Home Authors Posts by Gabrielle Moreno

Hi, my name is Gabrielle, but all my friends call me Gaby. Having a degree in foreign languages, I first intended to develop a career in translations, but then I realized human interaction is more satisfying and got engaged in educational projects. Writing is my second best skill after teaching. I started writing about jobs and education based on my experience of not knowing what career path to choose. Sharing my knowledge and experience is the most rewarding aspect of my work, especially when I see it really touches people. Therefore, I look forward to reading your comments, thoughts and opinions. Feel free to contact me.

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Having served two terms in the White House, we should have high expectations regarding the number of achievements we can credit President Obama for. With his presidency now in the past, it is fair to ask, “What did Barack Obama accomplish?”

Since people often use partisan lenses to determine presidential successes, it is difficult to answer this question in a way that satisfies everybody. However, we can attempt an objective analysis of the Obama Administration’s most impactful actions. It helps to review Obama’s presidency from start to finish using categories: the economy, social policy, foreign policy, and politics.

Barack Obama holding a speech

President Barack Obama’s Accomplishments

1. What Did Barack Obama Accomplish in Terms of the Economy?

Getting his inauguration in 2009, in the midst of the Great Recession, President Obama had an opportunity to immediately impact the economy. He galvanized Congress around an economic stimulus package that many credit with sparking the strong economic numbers that followed. During the recession, unemployment peaked at 10%, but within six years was down to 4.8%. This ultimately added up to a net gain of 11.5 million jobs gained, and 69 straight months of job growth.

The $787 billion economic stimulus was legislatively known as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), which President Obama signed into law in February 2009. In addition to helping families through tax cuts, the legislation provided benefits to specific sectors of the business community to spur job growth.

Additionally, President Obama signed the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to install new regulations on banks. They did this to prevent any repeat of the problems that caused the economic collapse.

2. What Did Barack Obama Accomplish with Respect to Social Policy?

President Obama will likely always be best remembered for his achievement in passing the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Commonly known as “Obamacare,” the ACA reduced the rate of uninsured Americans to below 10 percent for the first time. The ACA achieved this by allocating funds to expand Medicaid eligibility and to reform insurance markets. While Obamacare has critics from across the ideological spectrum, the fact remains that more than 20 million Americans who were uninsured now have coverage.

The Obama Administration also accomplished victories for the LGBT community. In ending the military’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy and refusing to support the Defense of Marriage Act, he made some big steps for the LGBT rights. This perhaps helped lead to the 2015 Supreme Court decision, which President Obama supported, to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide.

Additionally, President Obama achieved a bipartisan victory concerning public education in passing the Every Student Succeeds Act. ESSA overhauled President George W. Bush’s controversial No Child Left Behind Act. While the new law retained standardized testing requirements, it created flexibility regarding enforcement by shifting power from the federal government to the states.

3. What Did Barack Obama Accomplish Regarding Foreign Policy?

In terms of making the world safer, President Obama’s greatest success as commander-in-chief was the killing of Osama bin Laden, which resulted from orders he gave and the military executed.

Additionally, after a decade of increasing numbers of boots on the ground, President Obama succeeded over the course of his presidency in reducing the number of troops deployed in both Iraq and Afghanistan.

President Obama also improved relations with former foes to make the world more peaceful. He brokered an agreement with Iran and with other members of the United Nations in an effort to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons. President Obama also spearheaded diplomatic moves to normalize relations with Cuba.

President Obama made the U.S. a major player in grappling with climate change by helping broker the Paris Agreement in which many nations agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

4. What Did Barack Obama Accomplish in Terms of Politics?

American political history often wears the marks of injustice concerning race relations and other aspects of civil rights. Simply by becoming the first black U.S. president, Barack Obama instantly became a positive figure for much of the country. Appointing two women, one of whom is Hispanic, to the Supreme Court further bolstered his reputation in this regard. Winning two terms, staying clear of scandals, and achieving many successes guarantees that many will admire her. Moreover, he has also forever altered the American concept of leadership.

Close up of Barack Obama talking

Education and Background

President Obama’s background is as fascinating as his presidency. He was born in Hawaii to a white woman and a black father who he never knew. Obama also spent part of his childhood in Indonesia. Eventually attending Columbia University and Harvard Law School, he went on to become a community organizer and law professor in Chicago where he met his future wife Michelle. He next became a state senator and then a U.S. senator from Illinois before running for president.

President Obama’s Legacy

As is the case in everything related to politics, people have different opinions about Barack Obama’s legacy at the present moment in time. In the U.S., most Democrats absolutely adore him and his accomplishments. Meanwhile, most Republicans feel relieved that he is no longer in office. But he is widely admired across the globe, and most presidents and their accomplishments are more universally recognized as time passes.

There is no question that his legacy as the first black American president will forever be a positive note in history books.

Obama and Other Presidents

People always compare presidents to one another, and Barack Obama is in a unique place. History wedged him in between Republican presidents George W. Bush and Donald Trump. Bush left office as an unpopular leader. Meanwhile, Trump’s presidency is still very new, but it is already clear that his leadership is different from Obama’s. During his first year in office, Trump had the lowest average approval rating since those records have been kept.

Barack Obama with a pensive expression


Now, his presidency is part of the recent past. This means it may take a while to generate a more consensus-oriented answer to the oft-asked question, “What did Barack Obama accomplish?”. Regardless, we can have little doubt that his administration took a lot of action during its time, thus majorly impacting the country.

Images source: depositphotos.com

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Martin Luther King Jr. may have been the most impactful person to help alter the plight of over a century of ethnic atrocities across the United States of America. Over a half-century after his death, people astute to the issues of racial equality in American should ask what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish. Here is a list of some of these accomplishments, his background, and education, plus how his influential legacy lives on today.

Martin Luther King Jr. speech

Image source: Britannica

List of Accomplishments of Martin Luther King Jr.

During his lifetime, Martin Luther King Jr. made an impressive impact on racial diversity. When people talk about what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish, the list could be very lengthy. Here are some noteworthy achievements during his short, 39 year lifetime.

1. Letter to Editor – The Atlanta Constitution

During his sophomore year attending College, King wrote a letter to the editor of Atlanta’s largest newspaper, The Constitution. This letter is the first documentation of his ideology that black people should be entitled to the same basic rights as others.

The motivation behind the letter is still unclear. However, it closely followed the racially driven murder of two black couples in Georgia. The letter addressed an unspoken controversy that racial equality somehow meant to advocate interracial marriage.

His letter challenged a century-old premise that denied rights and opportunities to African-Americans. While it may seem inconsequential when discussing what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish it set the tone for his trademark peaceful method of activism.

2. The Montgomery Improvement Association and the Bus Boycott

This year-long event was deemed by many historians to be the first large segregation focused demonstration. The Montgomery Bus Boycott started early in December 1955.

Martin Luther was still a young minister, but his ability to organize people in peaceful protest became immediately obvious. On the same day the boycott began, King was appointed the president of the Montgomery Improvement Association.

The Montgomery Improvement Association was a collective group of black pastors and local leaders. Its initial movement, the bus boycott, drew national attention to racial inequality. It also propelled King into the national limelight.

When considering the achievements of what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish, the Montgomery Bus Boycott began his ascent to becoming the most visibly prominent member of the American civil rights movement. King mentioned this event in his memoirs as a vital part of the civil rights initiative.

3. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference

1957, was a monumental year in the list of what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish. As a direct result of the successful year-long bus boycott, King became the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

The group was formed in early 1957 and expanded the civil rights initiative across the southern United States. Eventually, the cause would gain national attention through the passive leadership style of King.

Initially named the Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration, SCLC exploded racial equality onto the national stage. The organization did not funnel its focus to any particular ideology, so it was able to entertain a number of racially diverse causes. Just a month after its formation, King was pictured on the cover of Time Magazine.

His trip later that year to Ghana in West Africa catapulted him onto the world stage. On May 17, King would present his first national speech at the Lincoln Memorial. A month later King would sit down with Vice President Richard M. Nixon. The name Martin Luther King Jr. was now recognized around the world.

Green board with 'I have a dream' written on it

Image source: depositphotos.com

Education and Background for Martin Luther King Jr.

His principles and moral ideology were important to King’s accomplishments. However, an account of what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish must mention the foundation of his education and background.

1. David T. Howard Elementary School

King started his formal education at the age of six in Atlanta. Since his mother was a teacher herself, King had strong academic skills before he even started his official schooling at David T. Howard in Atlanta.

2. Booker T. Washington High School

While his official educational record includes his time spent at Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta, King didn’t actually attend during his first and last years as a high school student. He was so intelligent that he was taking college courses at 15 years of age.

3. Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

In September 1944, at 15 years old, Martin Luther King Jr. started his freshman year at Morehouse College. He was immediately recognized as a brilliant young man, with a passion for learning. During his studies at Morehouse, King read David Thoreau’s “Civil Obedience”. It would dramatically impact his ideas, and he translated that impression onto a world stage.

4. Crozer Theological School in Chester, Pennsylvania

In late 1947, King would write a letter of application to a small theological seminary outside of Philadelphia. During his study for a life in the ministry, King would blend the readings of Thoreau with the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. This would shape his passive methods of persuasive activism, so characteristic of his life’s work.

5. Boston University

His Bachelor of Divinity degree would give rise to the final educational achievement in the list of what did Martin Luther King Jr. accomplish. After his graduation from Crozer, King would pursue a Ph.D. at Boston University. It was during his studies in Boston he met his wife, Coretta Scott. In 1955, Martin Luther King Jr. became Dr. King.

Martin Luther King Jr.’s Legacy Today

It is almost as if his early background as a child, blended with his educational pursuits, established a perfect foundation for his life’s dream. From the earliest age, Dr. King felt compelled to try to bring a peaceful resolution to a century of violent activism.

How unfortunate it was that his march to passive awareness of racial inequality ended in violence. However, it was his method of peaceful pursuit of a passion that still presents itself as his most endearing legacy. His passion was so strong it earned him a Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

While racial inequality still exists in parts of America today, the level of violence gradually lessened as the words of Dr. King echoed across a nation. He left his mark on religious, political and social reform, but his most endearing legacy is the peaceful compassion for all humanity that defined his life.

Martin Luther King Jr. memorial

Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial. Image source: depositphotos.com

Notable People Influenced by the Work of Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. inspired a nation to work towards a peaceful solution to a terrible problem. The influential aura of his methods still touches the lives of millions of everyday people. His life also inspired individual people to take up the march after his death.

1. Former President of the United States Barrack Obama

King’s influence motivated Chicago man to pursue the highest governmental position in the country. Former President Barrack Obama credits Dr. King with being the single-most motivating force behind his life.

2. Owen Brooks

Brooks grew up in New York and Boston, so he did not experience the harshness of segregation until he chose to move to Mississippi after hearing King’s famous 1964 “I Have a Dream” speech in Washington D.C. Brooks spent the rest of his life dedicated to racial activism using the same passive model of Dr. King. He noted that there is a vast difference between a racially equal society and one that finally reaches colorblindness.

3. Congressman John Conyers

Conyers began his service in the House of Representatives during the prime of Dr. King’s life. Years after King’s assassination, Conyers would found the Congressional Black Caucus. While it took over 15 years, Conyers finally gained congressional approval for King’s birthday in January to become a national holiday in his memory.


Records have indicated that Dr. King was under scrupulous secret surveillance during most of his later life. It took decades before the real meaning of his work could be appreciated. By all historical accounts, King was a complex man, yet he seemed lost on the immenseness of his ideals.

He was so rooted in passive compassion that he never could understand why some seemed so inclined to try to ignite what was a peaceful message with violent acts. His assassination in 1969 did not silence his message. The words of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. live on over a half-century later, in the acts of those who still try to peacefully resolve the racial inequality that still troubles America.

Main image source: depositphotos.com

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Even if all water contains “salts”, which are in fact dissolved chemicals, not all water actually tastes like salt. If you fill a glass of water from the faucet and drink it, it won’t taste the same as drinking a glass of seawater. While what constitutes “salty” depends on personal preference when it comes to small quantities of salt, anyone would consider seawater to be salty, because it contains a large number of dissolved chemicals. So, we all know that the ocean is salty. But why is the ocean salty? This is what we’re going to explore in today’s article.

sun shinning on the ocean

How Much Salt Does the Ocean Contain?

Seawater has a concentration of salt of 35 parts per thousand. Put differently, salt makes up for 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater. This means that a single cubic mile of seawater has 120 million tons of salt. According to estimations, the oceans contain about 50 quadrillion tons of salt. Just to give you an idea of how much that actually is, let’s consider what would happen if someone were to take out all the salt in the planet’s oceans and spread it on the land. In this scenario, the salt would form a 500 feet thick layer covering the entire land surface of the Earth. This is the equivalent of a 40-story building.

