community is always a reward in itself. Firefighters risk not only their lives but they also sacrifice much of their personal or social lives as well. Having to be ready all the time when an emergency arises, firefighting is definitely one of the most stressful professions out there. As always we hope that the brave men and women who are risking their lives for others may return safe to their families.

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Have you ever heard of botox for the hair? Even if it might sound like a made up thing, hair botox actually exists. Moreover, it’s supposed to be great for your hair. So, what is hair botox and why is it becoming more and more popular? What advantages and disadvantages does it possess? Does it come with any risks? Can such a treatment actually save both men and women time and money? Let’s find out the answers to all of these questions together in today’s article on botox for the hair.

hair botox results

What Is The Story Behind Botox for the Hair?

For years, miracle oils, creams and all sorts of “magic potions” swear to help us take care of our hair. Now more than ever, a vast array of hair products has flooded the market. Some are advertised to strengthen your hair, while other s promise to give back its vigorous look, or to simply help you get rid of dandruff.

There are many ingredients that are great for your hair. Out of all of them, it’s important to mention keratin, which is responsible with strengthening the hair. Since in time, our bodies produce less and less keratin, we need keratin products to protect our hair against breakage. Another important ingredient is caviar oil, which is one of the main substances in hair botox. Why is caviar oil so great for your hair? This is what we’re going to reveal today, by looking at how botox for the hair works.

How Does Botox for the Hair Work?

The hair botox treatment repairs damaged hair by using a compound made of caviar oil, vitamins B5 and E, and a collagen complex. Simply put, it nourishes hair strains by rehydrating them. Moreover, this hair treatment, as opposed to keratin treatments, doesn’t make use of formaldehyde chemicals. As such, it’s directly infused into the shaft cuticles of the damaged hair, restoring it from the inside.

Because of the lack of harmful chemicals and the delivering of moderate protein levels to the hair shaft, we can notice a straightening effect after using hair botox. Pair this with the luscious aspect it provides due to its anti-dandruff and psoriasis effect, and you’ll understand why this treatment has rapidly become a trend.

How Do You Have to Apply Hair Botox?

The first step in using hair botox is washing your hair, and making sure you don’t use any conditioner afterwards. Once you’ve combed the hair and left it tangle free, section it, and gently massage your scalp with the product. This will help you distribute it uniformly, and the hair absorb it faster. You shouldn’t keep the product on for more than 45 minutes. After you’re done applying it, wash it off and soak your hair for about 7 minutes to make sure it’s completely clean.

Now, if you want to get that nice straight hair look you see in commercials, you should carefully blow-dry your hair in a vertical manner, so the hair strains don’t break. If you want the product to have long-lasting results, we advise you to use a shampoo and conditioner after the treatment. Another way to make sure you benefit from it as much as possible is to use all natural products.

The rejuvenating effect will be long-lasting, especially if you take proper care of your hair after using the hair botox treatment. If you’re someone who styles their hair on a regular basis, and puts a lot of products in it, you should repeat the treatment every 4 to 6 months.

woman looking down

Why Should You Use Botox for the Hair?

The advantages of such a treatment are both short and long-term. First of all, completing it only takes 45 minutes, which is perfect for when you have to get ready for a party, wedding, or other special occasion. Second of all, its effects last for at least 6 months. This means you don’t have to worry about using hair botox that often.

The treatment provides your hair with a rejuvenated look, bringing it to its youthful state. It works on every type of hair: curly, straight, and all other types in between. It offers a healthy, shiny, and easy to style hair. Moreover, it’s an affordable treatment, with instant results.

What Should You Look Out For?

Even though this hair treatment is extremely popular and widely used, it’s not for everybody. Before using botox for your hair, it’s best to consult a specialist. Why is that, you ask? Well, mainly because what’s best for one’s hair might be terrible for another’s. Also, due to its acid compounds, hair botox treatments might not give the same results, depending on how sensitive your hair is.

We should also mention that you must not abuse this rejuvenating treatment. Specialists recommend using it every 6 months, or if you do extensive work on your hair, every 4 months. Finally, each of us has the responsibility of maintaining our hair. In other words, if you don’t properly care for your hair, this treatment might have less impressive results.

Bottom Line

We hope today’s article on hair botox, its uses, the main advantages it provides your hair with, and the things you should look out for when using it, has provided you with everything you ever wanted to know about botox for the hair. As long as you keep in mind the things we’ve mentioned above, using hair botox will provide you with healthier, shinier, and straighter hair, that will look like that for a long time.