The Paradox of Salty Oceans

If we take into account the fact that seawater is 220 times saltier that lake water, and that the rivers and streams that flow into the ocean contain fresh water, it’s no wonder that the ocean being salty is a paradox.

Let’s take a look at where the salt in the ocean comes from. Most of it comes from processes such as the erosion and weathering of the cooled igneous rocks found in the Earth’s crust, which led to them breaking up. Another process that caused the apparition of salt in the oceans is the transportation of mineral washings coming from rains and streams to the sea. The ocean also contains salt because sediments and rocks have dissolved below its floor, and because through volcanic vents, gaseous and solid materials managed to escape from the crust of the Earth.

Going back to the paradox of salty oceans, it’s time to answer the question “Why is the ocean salty?” We could also complete that question by asking “Why is the ocean salty when fresh water flows into it?” The answer to this question is “because what makes the ocean salty is not just one singular thing, but many natural processes, out of which the quantity of salt found in streams (while small) is definitely one of them.”

Why Is the Ocean Salty?

As we’ve already established, there’s more than one reason why the ocean is salty. One of the main reasons are past accumulations of both suspended and dissolved solids. A long time ago, before the first rains on the Earth, the seas are presumed to not have been very salty. Then, once the rain fell on the land and broke up rocks, the minerals that they contained were poured into the sea, thus making the ocean salty. The rivers and streams that flow into the ocean also bring with them dissolved salts and suspended sediments. Part of them settle at the bottom of the ocean, ensuring that the oceans never lose their saltiness.

sea shore full of salt

Still, this is only part of the answer to the question “Why is the ocean salty?” The other reason why the ocean contains so much salt is the fact that the heat coming from the Sun vaporizes or distills water that contains no salt, leaving behind the one which does. This explains why salt is so concentrated in the ocean.

This vaporization process if part of the so-called hydrologic cycle. This cycle is the continual exchange of water between the atmosphere and the Earth. The water vapors that come from the surface of the ocean are carried away by the wind. They sometimes collide with cold masses of air. This creates a condense that causes the vapors to turn from a gas into a liquid. The liquid is the rain that falls on the Earth and that goes into the streams. In turn, the streams carry that liquid to the oceans. There, it is once again evaporated, following the same course. This evaporation process doesn’t have any effect on salty water, which remains of a majority in the oceans.

Summing It All Up

Today, we’ve answered the question “Why is the ocean salty?” by presenting you with a brief history of how the oceans managed to become so salty, while the rivers and streams that flow into them still contain fresh water. One of the main things to remember is that the oceans weren’t always this salty. In fact, the process that turned them salty was quite gradual.

First came the rains that washed over the Earth’s crust and collected salts that were later spilled in the ocean. Then, the streams also washed over dissolved chemicals in the ground and brought them to the oceans. The wind carrying suspended particles from the land to the ocean, volcano ejections, and sediments lying on the ocean floor were a couple of other reasons why the oceans became salty.

rain falling in the ocean

Finally, the saltiness of the ocean is also enhanced by the process of evaporation of fresh water and the fact that salty water freezes at lower temperatures than fresh water. If you’re wondering what the exact salts that make the ocean salty are, the answer is chloride and sodium. They make up for 85 percent of the salt in the ocean. Of course, ocean water doesn’t only contain chloride and sodium. It also contains calcium, bicarbonate, magnesium, and silica. However, chemical precipitation, biological organisms, or physical-chemical reactions take all these constituents out of solution.

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Are you one of those people who simply can’t stand someone snoring next to them and have difficulty sleeping when this happens? Or on the contrary, do people complain about you snoring and disrupting their rest? Regardless of the answer, snoring is something that no one can say they enjoy hearing or doing. While we know that snoring is something that a lot of people do, we’re curious – have you ever wondered why do people snore? Today, we’re going to take you through the fascinating science behind it and – hopefully – tell you a couple of things that you didn’t know about snoring.

man snoring and irritating his partner

Why Do People Snore?

1. Anatomical Explanation

If we look at snoring strictly based on the anatomy of it, what causes people to snore is their upper airway (so the nose and the throat) being partially closed. Usually, when we sleep, our neck muscles relax. While this shouldn’t be something that affects the way you breathe, it sometimes can be. If the muscles relax too much, the upper airway partially closes, blocking some of the air from reaching your lungs. Because of this, your body isn’t receiving the oxygen it needs to perform important functions. Snoring is basically the brain’s way of alerting the body that it needs to wake up and get all the oxygen it has to. This is why sometimes, when you snore, you suddenly wake up and not even realize it.

Yet, you might have noticed that some people tend to snore more often, while others might have never snored in their life. That’s because some people are more prone to snoring, due either to enlarged tonsils, a larger tongue, or excess weight in the neck area. The shape of someone’s jaw or nose can also cause them to snore more than other people.

2. Other Possible Causes

A. Nasal Problems

Another explanation that answers the question “Why do people snore?” is because of nasal problems. Some of the most common ones are a deviated nasal septum, which means that the partition between your nostrils is crooked, or a chronic nasal congestion.

B. Alcohol Consumption

Consuming a lot of alcohol before going to bed can be another cause of snoring. That’s because alcohol serves as a muscle relaxant, relaxing the muscles in your throat. Thus, consuming alcohol will decrease your body’s ability to defend itself from an airway obstruction.

group of friends drinking alcohol

C. Medication

Certain types of drugs can also cause people to snore, especially sedatives such as antihistamines, cold medicines, or sleeping pills.

D. Sleep Position

The way you sleep is also important when it comes to snoring. Usually, people who sleep on their backs are more likely to snore. That’s because when you sleep on your back, gravity works its magic and causes your airway to become even narrower. Sleeping on your side is the best way in which you can prevent snoring, or at least adjusting the position of your head so that it’s slightly more raised.

E. Sleep Deprivation

Sometimes, when you’re extremely tired and you haven’t slept properly in a while, you might snore due to the fact that your throat muscles are even more relaxed than usual.

F. Excess Weight

Another answer to the question “Why do people snore?” can be “Because of some excess weight”. It doesn’t matter how much weight you’ve gained (it can even be just a couple of pounds), this can still affect your sleep by causing you to snore. Whenever you gain weight, this also adds to the weight in your neck. Thus, it contributes to the pressure on your throat when you sleep.

G. Smoking

According to a study conducted by the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, people who smoke or have smoked in the past are more likely to snore than non-smokers. That’s because the smoke coming from cigarettes is a hot irritant that can cause your soft tissues to swell.

close up of a man smoking

H. Allergies

Allergies might also explain why do people snore. Whenever you breathe in allergens, such as pet dander or pollen, your throat and nose tissues swell. This causes more contact between the tissue, including a partially closed airway. The reason why this happens mostly at night is because when we’re asleep, our body is not as capable of compensating for allergens as it is when we’re awake.

I. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Some people snore because they suffer from a condition called obstructive sleep apnea. OSA is a serious condition, in which the tissue around your throat blocks your airway, either partially or entirely. In turn, this prevents you from breathing like you normally would. If you’re unsure of whether you’re suffering from OSA or not, we should mention that this condition is characterized by a person alternatively snoring really loudly and then being completely silent. In those times of silence, the person stops breathing almost entirely. This might cause them to wake up with a gasp or a loud snort. This can happen extremely often during the night, as often as five or more times per hour.

Summing It All Up

We hope today’s guide has managed to answer the question “Why do people snore?” in an interesting and detailed manner. As you were probably able to tell from the information above, there are many reasons why people snore, some more serious than others. What’s important to remember is that even though snoring is not a disease, it can be a symptom of a disease, like in the case of obstructive sleep apnea.

Because of this, checking the cause of your snoring is a really important step you have to take. Especially if you tend to snore quite often. While everybody can occasionally snore because of being sleep deprived or having consumed alcohol before going to bed, if this becomes a common occurrence, you should take some measures to prevent it, both for your sake and for the sake of the person sleeping next to you.

There are a lot of snoring remedies that you can try, from simply adjusting your sleep position, to using noninvasive devices that will open your nasal passages, wearing a snoring mouthpiece, or even having surgery (if the situation requires it). Since people who snore are typically more irritable and sleep less than people who don’t, it’s always worth investigating the causes of your snoring and treat them as best as possible.

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We all know how a firetruck looks. We also know what a firetruck does and why we need firetrucks. Have you ever wondered though, why are firetrucks red? This is true almost everywhere in the world, and since it’s something that most of us are used to seeing quite often, it makes sense that we don’t think about the reason behind this choice that much. Well, we did some research and collected the 4 most popular explanations of why firetrucks are red. Let’s have a look!

red and white firetruck

Why Are Firetrucks Red? – 4 Explanations

Cheap Paint

One of the first explanations of why firetrucks are red dates back to the earliest days of the fire department. At that time, people wouldn’t work there for a wage, but volunteer instead. Since this means they didn’t have that much money, they chose to paint the firetrucks with the cheapest paint they could find, which happened to be red.

Expensive Paint

Another completely different theory states exactly the opposite thing. This one also relates to people volunteering to be firefighters, but connects this to a sense of competition among firefighters from neighboring towns. According to this theory, they were competing for the status of the best fire department in the area, and firetrucks had a lot to do with this. Which is why they bought the most expensive paint they could find (red), in order to show to everybody that they could afford it, and use this as a source of pride.

Standing Out

The third answer to the question “Why are firetrucks red?” seems to be more plausible than the other two. This one states that the reason why firetrucks were painted red is because they should be able to stand out from the rest of the vehicles. In the 1900s, the car manufacturer Ford only sold black cars. Because of this, fire departments wanted to use a color that would allow firetrucks to stand out and would ensure that people will be able to see them better. While this makes complete sense, it’s worth wondering whether or not red is the best color that can make a firetruck stand out. The answer might be no. Other colors such as lime green or yellow are more visible after it gets dark out.

Siri’s Answer

If you were to ask Siri the question “Why are firetrucks red?”, you’d be surprised by the answer. Don’t expect the explanation to be accurate, but only to make you have a good laugh and marvel at how sassy Siri can be at times. Here’s her explanation:

Because they have eight wheels and four people on them, and four plus eight is twelve, and there are twelve inches in a foot, and one foot is a ruler, and Queen Elizabeth was a ruler, and Queen Elizabeth was also a ship, and the ship sailed the seas, and in the seas are fish, and fish have fins, and the Finns fought the Russians, and the Russians are red, and fire trucks are always “russian” around.

Should Firetrucks Be Red?

Now that we’ve seen the most popular answers to the question “Why are firetrucks red?”, we think it’s also worth exploring whether or not they should be red. According to a study conducted by Lt. James D. Wells Jr. and published in 2004, while red lights are easy to spot during the day, they’re quite difficult to see at night. The study focused on the red and blue lights that we see on emergency vehicles. It asked the question of whether they’re easier to spot on the road or not. Even if we’re talking about lights vs. paint, isn’t it natural to suppose that the same results can also be applied to red paint on a firetruck?

red and blue lights on a police car

Another study, this one conducted in 1965 by the Coventry Fire Brigade and Lanchester College of Technology, shows that yellow or lime green are easier to see at night, and even during bad weather. In the U.K., fire departments seem to have taken this study very seriously. As a result, they included retroreflective yellow markings on the rigs of their firetrucks. In the U.S., this is happening as well. More and more firetrucks in small cities and suburbs are sporting these yellow markings.

A study published in 1995 by James King and Stephen Solomon, an optometrist, encourages changing the color red of firetrucks and replacing it with lime yellow. The study looked at the Dallas Fire Department files. Then, it reported that red firetrucks crashed three times more often than white or lime yellow ones. Now, the Dallas Fire Department has lime yellow firetrucks.

Does Paint Color Matter in the End?

With all these studies, what is the conclusion that we can reach? Well, before we do reach one, we should mention yet another study. This time, this one seems to be going in the opposite direction. The study we’re talking about was conducted by the U.S. Fire Administration in 2009. While it acknowledges previous studies and how the color yellow is easier to spot than the color red, it states that color is not as important as how well people can associate it with a firetruck.

lime yellow firetruck

Since the color red has been a staple of firetrucks from the very beginning, people are less likely to associate a yellow vehicle with a firetruck. In the end, we must mention that there is no regulation concerning a certain color of firetruck. Moreover, it doesn’t seem like things will change in the near future.

We might never know for sure the answer to the question “Why are firetrucks red?”, but what we should know is that this is not a rule that applies everywhere. As such, the best thing to do is pay attention to any large vehicle with a gaudy color. It doesn’t matter whether it’s the red we know so well or not.

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Justin Bieber is an internationally famous musician, which gains a lot of money from his concerts, music sales, YouTube channel, and endorsements. According to some, most of Justin’s money come from concert tours. Being so successful and popular is hard not to ask yourself how much money he makes. In this post, we have covered the subject of Justin Bieber net worth as well as other juicy details about his personal and professional life.

justin bieber at the grammy awards

Justin Bieber Net Worth 2018

We all know how successful is Justin as an artist and a musician. He has tours after tours all over the globe, and his songs become hits immediately after he launches them. Due to all these facts, we can assume that he is quite rich, especially for a young adult. So, how much is Justin Bieber net worth? The net worth of Justin Bieber has reached the sum of 241 million dollars as of February 2016. This is an impressive sum for everybody, especially for a 22-year-old person. Moreover, estimations show that Justin Bieber net worth will continue to increase. He might even end up the year with over 250 million dollars.

He became a musician at a very early age. Although in the past few years, Justin has shown signs of bad behavior and other personality issues that you might not approve, he has plenty of talent. Moreover, he has millions of fans who attend most of his shows. From these events and merchandise, Justin earns approximately 50 million dollars per year or even more.

Justin Bieber’s Personal Life

justin bieber and selena gomez

Justin Drew Bieber was born on March 1st, 1994, and he is one of the richest young musicians in the world. We all know his influence on young girls and the way he drives teenagers crazy with his music, style and attitude. His birth place is in Ontario, Canada. He is his parents’ only child. They were never married. Justin was raised by his mother and his stepfather.

Justin Biebers net worth’s roots began and developed since 2007. Then is when Scooter Braun, a So So Def Recordings marketing executive, saw Justin’s performance on a YouTube video by accident. Soon after posting his online videos, Justin became an Internet sensation. I bet that during his early childhood, he and his parents would have been extremely surprised to find out how much people will talk about Justin Bieber net worth and how popular he will eventually become.

Between 2010 and 2013, Bieber was in a relationship with Selena Gomez. Recently he began dating Sofia Richie, a fashion model, and Lionel Richie’s daughter. Justin says he is a Christian and that he communicates with God through prayers. Also, he loves his country, Canada, stating it is the best country in the world. Although he currently resides in California, United States, he is not interested in obtaining US citizenship.

Justin’s Bad Reputation and Law Problems

Bieber was involved in several scandals and problems with the law ever since 2011. In 2014, he even was arrested, in Miami, Florida. There were multiple reasons for his arrest, including driving under the influence of alcohol, resisting arrest, and driving with an expired license. Prior to this incident, Justin had other issues with the law caused by his reckless behavior, vandalism, and heavy partying. Over 270,000 people in America signed a petition in which they requested the White House to deport Bieber from the United States.

Have These Issues Affected His Net Worth?

Although he was accused of many bad things, and he was even held in police custody, Bieber’s popularity seems not to be affected at all. Moreover, his wealth and awareness keep increasing as well as his fans number. It is true that some people don’t like him anymore. In fact, as I previously mentioned, they have even created a petition to kick Bieber out of the United States. Regardless, more and more teens love him and dream to become him. Young girls fantasize about dating him.

So, what is his secret? Is Justin Bieber estimated net worth the thing that keeps attracting those around him? Well, not really! We must admit that money can be appealing to a lot of people. But Bieber has something more than that. He has charisma and a certain attitude that makes fans idolatrize him. On the other hand, in these last couple of years, his overall popularity decreased, according to the Forbes’ most powerful celebrities list from 2013.

Justin Bieber’s Professional Life & Achievements

a younger justin bieber playing the piano

When he was only 12 years old, Bieber participated in a talent contest, and he won the second place. This event set him on a totally different path. After the contest, him and his mom uploaded videos on YouTube of him singing covers of popular bands and singers such as Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Ne-Yo. In just a couple of months, Bieber became an internet sensation. Soon after that, he signed with Usher.

His first single, “One Time,” was released in 2009. However, the true hit was his featuring with Ludacris, “Baby,” which gained a place in the Billboard Top 10, in 2010. Another popular single is “Boyfriend,” which appeared in 2012. Since then, Bieber has had only successful songs and music activities. Moreover, he became a desired public person for brand endorsements and commercials. This is why Justin Bieber net worth has gone through the roof.

Throughout his entire career, Justin has sold approximately 100 million records. This made him the best-selling Canadian artist. Moreover, he is one of the most popular artists in the world and among the most wealthiest ones. Bieber received three Grammy nominations, winning one of them. He can be proud of his awards, including thirteen Billboard Music Awards.

Justin Bieber Philanthropy

Justin is not only a musician but also a businessperson and a philanthropist. He is an angel investor for multiple technology companies. He supports Adam Braun’s charity, called Pencils of Promise. Adam is Bieber’s manager younger brother. His organization enables educational opportunities and builds schools. Bieber is also the celebrity spokesman for this foundation. He attends fund-raising events and donates part of his profits from his concerts and product sales that have Bieber’s name on them (he launched his own perfumes).

Putting It All Together

As you could find out above, Justin Bieber net worth is situated around 241 million dollars, which is an incredible sum. Although Bieber has been involved in a lot of troubles, we have to admit he is talented and has a great voice. So, I guess having a nice voice combined with a great team that supports and promotes you, is the required recipe for success. This young Canadian artist has proven to all of us that if you dream and want something bad enough, you can achieve it!

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We all know who Ellen DeGeneres is and most of us like her as well as her catchy and intelligent jokes. She has recently received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Barack Obama. Ellen is a popular and appreciated actress, comedian, and television host. Moreover, she is also a successful entrepreneur. Below, you will discover more details regarding Ellen’s personal and professional life as well her net worth. So, what is Ellen DeGeneres net worth? You are about to find out!

ellen degeneres professional photo

How Much Is Ellen DeGeneres Worth?

According to Ellen DeGeneres net worth Forbes release, the well-known Hollywood star is worth approximately 360 million dollars. in 2018, Ellen earned 75 million dollars. The fact that she has appeared in the popular animated movie Finding Dory has a lot to do with how much money she gained in the year that’s about to end. In fact, Ellen makes no less than 220, 000 dollars every day, which is more than amazing. According to Forbes, her salary has rapidly increased over the last few years, reaching up to 63 million dollars.

Let’s Get to Know Ellen a Little Better

Ellen is a famous American actress and comedian, best known for her TV show. She was born in Louisiana, in Elliott and Elizabeth’s family. She is the family’s second child, after her brother, Vance, which is a famous actor, musician, and film producer. Even though Ellen DeGeneres net worth is higher compared to the one of her brother, Vance is still a successful artist, and he has plenty of accomplishments in his career too.

Ellen’s parents filed for divorced when she was only thirteen years old. After that, she moved to Texas with her mother, while Vance remained with their father. Once she became a student, she was forced to take several jobs to pay the bills. Her showbiz career began when she was a little over 20 years old.

In the 9180s, she even had a tour across America, as a stand-up comedian. People liked her since the first moment they saw her. She has that charisma that makes you enjoy watching her. In 2003, her TV show was first aired. This is when her career really took off.

Fun & Interesting Facts about Ellen DeGeneres

ellen degeneres on the set of her TV show

  • She earns 220,000 dollars per day. As I mentioned above, she currently has a salary of 63 million dollars per year.
  • Ellen has had plenty of jobs before gaining success at Hollywood. She works as a paralegal, a waitress, a vacuum cleaner saleswoman and a bartender.
  • As a kid, Ellen dreamed of becoming a veterinarian. As it turns out, she had other hidden talents.
  • According to some sources, she even wanted to become an interior designer, which is why she wrote a book that contains tips and ideas on how to create your dream house.
  • In 2009, Record Labels sued her, over copyrights. They stated that in the part of the show in which Ellen dances with the audience, more than 1,000 songs were played without paying for licenses.

Ellen DeGeneres Professional Life

Ellen got famous due to her successful and acclaimed stand-up comedy performances. At first, her appearances were at clubs and coffee houses. She even was the Master of Ceremonies for the Clyde’s Comedy Club, in 1980, in New Orleans. About the same time, she went on a tour across America. After that, she gained the title of the “Funniest Person in America,” given to her by Showtime television network.

In 1986, she had an appearance on the Tonight Show with Johnny Carson. In fact, that was a first for the show, because no other comedian was invited to be present on set until that point. Ellen is so talented that she was invited to present the Grammy Awards two years in a row, in 1996 and 1997. The Oprah Winfrey Show was the place where Ellen came out as a lesbian, in 1997. But her most outstanding work is her signature TV show.

Ellen DeGeneres Personal Life

ellen degeneres and her wife portia de rossi

Although Ellen makes a great deal of money now, she wasn’t always rich. In fact, she used to sell vacuum cleaners. She was born in Louisiana, in 1958. DeGeneres was raised in New Orleans as well as Atlanta, Texas. Her childhood was a typical one. Although Ellen attended communications classes at the University of New Orleans, she eventually dropped out after only one semester.

Both her parents are retired now. Her mother was a speech therapist while her father worked as an insurance agent. Ellen has a brother, Vance. As I mentioned previously, he is also an artist with a successful career. Although Ellen was a gifted and talented person, her comedian skills were not displayed until she turned 20. Since then, she is on a continuously growing trend when it comes to her success and popularity. Probably, this is why Ellen DeGeneres net worth is so incredibly high.

Ellen is the first female actress and TV personality who came out as gay in front of the entire nation, on national television. As a result, she lost a lot of fans and received plenty of backlashes. In those times, being a lesbian was not something easily acceptable. She made incredible changes for the better, and she has had a positive impact on society. Ellen has initiated so many good things that now she is one of the most influential celebrities in the world.

Ellen DeGeneres Achievements

Ellen DeGeneres net worth places her among the best paid Hollywood celebrities. Moreover, she earns more money compared with other daytime talk-show hosts. in 2018, she has won the People’s Choice Award again, making this the 16th times she receives this title.

She won the Saturn Award due to her voice-over performance in the Finding Nemo animation. Between 2004 and 2014, Ellen received no less than 25 Emmy Awards.

So, how much does Ellen DeGeneres make? As I previously mentioned, Ellen DeGeneres net worth is somewhere around 360 million dollars, which is quite impressive. However, considering her hard work and talent, this might not come as a surprise.

Wrapping It Up

Ellen DeGeneres net worth is as high as her popularity and appreciation. She has a well-known name in the television world and the showbiz industry. Although she began as a stand-up comedian, she has accomplished many other things. Her career is complex, including acting and entrepreneurial successes. It is true that it took her a little while to discover her true calling. But once she decided to pursue her passion, the entire world fell in love with her character as well as her as a great and humble human being.

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One of the fiercest biological threats in the past few years, the Ebola virus affects humans and other primates. It spreads mostly through contact with infected bodily fluids, although fruit bats carry the virus in nature but are not affected by it. It has also been discovered that breast milk or semen of a recovering person can contain strains of the virus for months.

It tipically kills its victim after 6 to 16 days from the first symptoms of Ebola and approximately 50% of the people infected survive. Given this short time, scientists are yet to discover the exact timeline of the changes that take place in the body.

what are the symptoms of ebola visual representation

Symptoms of Ebola

While it generally takes 2 to 21 days from exposure to the first symptoms, it has been recently discovered that approximately 5% of the victims might experience signs of infection after more than 22 days. As soon as it enters the body, the virus affects the immune system which is why the virus is so vicious and destructive. Once the immune system cannot fight it, the virus begins to replicate and spread throughout the body.

First signs of Ebola infection could be easily mistaken for influenza:

  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Fever (101 °F or higher)
  • Lack of appetite
  • Muscular and joint pain
  • Headaches
  • Sore throat
  • Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain

In most of the cases, the next stage is what makes the difference between a simple influenza and the Ebola virus:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Swelling
  • Confusion
  • Rash with small bumps (5 to 7 days after the first symptoms of Ebola)

After about 6 days, the virus reaches the soft tissues and organs. Because of this, there is a significant possibility of bleeding internally and externally:

  • Bleeding from the mucous tissues or from needle punctures
  • Vomiting, coughing up blood or finding blood in stool
  • Bleeding under the skin
  • Bleeding from injection punctures
  • Heavy bleeding from and through the gastrointestinal track (less common)

Most deaths usually happen not because of the virus itself, but because of blood loss. After all, the virus’ purpose is to find a home and keep it. Death is painful and most of the people who don’t survive end up in a coma until the end of their life.

How Ebola works

Ebolavirus is considered a category A bioterrorism agent by CDCP and a biosafety level 4 agent. Although there have been studies about using it in a biological war, it turned out that for now this might be difficult considering that it becomes ineffective extremely quickly in open air.