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Mankind has been creating and wearing jewelry for thousands of years, and while some things have changed, particularly when it comes to design and chosen materials, others haven’t. Regardless of craftsmanship and jewel type, one thing is clear: these treasures are no longer exclusive to royalty. We can all own our own jewel, which becomes laden with sentimental value and is priceless. We can choose anything from diamonds and diamond jewelry to exquisite pearl necklaces.

The following pieces of jewelry, though, have been sold and auctioned off. Experts know precisely what they are worth (at least in most cases). Here are the most expensive jewels in the world:

The Koh-I-Noor Diamond (estimated price: unknown)

the most expensive diamond in the world, mountain of light

This particular diamond has a unique story. Its name, of Persian origin, translates into “Mountain of Light” and accurately describes the one-of-a-kind, 105.60 carat diamond, once believed to be the largest one of its kind in the world. Its origins were traced back to Andhra Pradesh, in India. Throughout the centuries, numerous Sikh, Mughal and Persian royals fought each other in order to claim ownership of this prized possession. The reason why a diamond so unique has never had a price tag attached to it is because a documented sale of the diamond was never recorded. The Koh-I-Noor has always changed hands by being stolen, gifted or bartered. In the 1500’s, experts believed that this unique diamond’s value corresponded to approximately half of the world’s daily production costs. The gem is now the property of the British Crown, and seeing that it may be one of the most valuable pieces out of an estimated $12 billion treasure, it’s safe to assume that money simply cannot buy such a creation.

The Sancy Diamond (estimated price: unknown)

yellow diamond priceless, the sancy diamond

Yet another priceless jewel, the Sancy Diamond is a pale yellow, 55.23 carat diamond which used to belong to the Great Moguls. It too can trace its origins back to India and was the first large diamond to ever be cut with symmetrical facets. Currently, it resides in the Louvre museum in Paris and belongs to the French Crown Jewel collection.

The Cullinan Diamond (estimated price: $400 million)

the nine major cuts of the cullinan diamond

This massive diamond was the largest non-carbonado and largest gem-quality diamond to ever be mined. Its rough weight was 3106.75 carat at the moment of its discovery, in 1905. Together with the Golden Jubilee Diamond, it was discovered in the Premier Mine which belonged to Sir Thomas Cullinan. After its discovery, the diamond was split into 105 stones, 9 major and 96 smaller. The Cullinan I (530.2 carat) and the Cullinan II (at 317.4 carats) were known as the Great Star respectively the Second Star of Africa.

The Hope Diamond (estimated price: $350 millions)

a blue diamond, the hope diamond

Located at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, the Hope Diamond is one of the most beautiful diamonds in the world. The 45.52 carat marvel owes its blue color to the boron traces found in the crystal’s structure. Under UV light, it shines a bright red phosphor.

The Beauty of Ocean (estimated price: $139 million)

beauty of ocean pearl weighing 6 tons

Unveiled in 2010 in China, this massive pearl managed to bewilder audiences due to its sheer size. The Beauty of Ocean pearl weighs a whopping six tons and measures 5 feet in height. This manmade pearl is composed of fluorite and only achieved its pearl-like shape due to a tiresome grounding process which lasted three years. It is rumored to glow in the dark.

The Centenary Diamond (estimated price: $100 million)

the de beers centenary diamond

The fifth most expensive jewel in the world is the De Beers Centenary Diamond, which received a D level classification from the Gemological Institute of America. This color grade signifies that the unique diamond is not only colorless but also internally and externally flawless. It was also produced in the Premier Mine and was presented in its final form in 1991.

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If you consider becoming a licensed esthetician, you probably wonder what training options are there for you, how much they cost, and what skills you are required to have in order to perform well at your job. Before providing information on how to become an esthetician and what the enrollment requirements are, let’s see what estheticians do and what skin care is all about.

What is Esthetics and What Does an Esthetician Do?


Esthetics is a field of business focusing on facial and body treatments meant to beauty skin. If you google esthetics you will probably find it spelled aesthetics, which is also correct. Esthetics is a fast-growing field which goes hand in hand with the cosmetics industry. More and more people are interested in having a nicer and healthier appearance, which makes esthetics a more and more profitable area of activity.

Working in the beauty industry seems to be quite exciting at a first glance. But what do estheticians actually do? Estheticians are skin care professionals who perform different kinds of treatments including waxing, hair removal, exfoliating, aromatherapy, reflexology, makeup, peels, polishes, body wraps and massages.  Treatments like aromatherapy and reflexology, for example, are considered specialized areas of esthetics and require advanced training.

Mainly divided into ‘medical’ and ‘non-medical’, estheticians choose from a variety of career paths. They work in a variety of environments from medical offices and clinics to luxurious spas and salons. They can be skin care specialists, or become master estheticians, spa managers and even esthetician school instructors. Whether you choose to work in a clinic, or in a cosmetics company, as a salesperson or product line developer, there are many jobs waiting for you. Some of them, though, require a master in esthetics. Let’s find out everything you need in order to become a skin care specialist.

 different types of esthetics tools

How to Become an Esthetician?