In humans, the virus first attacks and disables the immune system, and starts replicating very quickly. At the same time, it attacks the endothelial cells found on the inside of blood vessels. The virus uses the broken immune system to travel to the lymph nodes, where it further reproducts. It can now easily enter the bloodstream and spread. Next, it affects the soft tissue of organs, and then the muscles. The replication process causes a septic state by triggering the release of inflammatory chemical agents.

First cells to be affected by the virus are macrophages, in charge of “eating” viruses or other microscopic intruders. The infection causes a programmed death among these and white cells in the blood, which further weakens the infected organism and its immune response.

The endothelial cells are usually affected by the symptoms of Ebola after about 3 days from infection, followed by liver damage and improper clotting of blood.


For those who manage to survive the virus, the recovery is tough. Unfortunately, the virus leaves permanent damage to soft tissues which leads to these permanent or semi-permanent symptoms of Ebola:

  • Joint and muscle pain (in about 70% of the cured people)
  • Liver problems (mostly, but not limited to inflammation)
  • Headaches (in about 48% of cases)
  • Hearing problems
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vision problems/loss, excessive tearing or eye sensitivity (experienced by 14%)
  • Weight problems
  • Skin peeling
  • Hair loss
  • Inflammation


The virus can and, in most cases, will stay in some body areas after the infection has been treated. These include eyes, breasts and testicles. Thus, it is possible (but quite unlikely) for Ebola to be sexually transmitted.

Treatment of Ebola

There are a few experimental treatments that undergo trials at the moment. However, because of the speed at which the virus attacks and destroys the exposed organism, the treatment is mostly supportive:

  • Oral or intravenous rehydration
  • Pain, nausea and fever control
  • Anxiety management, psychological care
  • Transfusions for those who have lost too much blood
  • Coagulation regulators
  • Maintaining electrolytes balance
  • Treating infections
  • Dialysis for those who suffered kidney failure
  • Artificial membrane oxygenation for those who suffer from lung problems

There are certain situations where professional care is not an option. In this case, the patient will be moved by using chlorine-soaked towels. The sheets, hands, clothes or any other object that came to contact with the infected person must be thoroughly washed with bleach. The caregivers must also cover their face (especially mouth or nose) with a cloth, although it is advised to wear eye protection too.

epitelial cell from the kidney of a monkey being infected with ebola

Animals and Ebola

Primates are the group with the highest mortality, according to recent studies. It has been shown that 5000 gorillas lost their lives because of the virus. The chimpanzee population from the Lossi sanctuary registered an 88% drop because of this virus. They are even more susceptive to the outbreak because of their meat consumption.

As for domestic animals, it has been shown that pigs can carry the virus, although it is not yet known if the virus can be further transmitted to humans through meat consumption. In certain areas, dogs have shown seroprevalence without any sign of symptoms of Ebola.


One thing is certain: the Ebola virus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a painful and violent death or damages an organism for life. Although we still lack plenty of information about how it works and, more importantly, how it can be stopped, progress is made on a daily basis inside the virology labs that will hopefully help us defeat this biological threat once and for all.

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The famous Victoria Beckham’s net worth has been a growingly popular topic ever since her debut, in the early days of the Spice Girls. Although some sources claim her net worth to be $300 million, there are others out there that swear the Victoria Beckham net worth is well over $450 million. One thing is sure: she is worth a lot and is doing increasingly well from the financial perspective.

Actually, the star has proved time and time again that if she set her mind to doing something, not much can stop her. She has been a well-known singer within the famous Spice Girls group and a model. Nowadays, she is a worldwide-known designer and a successful businesswoman.

Victoria Beckham’s Life and her Achievements

Little Victoria was born into a wealthy home. Her childhood has generally good, although a bit shaded by the fact that she was often bullied at school. One day, she decided she would become famous after seeing the movie “Fame”, which deeply touched and inspired her. Her education from a famous theatre and arts college allowed her to deepen the knowledge about performing and helped her start the band “Persuasion”. A little bit later, at 20 years old, she became truly famous as part of the Spice Girls.

spice girls victoria beckham net worth

After releasing 3 albums and enjoying the fame and admiration of millions of fans, Victoria (also known as Posh Spice inside the music group) realized what she wants and needs is a solo career. She felt her music should have an urban influence and worked tirelessly for a new R&B and hip-hop inspired album. Unfortunately, her solo career was considered a failure after the first single was released. A series of unfortunate events led to her quitting the m
usic industry and focusing on her fashion career. The Spice Girls reunited in 2007, releasing a “Greatest Hits” album which put about $20 million in her bank account.

Since then, she published two best-selling books and started her famous fashion line which mainly focused on dresses. Later on, the production of handbags, sunglasses and perfumes boosted Victoria Beckham net worth even more.

David and Victoria Beckham Net Worth

As of early March 2016, we can’t really talk about the famous couple’s net worth since they are, unfortunately, undergoing divorce. Even though splitting and getting back together multiple times per year was not uncommon, the couple and close friends consider this separation to be final.

Nevertheless, sources state that the Beckham family have over $700 million to split between them. With David’s almost $250 million soccer revenue and Victoria’s almost $100 million only from her fashion career, there’s no surprise in finding out their children started earning their own money at a relatively young age. It’s not yet clear what Romeo and Brooklyn Beckham’s net worth is, but a modeling career and an advertising campaign front for Burberry definitely bring in some nice cash.

The Beckham name by itself is worth over $100 million, so a rough estimation of all their other assets will push the couple’s net worth well more than $700 million.

What Shaped the Victoria Beckham Net Worth?

Well, we’ve already mentioned her music career which, of course, still brings in some money. However, her main source of income is her fashion empire, which seems to grow stronger every day. After it has been rumored that David resigned from his director position at Victoria’s fashion label, it looks like all the revenue will spill into her accounts only. She is, without question, a dedicated business woman who was meant for her career.

The accomplished Victoria also involved herself in television, recording multiple documentaries. These focused on her interviewing multiple celebrities, talking about her solo album or recording different events from Victoria and David Beckham’s life.

Even though “Being Victoria Beckham” – the documentary meant to boost her music career – was very well-received by its audiences, the album did not stand a chance. It was clear: she needed a change of perspective.

Victoria Beckham net worth


We weren’t surprised to find out that Victoria Beckham is a multi-talented and extremely capable woman, and this goes further than her voice or her financial sense and intuition. 15 years ago, after the unfortunate end to her solo music career, her first book came out. The autobiography “Learning to fly” climbed the best-seller book chart and claimed the first spot one month after its release. It talks about her childhood, her life as a Spice girl and marriage with the famous football player.

Finally, it settled for the third spot for non-fiction novels, selling over 50 thousand copies. The star made sure to promote her book in the most effective ways, but what added the most to Victoria Beckham net worth was selling the preview and serialization rights to a group of magazines and newspapers. This rewarded the star with almost $150 million.

In 2006 she released her second book, intended to give detailed fashion tips and tricks. “Hair, Heels and Everything in Between” was bought over 400 thousand times in the UK alone when it first got out, but it still holds countless quality and popularity awards in 2018.


The fashion world always seemed to allure the young Victoria. Her debut on the catwalk was during the 2000 Fashion Week in London but involved herself in multiple fashion projects. Her first line of clothing developed under the guidance of Rock & Republic in 2004 and mainly focused on high-end jeans, which sold in the US for about $300.

Launched in 2008, the Victoria Beckham fashion label managed to reach New York Fashion Week standards in 3 years. With annual sales well over $80 million and handbags that sold for as much as $25 thousand, she decided a lower-priced label was needed. She quickly became a respected and appreciated fashion designer when multiple critics confirmed that her husband’s fame has absolutely nothing to do with the fashion label’s success. It was all thanks to a high quality and a distinct, tasteful design.

We can effortlessly see how intelligent and proficient Victoria Beckham is. Even though her life has been critical and hard-hitting here and there, the star always found not only a way out, but a way to reinvent and uplift herself in surprising ways. No matter what the Victoria Beckham net worth is, we are sure she deserves every penny of it, and maybe more.

What do you think? Who is your favorite mastermind and what have they done to earn your respect?

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Many know him as one of the Founding Fathers of America, but what did Thomas Jefferson do in the rest of the time? Of course, developing the document that made America what it is today is more than enough to earn everyone’s admiration and to ensure his name will remain as one of the most resounding in American and universal history books, but the fact is, Thomas Jefferson was an upstanding citizen and politician all throughout.

What did thomas jefferson do portrait of jefferson

If you’re wandering what did Thomas Jefferson do that you benefit from today, here are some of his achievements that impacted the US history from the least known to the most popular:

What Did Thomas Jefferson Do for Our Nation?

The effects of his actions shaped America’s economy, education, and judiciary system in ways that surpass our expectations.

 What Did Thomas Jefferson Do for the National Debt?

When Thomas Jefferson first assumed the presidential office he faced a $83 million national debt. After only two terms, he managed to reduce it to $57 million by eliminating the excises for whiskey and other taxes, reducing the number of offices, employees, and other unnecessary expenses at the time, like a big part of the Navy. Given it was peacetime, one fleet of gunboats could be used as a defense line.

Abolished primogeniture

As state legislator and governor of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson received the task of revising the state’s laws and drafted over 120 bills in the three years. Most of them were improved land ownership or the judicial system overall while others supported education, but the biggest change in the way society works came from abolishing the firstborn son’s right to his parents’ entire inheritance.

Doubled the Country’s Territory

In 1800, Spanish ceded Louisiana to France, a cause of great concern for Thomas Jefferson since this posed a threat to all the Northern American continent, including shipping on the Mississippi River. Fortunately, Napoleon was in the meantime concerned that funds for their wars in Europe were scarce and would have gladly accepted $10 million for New Orleans and other areas from the coast (roughly 40,000 square miles) which James Monroe and Robert Livingston asked for, following Thomas Jefferson’s advice.

However, Napoleon did something even better: a counteroffer for 827,987 square miles for only $15 million. This not only doubled the country’s territory but also provided enough fertile land for it to become self-sufficient and give up disadvantaging trades with other countries.

Main Drafter of the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson is considered the primary author of this fate-changing act. He was chosen by other members of the Committee to write the first draft of the Declaration after Adams convinced them he was the right candidate. After a few small adjustments, the final draft was introduced to Congress.

What did thomas jefferson do for the declaration of independence

What did Thomas Jefferson Do for the Slaves?

During his early career, when practicing law after being admitted to the bar in 1767, Thomas Jefferson took 7 cases of slaves that wanted to regain their freedom and even waived the fee for one of his clients. Although they did not win the case, Thomas Jefferson offered a financial consolation for his client, who later used it to escape from his master. He also tried to reform many principles of slavery, including giving masters the opportunity to emancipate their slaves.

As a chairman of Committees, Jefferson tried to ban slavery through an ordinance, initiative that was rejected by the Congress. However, after slight modifications, these provisions were implemented in 1787 in the Northwest.

Although criticized by some historians for being a slave owner himself, Jefferson is defended by others saying he offered good working conditions and excused by the huge personal debt he acquired from her wife’s inheritance.

what did thomas jefferson do signing the declaration of independence

What Did Thomas Jefferson Do for Education?

After his second presidential term, Jefferson dedicated his life to education. He sold the impressive book collection to the Library of Congress and founded the University of Virginia.

Jefferson wanted to create an educational system completely uninfluenced by the power of the church. This would offer a wider selection of areas for aspiring students to specialize in. He strongly believed education should be publicly funded and accessible to youth based on their intellectual abilities, not financial ones. At 76 years old, Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia and made use of his architectural skills to personally design the building.

Although Thomas Jefferson had a huge impact on the way America sees politics, religion, education, and racial differences, his greatest achievements can surely be credited to his ability to formulate and express ideas. He was the one who voiced what a whole nation did not know they needed in a clear and calculated manner. He elegantly integrated his knowledge of history, philosophy, and foreign languages in his day to day life and made law writing an art. His phrase “All men are created equal” stands as evidence of his politically correct way of thinking and is worldwide known for changing the way people see other people.

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Closely related to dogs, a fox as a pet has become more and more popular over the last years and it’s easy to see why: apart from their overwhelming cuteness, foxes are affectionate and playful animals. Since humans have expanded more and more into their natural habitats, many groups of foxes have become entirely urban, which also developed into a generally friendly relationship between humans and foxes.

fennec fox as a pet

Even though countryside residents tend to despise them because they often roam chicken coops, they are very appreciated pets by those who want to invest into acquiring and caring for one.

Which Species Make the Best Pets?

Although there are some common traits among foxes from the same species, just like with humans or dogs, every individual has particularities. Since for some aspiring fox owners, the financial aspect might be relevant, too, we’ve included the approximate starting prices for pups from each breed. However, these are likely to vary in terms of the breeder, location, or time of the year.

Red & Silver Fox as a Pet

Red foxes have a similar behavior to dogs: they’re energetic, upbeat and affectionate if properly cared for from a young age. They are larger in size compared to other species, often surpassing 23lbs in weight. They are common in the US wilderness, hence the most allowed species to have as a pet throughout the country.

Silver foxes are basically red foxes with different pigmentation. They exhibit the same psychological traits and reach similar sizes. Their fur can exhibit variations from completely black to a bluish or white tint, hence the name “silver fox”.

Starting price for a pup: $400

Fennec as a Pet

A fennec definitely is one of the cutest pets one could own. Their small bodies and large ears make them adorable, and their affectionate and playful personalities also help with this perception. Although very energetic when they are awake, they do like to sleep a lot during the day and might be a little noisy during the night. After all, they are nocturnal animals by nature.

Starting price for a pup: $350

Arctic Fox as a Pet

Given their natural habitat, arctic foxes are very sensitive to heat so a cozy area inside an air-conditioned room during summer is needed. They are gorgeous animals but are the most prone to exhibiting aggression in their early life. They are smaller than a red fox, but also have a stronger body odor which can be difficult to get over for some.

Starting price for a pup: $600

arctic fox as a pet

Is It Legal to Have a Fox as a Pet?

Many US states forbid keeping an initially wild animal as a pet, and some even prohibit having a wildling that doesn’t naturally inhabit said state’s territory from fear this could bring an imbalance in the local ecosystem. However, there are some states like Maine or Indiana that don’t even prohibit having an endangered animal as a pet.

Having a fox as a pet is forbidden in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Washington, Washington DC, and West Virginia.

It is generally allowed to have a fox as a pet in the rest of the states, although some may impose restrictions on the species or the number of individuals. There are other states that clearly regulate the conditions needed for legally owning and caring for a pet fox, like the size of its shelter.

Having a fox as a pet is allowed in Michigan, Maine, Indiana, Arkansas (all species), Illinois, Mississippi, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming (only local grey & red foxes), Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, New York (only fennec foxes), North Carolina, North Dakota, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Utah (only red foxes).

There are some states that have a special status when considering the legislation of having a fox as a pet.

For example, if you live in Kentucky you can legally possess a fox as long as it’s purchased from a breeder. However, there are no fox breeders in this state, which makes it impossible to come into possession of a pet fox legally. However, fox lovers can import bat-eared foxes.

It is technically legal to own a pet fox in Pennsylvania. However, you will need at least 2 years of experience in caring for foxes in order to get a permit. Many fox lovers from this state claim the PGC is one of the most difficult state agencies to deal with and that they don’t even hand out permits anymore.

However, like any other legislative act, these laws are likely to change with time, so always check with your local officials before purchasing a pet fox if you don’t want to pay up to a few thousand dollars in fines and have your fox taken away by the local animal control authority.

red fox as a pet

How to Care for Your Pet Fox?

Some things to do before getting your new pet fox are:

Pet proofing the house, since they can be noisy and could hurt themselves or break valuables.

Building an outdoor shelter of more than 100 square feet if your fox is native to the area you live in. Foxes mostly like shade so make sure you place the shelter under a tree or cover it, but a bit of sun might make them happy, too. The area should be on steady, dry ground and protected from strong winds. In addition, given that they are able jumpers, this shelter should be well covered with netting. A dog house or some other type of covered and cozy walled refuge is recommended inside the shelter.

Since some species don’t take heat well, arranging an indoor space might be required. A cozy bed in a cool room with plenty of activities while you are out will satisfy even the most squeamish pet fox. They can be litter trained and will generally accommodate well indoors, too.

It is recommended to acquire a fox pup no older than 3 weeks. This will develop a stronger connection, causing the fox to be very tame and seek your affection. Therefore, bottle feeding and constant care will be required for the first few weeks in their new home. This will If you are a workaholic and live by yourself, you might want to rethink your choice of having a fox as a pet, or you could choose to buy an older fox. However, this will not guarantee your friendship with it.

Being playful by their nature, foxes love toys and see them in almost everything around them, from computer cords to pillows. In order to avoid destruction, make as many toys available as you can. Ropes can be fun, dog toys are great and little things that move (like a mechanical mouse toy) will do wonders.

Having a pet as a fox definitely is a challenge that pays off big time. They are fun and unusual, and discovering their personalities or how much they resemble our older friends like cats and dogs is a treat for animal lovers.

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Want to know some interesting dinosaur facts? We all know that the famous T. Rex had short arms or that dinosaurs reigned our planet for at least 165 million years, up until 65 million years ago. These animals lived through Pangaea breaking up into the continents that evolved into what we see today when we look at a map.

Even though you are passionate about fossils and dinosaurs, it’s impossible to know everything about all the species or their particularities. Here are the most interesting dinosaur facts that we found:


18 Surprising Dinosaur Facts

Although movies and museums focus on the large specimens since they are the most impressive, many species were closer to a seagull or a rat when talking about size. A pterodactyl pterosaur called Nemicolopterus Crypticus had a 10-inch wingspan.

smallest dinosaur facts

  • With a body the size of a small bus, the Stegosaurus’ brain measured a little over one inch, making it one of the dumbest dinosaurs. The smartest, however, are thought to have been the small carnivore dinosaurs, if we’re considering the brain/body ratio.
  • Officially, the avian lineage of dinosaurs is not considered to be extinct but rather slightly modified and represented nowadays by birds. this is one of the dinosaur facts that baffles us the most.
  • During the reign of the dinosaurs, giant fleas were a slight inconvenience to them and an almost sure death to other smaller creatures. These insects had strong mouthparts and generally were an inch long.
  • It is commonly accepted among scientists that fossils of dinosaurs and other prehistoric reptiles are directly responsible for the development of mythology revolving around sea monsters and dragons.
  • The T. Rex is much closely related to birds than it is to certain other dinosaur species like the Mamenchisaurus, the tall and presumably gentle herbivore.

largest Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton dinosaur facts

  • Antarctica was populated by dinosaurs. In the Cretaceous (144 million years ago – 65 million years ago), this continent enjoyed warmer weather and supported many life forms, including dinosaurs.
  • Up until a few years ago, the existence of warm-blooded dinosaurs, generally carnivores, and cold-blooded dinosaurs, mainly herbivores, was a commonly accepted theory. However, it has been recently suggested that dinosaurs’ blood was neither cold, nor hot, but more likely a combination of features from both categories that involves perpetual changes and improvements in metabolism over the course of a dinosaur’s life.

The largest dinosaur ever was a herbivore called Argentinosaurus, which could reach 115 feet in length.

  • Sauropods, long-necked herbivores like the aforementioned Argentinosaurus, were very gassy creatures because of their fiber-rich diet and a bacteria needed to process their meals.
  • The main reason we know so many dinosaur facts and information about each dinosaur’s diet is thanks to fossilized feces.
  • Not all reptiles that lived during the Mesozoic Era were dinosaurs. Actually, dinosaurs only round up to about 10% of the reptiles from that time, the rest of 90% being either Pterodactyls, giant lizards, sea serpents, pelycosaurs or other prehistoric lizards.
schematic evolution of dinosaur facts and misconceptions

The evolution of dinosaurs with the Saurischia on the right and Ornithischia on the left, together with representative silhouettes.

  • Another common and plausible theory that has recently gained the attention of scientists and paleontologists is that dinosaurs’ extinction allowed other life forms – like mammals – to evolve faster and to grow larger thanks to the lack of predators.
  • However, there is evidence of mammals eating small dinosaurs or raiding the nests of big predators or herbivores. This proves that dinosaurs were not always at the top of the food chain.
  • Some dinosaurs swallowed rocks in order to better digest their food.
  • An adult Hadrosaurus had well over 1,000 teeth.
  • The largest dinosaur ever was a herbivore called Argentinosaurus, which could reach 115 feet in length.
  • Although the T. Rex gets all the credit, the largest carnivore was the Spinosaurus. it could measure over 50 feet in length and weigh 3 times more than a T. Rex.
  • Contrary to commonly found dinosaur facts, popular belief, and most depictions that show dinosaurs as having leathery or scaly skin, protofeathers were extremely common among terrestrial dinosaurs, including the famous velociraptor.

dinosaur with feathers fossil dinosaur facts

There is no doubt about it, dinosaurs were majestic and impressive creatures. Even though their reign was cut short in what appears to be a slow and painful death, their fate stands as clear evidence for how ruthless and unforgiving nature can be. Please tell us your favorite dinosaur facts using the comment section.

Image sources: 1, 2, 3, 4.

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All responsible dog owners must ask themselves several questions a day related to their pets’ health and well-being. One of the most popular questions asked by people all around the world is: can dogs eat grapes? This question that continues to baffle dog owners has a very straightforward answer: dogs can’t eat grapes or raisins, as a matter of fact.

The fruits seem innocent to us and some find it hard to grasp why their dog must not eat grapes or raisins. However, the explanation is simple. Grapes have no harmful effect on humans, but they can be toxic for dogs. Despite the fact that scientists are still struggling to pinpoint the exact toxin within grapes that can make dogs sick, they are certain that both grapes and raisins have the potential to trigger an unpleasant reaction for dogs.

dog grapes

Since a cloud of mystery floats around the question how many grapes can a dog eat, the best way to approach the issue is to be extra careful. There are no indications that grape poisoning is in any way influenced by the breed, gender or the age of the dog. Taking all these into consideration, the best way to keep your dog safe is to avoid feeding him or her grapes or raisin.

In some cases, ingesting grapes or raisins have led to fatal consequences for the dog. The reason behind their death was kidney failure, which was a result of the grape compounds that act as toxins when they are consumed by dogs.

What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Grape Toxicity?

Now that we have answered the question can dogs eat grapes, we should also take a look at the symptoms and signs a dog may exhibit after ingesting either grapes or raisins. Even if the owner does not directly feed the dog these dangerous fruits, accidents happen. An unsupervised dog can always take advantage of the moment and nibble on grapes. Here are the clues that could point to a toxic ingestion:

  1. Your dog has lost his/her appetite and refuses to eat its favorite food.
  2. The pet is unusually still, refuses to play, go out of the house and is lethargic.
  3. The dog has diarrhea or starts vomiting. This will usually occur within a couple or a few hours after the dog has eaten grapes or raisins.
  4. The dog’s abdomen is tender when you touch it, which indicate abdominal pain.
  5. The dog present dehydration signs which often include a dry nose, heavy panting, and very pale gums. The easiest way to test is your dog is suffering from dehydration is to softly pull the skin on the dog’s nape of the neck, which should spring back on the spot.

It is strongly recommended to immediately take your pet to the veterinarian when you notice a couple or more of the symptoms mentioned above. By knowing the answer to the question can dogs eat grapes, dog owners can take measure to keep their pets safe and can act safely in case of an accident.

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If you’re been wondering what are birthmarks, the answer is simpler than you thought: these blemishes that can be spotted at birth or that appear shortly after the baby is born are often purple, red, pink or brown and are the result of pigment cells clustering or abnormal blood vessels. A great number of babies are born with birthmarks while scientists are still trying to answer the question what are birthmarks caused by?

What Are Birthmarks’ Causes

Scientists are still trying to elucidate the mystery, however, one thing is for certain: they are not hereditary. Certain folklores are not as dumbfounded as scientists, claiming that a baby will have a birthmark is the mother’s cravings are not satisfied. In Italy and Spain it is believed that pregnant women who can’t get their hands on strawberries when they’re craving the fruits will have a baby with a mark resembling a strawberry on their skin.

newborn with pale pink birthmark

Types of Birthmarks

No matter if it’s brown, pink, purple or bright red, it’s still a birthmark. There are two main categories we can divide birthmarks into:

1. Pigmented Birthmarks

This type of birthmarks will appear as a cause of skin pigment cells excess:

  • Moles – varying from light brown to black (for medium to dark skin tones), moles can appear anywhere on the body, and particularly in the neck and head area. Moles can have any shape, size, and feel (from flat to lumpy).
  • Café au lait spots – just like moles, café au lait spots can also appear on any part of the body. Their shape is often oval and their color ranges from brown to light brown. Café au lait spots can appear during the child’s first years. It’s not uncommon for a person to have one or two light brown spots on their body. These can stretch as the child grows older and increase in size.
  • Mongolian spots – this distinct birthmark can be blue, gray, deep brown or blue with black hints and has an irregular shape with wavy borders. It owes its name to being widespread among Mongolians. Although babies are born with a Mongolian spot, this birthmark will disappear by the time the child turns five or by puberty, at the latest.