If you think a job in esthetics is the right career path for you, we are here to provide you with all tedious but absolutely necessary information on how to get there.

In order to become a skin care professional, there are certain educational and licensing requirements.

First, you need to graduate high school and apply to an accredited esthetician school. After completing a cosmetology program, all estheticians are required to pass a written and practical exam and get licensed in the state of practice. All states have specific licensure requirements and state boards that ultimately certify you as an esthetician.   Some states, though, can take into consideration apprenticeships in salons and spas instead of an esthetics training program.

Education, Training and Licensing Requirements

Esthetician schools offer classes on how to analyze, treat and beautify skin in authorized settings. The courses you can choose may vary from state to state and industry to industry, but the general curriculum includes 6 to 12 months courses on hair removal, nail and skin care, as well as on makeup applications and more specialized esthetics topics. Estheticians also need to be able to identify skin conditions and disorders so as to refer their clients to medical staff for the right treatment.

Here are some of your options as regards esthetician courses you can find across the US:

  • Cleansing, Toning & Massaging
  • Makeup Application
  • Hair Removal & Waxing
  • Body Treatments, Wraps, Aromatherapy
  • Reflexology
  • Cosmetic Sciences, Chemistry & Structure
  • Skin Conditions & Disorders
  • Marketing, Sales & Salon Management
  • Safety, Sanitation & Sterilization
  • Human Physiology & Anatomy
  • Hair & Hair Growth Cycles
  • Elements That Affect Skin
  • Exfoliation Methods & Best Practices
  • Creating & Applying Facial Masks
  • Safe Extraction Performance
  • Facial Massage, Detoxification & Lymphatic Drainage

Not only cosmetology programs, but also licensing requirement vary depending on states of practice. If you are considering working in Oregon, for example, 250 hours of training would be enough for you to take the final exam. In a state like Alabama, however, you are required to take 1500 hours of training to get licensed. Training hours also vary according to specialties. There are, for instance, waxing licenses that would take you only up to 75 hours of training, while highly specialized courses such as medical esthetics can require more than 1,000 trainings hours.

What you can do in order to find out specific training requirements is to check each state’s licensing and even contact the boards or your state licensing department. All requirements and resources can be found on the National Cosmetology Association’s website.

How Much Do Esthetics Trainings cost?

As trainings vary from school to school and state to state, the cost of cosmetology programs depend on several factors like number of hours, courses, location of school. The geographical greatly affects the cost of training as metropolitan areas, for instance, offer a more expensive range of courses as compared to the suburbs or rural areas.

In average, you can spent between $3,000 and $5,000 on tuition fees, supplies and textbooks.


What is the Best Esthetician School to Choose?

Finding the ideal esthetician school depends on several aspects.

First, it has to be accredited by the National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences (NACCAS).

Second, we recommend you to set your priorities. Would you like to work closer to your home or get a higher salary and choose a metropolitan area? Find out all about how much esthetician earn by state and industry from our post on esthetician salaries.

Find the esthetician school that best meets your needs by visiting Beauty Schools Directory.

How to Enroll in an Esthetician School?

All you need to do in order to enroll in an esthetician training program is having a high school diploma or GED.  Of course, a future estheticians should have the desire to work with people and have the skills to make them feel comfortable.

Enrolling requirements may vary depending on state as well. Usually, beside your high school transcripts, you are required to fill in an application form, pass an entrance exam or interview, and pay a registration fee.

 If you wish to upgrade your basic esthetician certification, you can also apply for further training. These trainings are often called ‘master’ esthetician licenses or advanced esthetician certifications. However, these are not available in all states.

Typically, advanced esthetician courses cover specialized esthetics and refers to classes on microdermabrasion, medical skin care or specific marketing courses. It is recommended to take up such trainings as they enhance your chance for a higher salary.

What are the Skills Required?

According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, a well-prepared esthetician not only should have excellent customer service skills, but also a good stamina and even managerial skills.

Communication skills are highly important as one of the main tasks of an esthetician is to discuss clients’ skin problems and skin care needs, and advise them on what treatments they can choose in order to solve their skin issues.

Marketing and business skills are required for specialized estheticians who need to know about products and promote cosmetics. Marketing is also important for self-employed estheticians to promote themselves.

Tidiness is also essential when working in the field of esthetics. The safety, sterilization and cleanliness of equipment are required in all working settings.

We hope this article answered to how to become an esthetician. For any questions or comments, please leave us a message in the comment box below.

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