2. Vascular Birthmarks

  • Macular stains – also known as a salmon patch, this type of birthmark is a flat, pink patch that often appears on the knees, the nape of the neck or the eyelids. The salmon patch doesn’t feel any different than regular skin.
  • Hemangiomas – strawberry marks are raised and red patches. In some cases, the strawberry mark will grow during the baby’s first five months of life and then fade away.
  • Port-wine stains – ranging from a deep wine red color to pale pinks, port-wine stains are often very large and appear as a consequence of nerve supplies being deprived of blood vessels.

Although we can’t give you the full answer to the question what are birthmarks, it’s worth keeping in mind that, most of the times, they are harmless and can even fade away by the time the child reaches puberty.

Image source: 1

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What motivates employees to do their jobs properly and wholeheartedly? We here at access2knowldge.org have asked ourselves this question many times while writing about their wages. And we’ve come to some interesting observations.

In which case would you be more likely to accept raking the leaves for a friendly neighbour: as a favour or when you know he/she’ll pay you for it? After you’ve answered that, you should also ask yourself in which of these cases you would do the work more efficiently. Bottom line, several research papers all seem to point at one major fact: money doesn’t make for good motivation. In fact, they argue the contrary – when an employee receives too much revenue, his or her productivity drops below that of a normally paid one. My hypothesis: employees are motivated by money, but only to a certain degree.

funny employee motivation drawing

How do we know that? First of all, it’s common sense: getting financial retribution for the completion of a task will indeed motivate you to do it. Secondly, there are all these other sources:

What Motivates Employees – Minimum Wage Discussion

Frances O’Grady, general secretary of the Trade Union Centre, was quoted calling the bluff on the government’s plan to raise minimum wage only for older workers saying:

They face the same expenses as other adults and are highly productive. Not paying them the full minimum wage will demotivate younger adults, who will get less pay than their colleagues for the same work. (Demianyk, 2015)

That was back in December 2015 when the Ministers were raising the minimum wage in the UK, otherwise known as the National Living Wage, to £7.20 per hour. However, they excluded from that law all employees under the age of 25, therefore permitting corporate offices to pay them less. O’Grady argues that this will, in turn, demotivate young employees since they won’t be able to pay all their expenses comfortably and they will feel discriminated against on account of their age.

John Thacker, participating in The Economic debate on the effects of minimum wage and what motivates employees, says the following:

There are some studies which do suggest that jumps in the minimum wage decrease the percentage of people who seek college education […] higher minimum wages can also draw demotivated higher-skilled adults back into the workforce. (The Economic, 2006)

Although this was in some 10 years ago, his words still ring true. The author of this quote goes on to argue about how the new minimum wage law in the United States was actually lowering the real federal minimum wage. The point we should draw from this is that a higher pay, at least, higher than the minimum, would always motivate young people to apply for jobs, and to subsequently do these jobs.

My last piece of evidence is only a bit of light-hearted humour, but it does suit our purpose well. The New Yorker cartoon below illustrates quite well with the effects of low-pay on the general employee (represented here by a man being interviewed for a position in a fast-food restaurant). Of course, from an economic standpoint, in most developed countries, the minimum wage is more than enough to secure that the respective person has enough to pay his bills, to eat, and to pay rent. However, that’s usually the full extent of that paycheck. This is otherwise known as the living wage. The bare minimum. Starvation fee. And so on and so forth.

In these cases, people should not be expected, as Kaamran Hafeez potently illustrates, that the employee will give more than two pence about what he’s actually doing at his workplace.

Now that we’ve covered why money is important in motivating employees to do their jobs, we should still look further into the dangers present on the other side of the chasm.

For the question of money when dealing with talent management nowadays is most certainly a high-wire act. Walking that fine thread in mid-air is dangerous for the employee, for the company, and for the HR manager. The way one chooses to go about this can perfectly mark the difference between what we call today talent management and what we used to call human resource management. Treating employees as you would like to be treated should stand as a rule. This is one of the key elements to what motivates employees.

What Motivates Employees – Is There a Maximum Wage?

Leaving aside these moderate socialist views, here are a few scientific arguments to why money doesn’t motivate the average employee that much:

Enter Edward Daci, Rochester University psychologist, who has conducted multiple studies on the matter. BBC’s Carinne Piekema mentioned his work in a comprehensive study on money’s impact on motivation, saying:

He found that students offered cash prizes to solve puzzles were less likely to continue working on them after payments had been made, compared to students who were offered no money. Deci’s work helped clarify the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation – doing things because you like doing them in their own right or doing them because you want a reward that has been offered. (2014)

So, Daci’s argument seems to be that a student offered money to complete that puzzle will stop being so enticed by the task at hand, and feel demotivated by the money that he is being offered. Transcribing this into workspace-talk, it means that the bigger the pay of a respective employee, the lower his actual motivation. This comes as a very annoying complication in our analysis of what motivates employees.

employee motivation comic

This is further enforced by another study, this time conducted by James Perry and Yoon Jik Cho, which basically says that people who are interested in money tend to perform poorly. The Harvard Business Review summarizes their findings:

[…] when employees are focused on external rewards, the effects of intrinsic motives on engagement are significantly diminished. This means that employees who are intrinsically motivated are three times more engaged than employees who are extrinsically motivated (such as by money). Quite simply, you’re more likely to like your job if you focus on the work itself, and less likely to enjoy it if you’re focused on money. This finding was true even at low salary levels. (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2013)

In other words, employees who like their job tend to do it better, especially if money isn’t an issue that is constantly on their minds. Yet, I ask: if said employee is earning less than he needs for his basic expenses, how would he be expected to not think about money all the time? In my opinion, there needs to be a balance between too much pay and too little pay. As we’ve discovered in the former part of this article, paying the living wage can be counterproductive. So can paying too much, since that employee will end up only thinking about his money and what to do with it.

Thus, I propose a middle area. The employee should be paid a fixed wage that is considerably greater than the minimum wage, yet must not be allowed to reach to the sky. A demotivated employee can stem from both too little and too much. I would also advise for doing away with the praise for performance systems. No matter how well-put-together these may be, the ultimate result is that the employee will insincerely engage with his workload in an effort to gain more money. He will thus learn nothing from his experience, and become disengaged, according to the research I’ve mentioned, with the task at hand. Instead of receiving money for his or her hard work, the employee can be applauded, thanked, or praised.

Extreme cases should be prevented thusly. Piekema, whom we’ve mentioned here previously, argues that Bob Diamond, CEO of Barclays Bank, should not be worth “1,019 nurses, 859 social workers or 2,165 care workers.” We concur. No matter how valuable an asset this man is for a company, his wage should never be allowed to rise to £25 million. The problem that arises here is that Mr. Diamond, our hypothetical overpaid employee in this case, will always look for his own interest and will always argue the contrary.

What Motivates Employees – Conclusion

All in all, this points to how complicated the issue is. Are employees primarily motivated by money? Up to a certain point they are, and I would assume that to be somewhere 1.5 times over the NLW. Equally so, they are clearly demotivated when they exceed ‘normal pay’ by too much. This is probably the point where I should insert proof that these latter type of employees don’t have time to spend all that money and thus spend fewer hours working and more hours spoiling themselves. Yet, maybe that’s just mother wit.

Image source: 1, 2

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Bright white teeth are mandatory for a beautiful smile. If you’re not among the lucky few who were born with naturally white teeth, then you’ve probably been wondering how to whiten teeth. What’s the best way to go? Embark on a DIY and try various teeth whitening alternatives right at home or, on the contrary, resort to a professional who know exactly how to make your smile look like a million dollars?

Every person prefers a different approach, even more so because teeth are different and don’t react the same to the same treatment. Before making the big decision (whiten your teeth at home or going to the dentist’s), peruse the following instructions so you know what’s in store for you, whichever way you choose to go.

How to Whiten Teeth at Home

girl with beautiful smile

1. Baking Soda

One of the cheapest solutions for whitening your teeth at home is to use baking soda for brushing your teeth. You’ll surely find this remedy in your kitchen cupboard. It acts as a mild abrasive, helping your teeth stay clear of stains. If you want to learn how to whiten teeth with baking soda, here are some different techniques:

  • On its own – the most straightforward home treatment for whitening your teeth is to mix baking soda with lemon juice or water. To create the paste, simply combine one part baking soda with one part water/lemon juice, apply it on your brush and gently but firmly start brushing your teeth. For stubborn stains, you can leave the paste on for a couple of minutes, following with up extra scrubbing. To avoid desensitizing the teeth, only do this every other day.
  • Mixed with hydrogen peroxide – a clever combo, this two-ingredient DIY treatment uses the power of hydrogen peroxide that will kill the bacteria in your mouth and the abrasiveness of the baking soda. Here is how to whiten teeth with this concoction: combine a teaspoon of baking soda with half a teaspoon of hydrogen peroxide and use the mixture to brush your teeth. Allow it to sit for a couple of minutes and rinse it off with water. Repeat the process twice a week.
  • Combined with sea salt and strawberries – an unusual combination, baking soda, strawberry pulp and salt complete each other and have the potential to fight off plaque and bacteria. To make the paste, mash 2 strawberries and mix them with a pinch of sea salt and half a teaspoon of baking soda. Wipe your teeth with a tissue and apply the paste with a toothbrush. Leave it on for five minutes and then rinse with mouthwash. The treatment can be repeated each night.

2. Whitening Toothpaste

There is a vast market out there catering whitening toothpastes that meet the highest exigencies and suit the needs of various types of teeth (sensitive, very stained, naturally yellow). Used twice a day, or even more often, an efficient whitening toothpaste will make you see a difference in a couple of weeks.

Crest, Opalescence, and Colgate are some of the best-selling whitening toothpaste that are inexpensive and promise good results in a short time. However, since they can comprise harsh chemicals, you should ask your dentist before starting using any whitening toothpaste on a daily basis.

3. Oil Pulling

Natural home remedies enthusiasts swear by this unconventional technique of brightening your smile. Coconut oil has sundry health benefits used both internally and externally. One less known powerful benefit is that of cleaning teeth and loosening plaque. Here’s how to use coconut oil to whiten teeth.

Take a tablespoon of organic coconut oil (in its liquid or solid form) and start swishing it around your mouth, pushing and pulling the oil to get the most out of the treatment. This can last anywhere from 10 to 15 minutes, depending on your comfort level. At the end, spit the coconut oil, thoroughly rinse with water and brush your teeth. This treatment can be done 2-3 times a week and can keep the teeth free of cavities and stains.

4. Whitening Strips

This is an efficient and quick way to whiten teeth at home. The results can be seen after the first session, especially if your teeth have coffee or wine stains. The most popular whitening strips are Crest 3D white luxe, although the reviews are mixed. Most users complain about toothaches that last for one or two days after using the strips. Clearly, this treatment is not meant for sensitive teeth.

All whitening strips are not difficult to use. They are applied on dry teeth and left for up to 30 minutes (or according to the instructions). When the time is up, they are easily peeled off the teeth. It’s recommended to use a special whitening toothpaste between sessions. The treatment can be repeated every two weeks or once a month if you want to maintain your teeth white.

5. Whitening Pens

Another simple way to make your teeth look brighter is to use a whitening pen. The packaging of the product makes it super user-friendly and foolproof to apply. The “pens” usually contain a mixture of water, glycerin, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, and carbomer, which aim to remove stain and plaque from your teeth from the first application.

Preventing Teeth Stains

It doesn’t suffice to use harsh chemicals for whitening your teeth. You should also pay attention to what you eat. Many foods and drinks can stain or damage the enamel of your teeth. Keep in mind these pointers:

1. Quit Smoking

Smoking it’s not only an expensive habit that will wreck your lungs, it will also give you bad teeth. The harmful smoke you inhale on a daily basis will slowly (but surely) damage the protective layer of your teeth, leaving them vulnerable and exposed to bacteria.

2. Drink Less Coffee

Coffee’s reputation precedes it: it stains teeth, especially if you like to enjoy two to three cups of the warm liquid throughout your day at the office. The pigments from the coffee can get lodged in the pits of the teeth;s enamel, giving way to stains and cavities.

3. Use a Straw

A good way to prevent your teeth coming in contact with coffee, black tea, fizzy drinks or red wine, is to use a straw. This way, the potentially damaging liquid won’t get the chance to affect your teeth

4. Brush Your Teeth after Eating or Drinking:

  • Blackberries
  • Beets
  • Blueberries
  • Red wine

If you’re still unsure how to whiten teeth on your own, ask your dentist about a suggestion. Take their input into consideration, since they know what type of treatment suits your teeth.

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According to data from the BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for the fiscal year 2014, the average pharmacist salary clocked in at $120,950 per year. This means that in 2014, the average pharmacist was being paid $58.15 per year and $1,920 per week.

Pharmacists are, therefore, earning a better wage than many US professions. Also unlike in most employment areas, the pharmacist salary varies less when comparing the lower-paid 10 point percentile to the highest paid 10%. Concretely, the least paid were making between 25 and 30% lower than the average wage, equaling to an annual pharmacist salary osf $89,320 and an hourly wage of $42.94. On the other end of the spectrum, the highest paid pharmacists were making $150,550 per year and $72.38 per hour. In order to achieve a higher pay, many pharmacists get trained as pharmacist technicians. To find out what this job implies, check out our article here.

On a down note, the job of a pharmacist is one of the worst in the US in terms of wage inequality, even though inequality would have no practical reason to be present (i.e. no risk of injury or death and no requirements of manual labor). Of the weekly average pharmacist salary mentioned at the beginning, women (with 108 thousand employed) were making $1,811, whilst men (98 thousand employed) were making $2,117. Still, a small portion of this difference might be explained by the areas of employment:

Industry Hourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
Scientific Research and Development Services$62.40$129,790
Warehousing and Storage$61.60$128,130
Offices of Physicians$61.32$127,550
Other General Merchandise Stores$61.22$127,350
Outpatient Care Centers$60.57$125,980

"pharmacist salary average pharmacist salary pharmacist writing prescription pharmacist technician salary walgreens pharmacist salary cvs pharmacist salary pharmacists salary"

Average Pharmacist Salary by Location

The pharmacist salary may vary by location on account of the placement of the best pharmacy schools (find out what they are). Still, most states offer decent prospects for the future for most aspiring pharmacists after they complete the long road to a degree (how long does it actually take? the answer, right here). Wages vary also depending on the positioning of pharmacy store chains. A Walgreens pharmacist salary may differ from a CVS pharmacist salary or a clinical pharmacist salary.

Next, we’re going to show you the exact States where the pharmacists salary is highest:

StateHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
New Hampshire$59.88$124,540


However, while these levels of the average pharmacist salary are really high, they can be misleading. A pharmacist in Alaska may have a pretty hard time getting a job, since the population is so low and spread-out, and the overall employment levels are particularly low. So, for the sake of convenience, here are the States with the highest level of employment:

State EmploymentHourly mean wage Annual mean wage
New York18,870$57.16$118,900


Average Pharmacist Salary Change over Time

Unfortunately, the pharmacist salary doesn’t seem to change that much for the better over time. A pharmacist looking to up his salary should strive to improve his or her skills in various fields. Here are the top two factors for increasing the salary of a pharmacist:

  • Promotion or advancement in the career path. A good performing pharmacist may be promoted to a retail pharmacist, a retail staff pharmacist, a pharmacist-in-charge, or a hospital or clinical pharmacist. All of these offer further opportunities for advancement as well as higher pay.
  • Experience and the development of skills. The pharmacist salary will definitely increase given the pharmacists advances to an experienced one, with the ability to perform immunization treatments, oncology, retail pharmacy, or hospital care.

This concludes our guide to the average pharmacist salary. Any questions? Feel free to ask us more about this in the comments!

Image source: dayspringpharmacy.com.

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How long does it take to become a registered nurse? The answer to this very real question depends on a number of factors having to do with the person wishing to get this job, the learning institution he or she chooses to go to, and the specific type of nurse that is set as a goal. Of course, there are more types of nurses than one can count, and a registered nurse is just one type.

The main three types of nurses are the nurse anesthetists, midwives, or practitioners, the nursing assistants and orderlies, and the registered nurses. Of the three, we will be dealing with the latter. To find out how long does it take to become a nurse anesthetist, check out our article here.

How Long Does It Take to Become a Registered Nurse?

Let’s take a look at the infographic:

"how long does it take to become a registered nurse infographic how long does it take to become registered nurse how long does it take to become an registered nurse"

To get more info about nurse salaries, go to our article here. For more specific info about registered nurses’ salaries, check out our article here.

Steps to Becoming a Registered Nurse

A person who wishes to become a registered nurse must go through several stages of higher education. There are three types of paths to landing a job as a registered nurse:

Through an ADN program (Associate’s Degree in Nursing). This is the shortest path to becoming a registered nurse. The general duration of an ADN program is between 2 and 3 years. However, many registered nurses who get an Associate’s Degree end up going back to school for a BSN in order to improve their knowledge base and advance in their careers.

Through a BSN degree (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). This generally takes at least 4 years. Bachelor’s degree programs for nurses develop some much-needed skills through courses in leadership, critical thinking, communication, and social sciences. Teaching positions for nurses require a BSN, as do research, administration, and consulting jobs.

Through an Accelerated Program for Nursing. This type of program is generally the shortest and doesn’t do much in offering a registered nurse the needed skills for becoming good at the job. That’s why we’ve decided not to count this one since nurses always go to another program of learning after it. Still, if someone is looking to get employed as a registered nurse fast, this is the quickest way to go.

"how long does it take to become a registered nurse infographic how long does it take to become registered nurse how long does it take to become an registered nurse student"

What Courses Will I Have?

Those wondering how long does it take to become a registered nurse should also ask themselves about the courses they will be needing in this line of work. Registered nurses in higher learning institutions are generally taught the following disciplines:

  • Anatomy, chemistry, and microbiology;
  • Physiology and nutrition;
  • Psychology and social and behavioral sciences;
  • Liberal arts;

Conclusion – How Long Does It Take to Become a Registered Nurse?

Our conclusion would be that becoming a nurse can take as little as 2 years. However, a true registered nurse with hopes of getting a job in a hospital should enroll in a BSN program and possibly a master’s program afterward. This increases the number of years to become a registered nurse to between 6 and 8 years.

Image source: depositphotos.com.

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By definition, LASIK or laser assisted in situ keratomileusis, is an extremely complicated procedure and the LASIK cost is generally high. People asking how much does LASIK cost should take into account the great amount of skill needed for a perfect procedure.

The LASIK eye surgery implies an ophthalmologist using a laser instrument to change the shape of an eye’s cornea in order to improve visual acuity. Laser eye surgery prices generally depend on the difficulty of the operation, the patient’s health insurance, and whether the patient wants to pay for the LASIK surgery in a single payment of in separate payments.

"how much does lasik really cost how much does lasik cost how much does lasik surgery cost how much does lasik eye surgery cost lasik eye surgery cost cost of lasik lasik cost average cost of lasik"

How much does LASIK eye surgery cost? Image source: depositphotos.com.

How much does LASK cost could also vary depending on the type of operation. In general, there are three types of LASIK eye surgery:

  1. General laser vision correction procedures. Many ophthalmologists do not list how much does LASIK surgery cost, but a general price for all laser-assisted eye operations. How expensive is LASIK in this case? Around $2,200 per eye.
  2. Basic LASIK using excimer lasers and a microkeratome. These LASIK surgeries are not guided through wavefront analyses and are therefore cheaper. It goes for approximately $1,700 per eye.
  3. LASIK using a femtosecond laser. Typically the most expensive type of LASIK surgery because the technology is advanced and the skill needed to use it also needs to be quite high. This type of LASIK costs around $2,150 per eye. It should be noted that the $2,200 amount above is higher because it involves other more complicated eye surgeries as well.

Here is a chart of the average price per eye for LASIK and other laser surgeries between 2010 and 2014:

"how much does lasik really cost how much does lasik cost how much does lasik surgery cost how much does lasik eye surgery cost lasik eye surgery cost cost of lasik lasik cost average cost of lasik Laser Eye Surgery"

Laser eye surgery cost comparison spread across the 2010-2014 period.

Chart source: allaboutvision.com.

How Much Is LASIK?

So how much is LASIK? It really cannot be accurately stated. Some eye surgeons charge a single price for all laser-assisted eye operations while other surgeons make distinctions as to the type of operation (LASIK, PRK, LASEK), the technology available, and the refractive error.

The following table shows the percentage of use of laser vision correction cost ranges:

Single Price SurgeonsMultiple Price Surgeons

How much does LASIK really cost?

$1,000 or less0%6%5%2%
$1,001 to $1,5005%33%3%9%
$1,501 to $2,00034%39%33%35%
$2,001 to $2,50048%16%46%42%
$2,501 to $3,00013%6%14%12%
More than $3,0000%0%1%0%

Laser eye surgery prices based on industry analysis on allaboutvision.com.

"how much does lasik really cost how much does lasik cost how much does lasik surgery cost how much does lasik eye surgery cost lasik eye surgery cost cost of lasik lasik cost average cost of lasik illustration"

Illustration showing a laser eye surgery procedure. Image source: depositphotos.com.

How Much Does LASIK Cost?

Because over half of the doctors performing LASIK are estimated to charge a single, general laser vision correction cost, it’s hard to say exactly how much does LASIK cost. Still, those with milder vision problems may be eligible for discounts and/or coupons possible to bring the cost of LASIK surgery to in between $500 and $700.

Some are things to know LASIK cost discounts:

  • People with strong refractive errors generally don’t get discounts.
  • People with astigmatism also don’t usually get discounts.
  • The fees for the procedure may still increase the cost of LASIK a lot.
  • Discounted procedures are usually performed with lesser equipment.

In the end, how much does LASIK cost depends on each individual ophthalmologist’s price range. However, it’s safe to say that the cost of LASIK generally is around $2,000 per eye, give or take a few hundred dollars depending on eye error, technology type, and the difficulty of the operation.

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The BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) tells us that the average bartender salary for the fiscal year of 2014 was $19,050. This translates to $522 per week and $9.16 per hour.

Of the bartenders that were included in the national survey, 10% earned considerably less than the average. The yearly pay for these, according to PayScale, was $11,762, which also translates to $3.38 per hour. An encouraging fact may come from statistics regarding the top %10 of this profession. These end up earning more than twice over the average, with $45,020 per year and $11.68 per hour.

For the bartender job, wage inequality is less persistent, though still very much present. According to the Labor Statistics Bureau, for the year 2014, there were 103,000 male bartenders and 113,000 female bartenders. For these, the average weekly pay for men was $634, while the average for women stood at a modest $459.

Here are areas that pay the best bartender salary in the US:

IndustryHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land$13.95$28,190
Traveler Accommodation$13.44$27,950
Beer, Wine, and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant Wholesalers$13.33$27,720
Grocery Sales$13.06$27,160
Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services$12.71$26,450

What Is the Average Bartender Salary?

Bartender Salary by Location

The average bartending salary differs on account of location. States with higher touristic potential have greater wages for their bartenders. However, that does not necessary mean that the same states offer high levels of employment. The highest paying state offered its drink preparing personnel $36.290 as a yearly wage. On the other end of the spectrum, the salary per year plummets to $17,460.

The following table lists the states where the bartender salary is the highest. Note the difference between the first state and the second state while keeping in mind the touristic potential:

StateHourly mean wageYearly mean wage
District of Columbia$13.20$27,460


The bartender salary isn’t the only employment factor candidates should look for. The employment rate is also a decisive statistic. States that rank highest on bartender salary may have very few positions opened for the job.

StateEmploymentHourly mean wageYearly mean wage
New York41,760$11.41$23,740


Bartender Salary Change Over Time

Depending on how much time a bartender spends on a job, he or she may end up earning more as time goes by. There are also other factors that influence the bartender salary change over time:

  • Entry level experience. A bartender that’s just starting out should expect to earn less than any national, state, or job average. The usual decline from the bartender salary national average for entry level employees is 7%.
  • Job experience. An employee with experience in serving drinks and preparing beverages may increase the average salary by up to 9%, according to PayScale.
  • Career experience. Likewise, an employee that has spent half his working days in a bartender job may also increase his/her pay by 9% over the average. Longer experience can result in an increase of up to %12.

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The average flight attendant salary in 2018 was $42,290, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Flight attendants, who are in charge of the comfort, security and safety of flight passengers earn around $28,820 if they are in the lower 10 percentile and over $72,560 if they are in the top ten percent.

The occupation is generally regarded as a well-paid profession that can easily reach six figure salaries. However, the flight attendant salary will greatly differ according to carrier, experience and industries.

The best paying industries for flight attendants are:


IndustryAnnual mean wage 
Management of Companies and Enterprises$81,120
Support Activities for Air Transportation$63,330
Oil and Gas Extraction$55,540
Nonscheduled Air Transportation$49,490
Scheduled Air Transportation$46,110

Flight attendant salary

Flight attendant salary by location

Geographic location also weighs heavily on the flight attendant salary. Most flight attendant jobs can be found in California: 11,130. The annual mean wage here is $45,530. First runner up in highest employment level is New York, with 10,380 jobs. The annual mean wage, however, is lower, at $43,690. Lower on the list of top employment states is Georgia. With 8,860 jobs, it boasts an annual mean wage of 52,200.

The top paying states for flight attendants offer monthly wages that exceed $4,000. The best paying states for this occupation are:

StateAnnual mean wage
South Carolina$47,010

Flight attendant base salary

As is the case with the majority of other professions, a steward or stewardess will be paid according to their experience. A beginner will start off with the base salary and will work their way up to better salaries over the course of a decade. The salaries will more than double in the course of 14 years.

Domestic hourly wages roughly follow this ascending pattern:

Eighth $39.53$40.52

Per diems

The flight attendant salary is compensated with meals during layover times. Spending the night in a hotel is covered by the airline who is also meant to guarantee the meal of the flight attendant when the aircraft does not board meals.

Domestic layovers pay lower per diems than international layovers, which are also usually longer. Per diems are influenced by the currency, the duration of the layover and the carrier.

Flight attendant benefits

  • Stable and reliable life insurance;
  • 401k plan with 5%;
  • Vacation and sick days pay;
  • Paid off travel;
  • Employee discounts;
  • Dental, health and vision insurance;
  • Pension plan;
  • Maternity and paternity leave.

The average flight attendant salary will vary significantly according to experience and airline. However, seniors enjoy added bonuses and larger wages than beginners, which is why persisting in this career path is recommended.

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According to the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), the median annual massage therapist salary in 2014 was $37,180, making for an hourly wage of $17.88.

The worst paid 10 percent earned less than $18,460 in 2014, with an hourly wage of $8.88. At the same time, the top 10 percent in the same profession made more than $71,950, with an hourly wage of $34.59.

With an annual job growth rate of 3.3% yearly and more than 5,000 new job openings, the massage therapist salary will vary according to geographic location, employer, certification, and experience.

The industry where the employee chooses to practice their job also heavily influences the hourly mean wage. The best paying industries for this profession offer an annual mean wage that starts at a little over $64,710.

IndustryHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
Individual and Family Services$31.11$64,710
Other Schools and Instruction$29.84$62,060
Other Ambulatory Health Care Services$26.16$54,420
Offices of Physicians$25.31$52,650

Massage therapist salary

Massage therapist salary by location

Among the most important criteria factored in for determining the massage therapist salary is the geographic location. Wages vary according to state, with the most profitable ones offering as much as $84,000 and the bottom 10 percent ones offering as little as $35,000.

The states that offer the highest levels of employment are:

StateEmploymentHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage


The states with the highest massage therapy salary are:

StateHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
New York$26.46$55,030


Specialized massagers earn according to the industry in which they work. The massage therapist salary is moderately impacted by their experience. However, the field of the profession plays a large part in their annual wages. Posh SPAs that boast a steady clientele who enjoy handsome incomes will rank high in the top paying fields.

Likewise, the massage therapist salary increases significantly for massagers who are available for mobile therapy. The hourly wages for employees who are willing to travel to the customers’ homes are significantly higher.

ProfessionAverage annual salary
Certified Massage Therapist$33,000
Dual Licensed Therapist$20,000
General Massage Therapist$52,000
Licensed Massage Therapist$39,000
Massage Therapist$22,000
Massage Therapist Manager$38,000
Massage Therapist ON Call$16,000
Massage Therapy$47,000
Massage Therapy Coordinator$19,000
Mobile Massage Therapist$98,000
Skin Therapist$30,000


Factors that influence the massage therapist salary

  • Independent massage therapists might be able to earn more by providing at-home services. They might only have to work 36 hours per week, however, their schedule has to be flexible in order to accommodate the clients.
  • Sports therapists can gain a job either with a professional team or with a private clinic. The hourly wages start at $30.
  • Massage therapists can build up a portfolio comprising part time jobs and coaching sessions. The portfolio increases the chances of seizing a job and can directly influence the massage therapist salary on relocating.


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According to the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), the average technical writer salary in 2014 was $69,930, with a mean hourly wage of $33.19.

The lowest 10% salaries averaged $41,450, with an hourly wage of $19.93, while the top 10% best paid technical writers had an annual wage of $108,460, which breaks down to an hourly wage of $52.14.

A technical writer is in charge with producing a wide range of technical materials and maintenance instructions. The job is required to fill positions in various domains that make the technical writer salary differ considerably. With the fewest employees, the Specialized design industry is the best paid, offering an hourly mean wage of $41.20. The most lucrative field is the Computer Systems design industry that has the most employees and offers an hourly mean wage of $36.59.

IndustryHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
Specialized Design Services$41.20$85,700
Other Information Services$41.15$85,600
Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers$40.32$83,870
Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing$39.81$82,810
Federal Executive Branch (OES Designation)$38.22$79,500

What Is the Average Technical Writer Salary?

Technical writer salary by location

There are several criteria that are factored in when determining the technical writer salary. Besides experience and employer, two factors that play an important role, geographic location can also influence the annual mean wage of a technical writer.

StateHourly mean wageAnnual mean wage
District of Columbia$38.44$79,950


Technical writer benefits

According to the employer, technical writers have different benefits. The latest figures on 2015 show an average technical writer salary of 53,842. Based on this average, employers are expected to meet the following requirements:

Core CompensationMedian% of Total
Base Salary$53,84269.10%
Social Security$4,1765.40%
Time Off$6,7188.60%
Total Compensation$77,966 100%


Technical writer salary per company

The significant difference between the salary of the 10th percentile, situated in the $40,000 ballpark and the salary of the 90th percentile who can make more than $100,000 per year can be explained by the size and importance of the employing company.

Job TitleSalary
Google Technical Writer$125,402
Infosys Technical Writer$60,874
Qtech Solutions Technical Writer$57,917
NIIT Technical Writer$57,440


The technical writer salary varies according to geographic location, skill, experience and employer. The demand for the job is continuously increasing, with employees choosing this career path for the log run.

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If you’re not familiar with health professions, you might be wondering what does a medical stenographer do? They are in charge with transcribing any type of medical documents provided by healthcare professionals or physicians in audio or other formats.

According to BLS (the Bureau of Labor Statistics), medical stenographers’ average salary in 2014 was $35,580. However, the numbers differ according to employer, experience and geographic location and can be much higher.

A medical stenographer has to be thorough and has to have a keen eye for details. The health care industry does not allow mistakes that could have bad consequences. Medical stenographers are expected to hand in flawless work and do their job under tight deadlines.

What Does a Medical Transcriptionist Do

Since there are various kinds of medical stenographers , the job requirements can differ according to the area they are working in and the employer. The great majority of medical stenographers fulfil the same tasks. The result is generally a medical transcription that can serve as the official medical record of a hospital.

The duties of a medical stenographer also have to factor in the working environment of the employee. While a great part of medical stenographers work in a physician’s office or in a hospital, others work directly for medical transcription companies. These, in their turn, work for hospitals that employ them to transform medical recordings into written transcriptions. Independent or freelance medical transcriptionists telecommute and work from a home office.


What tasks does a medical stenographer perform?

Working as a medical stenographer involves more than transforming audio records into written records. Although the job requirements slightly differ according to the work sector, the great majority of medical stenographers are in charge of:

  • Receiving recorded notes from doctors or physicians containing audio procedures.
  • Reviewing the received recordings for content.
  • Transcribing the reviewed audio recordings into written format.
  • Identifying errors or missing information that could jeopardize patient health care.
  • Reviewing the transcriptions for identifying any mistakes, typos or inaccuracies.
  • Submitting the final written documents to be approved by physicians and included in hospital records.
  • Entering the medical reports into the health system electronic records.


What do medical stenographers do in a day?

It might be difficult to fully grasp what does a medical stenographer do. To better illustrate this, the list below sums up the daily responsibilities of a medical stenographer.

  • Transcribe audio recordings dictated by health care professionals or physicians.
  • Use a headset to listen to the recording carefully once or twice.
  • Use a foot pedal to pause the recordings for follow ups or double checks.
  • Fast forward or rewind in order to clarify inaccurate or inconsistent information.
  • Produce and transcribe discharge records, medical summaries and history, physical exams, progress notes, referral letters, and autopsy results.
  • Employ correct medical terminology to accurately transcribe treatment, diagnosis and outcome recordings.
  • Tackle abbreviations and medical jargon and be mindful of errors and inaccuracies.
  • Follow certain standards that regard the medical records and the legal prerequisites that require patient information stay confidential.


What is the working schedule of a medical stenographer?

Medical stenographers have a flexible schedule due to the work they have to produce. Listening to audio records and transforming them into written form can be done both in an office and at home. Medical stenographers can also work part time or full time.

Those who choose to work from home can determine their own schedule. However, they still have to meet urgent deadlines, which could imply working over hours or during nights.

The job of medical transcriptionist might be flexible, but it requires high accuracy and a keen eye for spotting errors. Medical stenographers who are willing to put in extra hours must be careful not to hand in poor written documents as a result of exhaustion.


What skills do medical stenographers need?

Transcribing medical records might not seem hard work at first, but it requires patience, attention to details and an increased power of concentration. Aspiring medical stenographers should also fulfill the following criteria:

  • Computer skills – medical stenographers have to be familiar with using computers, gadgets and special software that will ease their job. Not only do these help stenographers produce written documents faster, they also ensure the highest quality possible for the papers. Medical stenographers might also need to be comfortable using EHR (electronic health records) systems.
  • Listening skills – this is a crucial skill for any medical stenographer . They are required to carefully listen to the physician or doctor’s audio recordings and transcribe them accurately. Therefore, stenographers need to be able to understand foreign accents, specific terminology and different spellings as well as convey the intended meaning in the medical report.
  • Time management – tight deadlines are frequent in the industry. Stenographers must be highly organized and able to prioritize their tasks in order to meet short deadline and deliver the needed written records on time.
  • Critical thinking skills – stenographers must fulfill two tasks at the same time: listen to the audio medical reports in order to transcribe them and also assess the information, keeping an eye out for mistakes. Critical thinking skills help medical stenographers produce reliable and certified documents.


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According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean annual medical transcriptionist salary is $35,580. in 2018, the vast majority of medical transcriptionist earned $11 per hour, with the top 10% making as much as $23 hourly. This 90th percentile had a weekly wage of $923, a monthly salary of $4,000 and a total annual salary of $48,000.

The 50th percentile (close to the median), makes a weekly wage of $665, a monthly salary of $2,883 and an annual salary of $34,600.

The top paying industries can make the medical transcriptionist salary reach $73,000 per year. With an hourly wage of $35.19 and a monthly salary of $6,100, the Management of Companies and Enterprises ranks first as the best-paid industry for medical transcriptionists.

IndustryHourly wageMonthyly SalaryAnnual salary
Management of Companies and Enterprises$35.19$6,100$73,200
Insurance Carriers$21.44$3,717$44,600
Specialty hospitals, State government owned$20.63$3,575$42,900
Insurance Carriers and Related Activities$19.62$3,400$40,800
Home Health Care Services$19.38$3,358$40,300
Nursing and Residential Care Facilities$19.28$3,342$40,100
Other Insurance Related Activities$19.04$3,300$39,600
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals (including private, state, and local government hospitals)$18.85$3,267$39,200
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals, State government owned$18.75$3,250$39,000
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories$18.75$3,250$39,000

What Is the Medical Transcriptionist Salary?

Medical transcriptionist salary by location

The medical transcriptionist salary varies according to state. The weekly wages in the top ten highest paying regions for medical transcriptionists range between $738 – $894/week. The District of Columbia, Massachusetts and California are the most profitable areas for medical transcriptionists to work in.

StateHourly wageMonthly salaryAnnual salary
District of Columbia$22.36$3,875$46,500
New Jersey$18.70$3,242$38,900
New Hampshire$18.46$3,200$38,400


The lowest paying states have an hourly wage that ranges between $13.61 – $15.10. The worst medical transcriptionist salaries are from Utah ($28,300), West Virginia ($29,300), Alabama ($29,700), Arkansans ($30,200), Louisiana ($30,600), South Dakota ($30,600), Mississippi ($30,800) and Oklahoma ($30,800).

Freelance medical transcriptionist salary

Medical transcriptionists enjoy flexibility since they can work in an office as well as at home. An independent medical transcriptionist will be able to find work from heath care offices as well as companies that are in charge with providing the health industry with transcriptions.

The medical transcriptionist salary reflects production and working hours. A skilled medical transcriptionist working from home with a CMD certification will be able to provide their services on a contract and charge on an hourly basis. Experienced freelancers that have a constant work influx and set a profitable hourly wage are able to earn between $35,000 – $60,000 per year.

The medical transcriptionist salary is influenced a several important factors: employment type (freelance, part time, full time), employer, geographic location and skill. The level of production is tightly linked to the paycheck since each new contract increases the monthly and annual salary.

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